In India, civil law is concerned with disputes between individuals, organisations, or both, in which the rights and liabilities of the individual or organisation are adjudicated. In some legal cases, additional to the remedies sought, the victim may be awarded compensation under provisions of law or judicial precedents.
English Law (common law countries like the United Kingdom and the United States), Roman law (broader concepts of law), and sections of India ruled by Portugal and France – Portuguese law and French law – have all contributed significantly to the history of Civil Law in India. India is governed by the Common Law tradition, which means that judgements are followed as judicial precedent, the authority of investigation is vested in the investigative agency, and the judge’s position is that of a neutral adjudicator. Civil law, Islamic law, and other systems are used in places where the administration of justice differs from the common law system.
The guiding concept of Civil Law is that there is a remedy for every wrong. The Code of Civil Procedure is India’s general procedural law for civil cases. The Code of Civil Procedure is the procedural law in Civil Legislation, while the substantive law can be the Hindu Marriage Act, Indian Succession Act, Indian Contract Act, and so on. The Indian Evidence Act covers substantive law pleading, evidencing, and process.