The National Green Tribunal came into existence on October 18, 2010, by an Act passed by the Central Government, i.e. the National Green Tribunal Act 2010. The stated goal of the Central Government was to create a specialized forum for the effective and expeditious resolution of cases involving environmental protection, forest conservation, and compensation for damages to people or property caused by infractions of environmental laws or criteria stipulated when obtaining permits.
The NGT’s Principal Bench was established in New Delhi following the law’s implementation, with regional benches in Pune (Western Zone Bench), Bhopal (Central Zone Bench), Chennai (Southern Bench), and Kolkata (Southern Bench) (Eastern Bench). Each Bench has a geographical jurisdiction that spans many states in a certain region. There is also a circuit bench mechanism. For example, the Southern Zone bench in Chennai can choose to arrange sittings in other locations such as Bangalore or Hyderabad.
The NGT is chaired by a retired Supreme Court judge with headquarters in Delhi. Retired High Court Judges make up the remaining judicial members. Each bench of the NGT will contain at least one Judicial Member and one Expert Member. Expert members should have at least 15 years of experience in the domains of environment, forest conservation, and related themes, as well as a professional qualification.
The Tribunal is committed to resolving matters involving the forest, environment, biodiversity, air, and water in a timely and effective manner. It is a specialized organization with the knowledge and experience to resolve environmental issues spanning a variety of professions. Since July 4, 2011, the National Green Tribunal has been in existence. New Delhi is home to the Principal Bench, with circuit benches in Chennai, Bhopal, Pune, and Kolkata serving the rest of the country. The main bench, as well as the regional benches, are currently in use. Since its establishment in October 2010, the Tribunal has successfully carried out its role as a ‘fast-track Court’ for the effective and timely resolution of environmental protection and conservation issues.