Judgement

REPORTABLE 

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA 

ADVISORY JURISDICTION 

 RE: SPECIAL REFERENCE NO.1 OF 2012 

[Under Article 143(1) of the Constitution of India]  O P I N I O N 

 D.K. JAIN, J. [FOR S.H. KAPADIA, CJ, HIMSELF,  DIPAK MISRA & RANJAN GOGOI, JJ.] 

In exercise of powers conferred under Article 143(1) of the Constitution of India, the President of India has on 12th April, 2012, made the present Reference. The full text of the Reference (sans the annexures) is as follows: 

“WHEREAS in 1994, the Department of Telecommunication, Government of India (“GOI”), issued 8 Cellular Mobile Telephone Services Licenses (“CMTS Licenses”), 2 in each of the four Metro cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai for a period of 10 years (the “1994 Licenses”). The 1994 licensees were selected based on rankings achieved by them on the technical and financial evaluation based on parameters set out by the GoI in the tender and were required to pay a fixed licence fee for initial three years and subsequently based on number of subscribers subject to minimum commitment mentioned in the tender document and licence agreement. The 1994 Licenses issued by GoI mentioned that a cumulative maximum of upto 4.5 MHz in the 900 MHz bands would be permitted based on appropriate justification. There was no 

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separate upfront charge for the allocation of Spectrum to the licensees, who only paid annual Spectrum usage charges, which will be subject to revision from time to time and which under the terms of the license bore the nomenclature “licence fee and royalty”. A copy of the 1994 Licenses, along with a table setting out the pre determined Licence Fee as prescribed by DoT in the Tender, is annexed hereto as Annexure I (Colly)

WHEREAS in December 1995, 34 CMTS Licenses were granted based on auction for 18 telecommunication circles for a period of 10 years (the “1995 Licenses”). The 1995 Licenses mentioned that a cumulative maximum of up to 4.4 MHz in the 900 MHz bands shall be permitted to the licensees, based on appropriate justification. There was no separate upfront charge for allocation of spectrum to the licensees who were also required to pay annual spectrum usage charges, which under the terms of the license bore the nomenclature “licence fee and royalty” which will be subject to revision from time to time. A copy of the 1995 Licenses, along with a table setting out the fees payable by the highest bidder, is annexed hereto as Annexure II (Colly)

WHEREAS in 1995, bids were also invited for basic telephone service licenses (“BTS Licenses”) with the license fee payable for a 15 year period. Under the terms of the BTS Licenses, a licensee could provide fixed line basic telephone services as well as wireless basic telephone services. Six licenses were granted in the year 1997-98 by way of auction through tender for providing basic telecom services (the “1997 BTS Licenses”). The license terms, inter-alia, provided that based on the availability of the equipment for Wireless in Local Loop (WLL), in the world market, the spectrum in bands specified therein would be considered for allocation subject to the conditions mentioned therein. There was no separate upfront charge for allocation of spectrum and the licensees offering the basic wireless telephone service were required to pay annual Spectrum usage charges, which under the terms of the license bore the nomenclature “licence fee and royalty”. 

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A sample copy of the 1997 BTS Licenses containing the table setting out the license fees paid by the highest bidder is annexed hereto as Annexure III (Colly)

WHEREAS in 1997, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 was enacted and the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (the “TRAI”) was established. 

WHEREAS on 1st April, 1999, the New Telecom Policy 1999 (“NTP 1999”) was brought into effect on the recommendation of a Group on Telecom (“GoT”) which had been constituted by GoI. A copy of NTP 1999 is annexed hereto as Annexure IV. NTP 1999 provided that Cellular Mobile Service Providers (“CMSP”) would be granted a license for a period of 20 years on the payment of a one-time entry fee and licence fee in the form of revenue share. NTP 1999 also provided that BTS (Fixed Service Provider or FSP) Licenses for providing both fixed and wireless (WLL) services would also be issued for a period of 20 years on payment of a one-time entry fee and licence fee in the form of revenue share and prescribed charges for spectrum usage, appropriate level of which was to be recommended by TRAI. The licensees both cellular and basic were also required to pay annual Spectrum usage charges. 

WHEREAS based on NTP 1999, a migration package for migration from fixed license fee to one time entry fee and licence fee based on revenue share regime was offered to all the existing licenses on 22nd July, 1999. This came into effect on 1st August 1999. Under the migration package, the licence period for all the CMTS and FSP licensees was extended to 20 years from the date of issuance of the Licenses. 

WHEREAS in 1997 and 2000, CMTS Licenses were also granted in 2 and 21 Circles to Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (“MTNL”) and Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (“BSNL”) respectively (the “PSU Licenses”). However, no entry fee was charged for the PSU Licenses. The CMTS Licenses issued to BSNL and 

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MTNL mentioned that they would be granted GSM Spectrum of 4.4 + 4.4 MHz in the 900 MHz band. The PSU Licensees were also required to pay annual spectrum usage charges. A copy of the PSU Licenses is annexed hereto as Annexure V (Colly)

WHEREAS in January 2001, based on TRAI’s recommendation, DoT issued guidelines for issuing CMTS Licenses for the 4th Cellular Operator based on tendering process structured as “Multistage Informed Ascending Bidding Process”. Based on a tender, 17 new CMTS Licenses were issued for a period of 20 years in the 4 Metro cities and 13 Telecom Circles (the “2001 Cellular Licenses”). The 2001 Licenses required that the licensees pay a one-time non refundable entry fee as determined through auction as above and also annual license fee and annual spectrum usage charges and there was no separate upfront charge for allocation of spectrum. In accordance with the terms of tender document, the license terms, inter-alia, provided that a cumulative maximum of upto 4.4 MHz + 4.4 MHz will be permitted and further based on usage, justification and availability, additional spectrum upto 1.8 MHz + 1.8 MHz making a total of 6.2 MHz + 6.2 MHz, may be considered for assignment, on case by case basis, on payment of additional Licence fee. The bandwidth upto maximum as indicated i.e. 4.4 MHz & 6.2 MHz as the case may be, will be allocated based on the Technology requirements (e.g. CDMA @ 1.25 MHz, GSM @ 200 KHz etc.). The frequencies assigned may not be contiguous and may not be same in all cases, while efforts would be made to make available larger chunks to the extent feasible. A copy of the 2001 Cellular Licenses, along with a table setting out the fees payable by the highest bidder, is annexed hereto as Annexure VI

WHEREAS in 2001, BTS Licenses were also issued for providing both fixed line and wireless basic telephone services on a continual basis (2001 Basic Telephone Licenses). Service area wise one time Entry Fee and annual license fee as a percentage of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) was prescribed for grant of BTS Licenses. The licence terms, inter-alia, provided that for 

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Wireless Access System in local area, not more than 5 + 5 MHz in 824-844 MHz paired with 869-889 MHz band shall be allocated to any basic service operator including existing ones on FCFS basis. A detailed procedure for allocation of spectrum on FCFS basis was given in Annexure-IX of the 2001 BTS license. There was no separate upfront charge for allocation of spectrum and the Licensees were required to pay revenue share of 2% of the AGR earned from wireless in local loop subscribers as spectrum charges in addition to the one time entry fee and annual license fee. A sample copy of the 2001 Basic Telephone License along with a table setting out the entry fees is annexed hereto as Annexure VII

WHEREAS on 27th October, 2003, TRAI recommended a Unified Access Services Licence (“UASL”) Regime. A copy of TRAI’s recommendation is annexed hereto as Annexure VIII

WHEREAS on 11.11.2003, Guidelines were issued, specifying procedure for migration of existing operators to the new UASL regime. As per the Guidelines, all applications for new Access Services License shall be in the category of Unified Access Services Licence. Later, based on TRAI clarification dated 14.11.2003, the entry fee for new Unified Licensee was fixed same as the entry fee of the 4th cellular operator. Based on further recommendations of TRAI dated 19.11.2003, spectrum to the new licensees was to be given as per the existing terms and conditions relating to spectrum in the respective license agreements. A copy of the Guidelines dated 11.11.2003 is annexed hereto as Annexure IX

WHEREAS consequent to enhancement of FDI limit in telecom sector from 49% to 74%, revised Guidelines for grant of UAS Licenses were issued on 14.12.2005. These Guidelines, inter-alia stipulate that Licenses shall be issued without any restriction on the number of entrants for provision of Unified Access Services in a Service Area and the applicant will be required to pay one time non-refundable Entry, annual License fee as a percentage of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) and 

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spectrum charges on revenue share basis. No separate upfront charge for allocation of spectrum was prescribed. Initial Spectrum was allotted as per UAS License conditions to the service providers in different frequency bands, subject to availability. Initially allocation of a cumulative maximum up to 4.4 MHz + 4.4 MHz for TDMA based systems or 2.5 MHz + 2.5 MHz for CDMA based systems subject to availability was to be made. Spectrum not more than 5 MHz + 5 MHz in respect of CDMA system or 6.2 MHz + 6.2 MHz in respect of TDMA based system was to be allocated to any new UAS licensee. A copy of the UASL Guidelines dated 14.12.2005 is annexed hereto as Annexure X

WHEREAS after the introduction of the UASL in 2003 and until March 2007, 51 new UASL Licenses were issued based on policy of First Come-First Served, on payment of the same entry fee as was paid for the 2001 Cellular Licenses (the “2003-2007 Licenses”) and the spectrum was also allocated based on FCFS under a separate wireless operating license on case by case basis and subject to availability. Licensees had to pay annual spectrum usage charges as a percentage of AGR, there being a no upfront charge for allocation of spectrum. A copy of the 2003-2007 License, along with a table setting out the fees payable, is annexed hereto as Annexure XI (Colly)

WHEREAS on 28th August 2007, TRAI revisited the issue of new licenses, allocation of Spectrum, Spectrum charges, entry fees and issued its recommendations, a copy of which is annexed hereto as Annexure XII. TRAI made further recommendations dated 16.07.2008 which is annexed hereto as Annexure XIII

WHEREAS in 2007 and 2008, GoI issued Dual Technology Licences, where under the terms of the existing licenses were amended to allow licensees to hold a license as well as Spectrum for providing services through both GSM and CDMA network. First amendment was issued in December, 2007. All licensees who opted for Dual Technology Licences paid the same entry fee, which was an amount equal to the 

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amount prescribed as entry fee for getting a new UAS licence in the same service area. The amendment to the license inter-alia mentioned that initially a cumulative maximum of upto 4.4 MHz + 4.4 MHz was to be allocated in the case of TDMA based systems (@ 200 KHz per carrier or 30 KHz per carrier) and a maximum of 2.5 MHz + 2.5 MHz was to be allocated in the case of CDMA based systems (@ 1.25 MHz per carrier), on case by case basis subject to availability. It was also, inter alia, mentioned that additional spectrum beyond the above stipulation may also be considered for allocation after ensuring optimal and efficient utilization of the already allocated spectrum taking into account all types of traffic and guidelines/criteria prescribed from time to time. However, spectrum not more than 5 + 5 MHz in respect of CDMS system and 6.2 + 6.2 MHz in respect of TDMA based system was to be allocated to the licensee. There was no separate upfront charge for allocation of Spectrum. However, Dual Technology licensees were required to pay Spectrum usage charges in addition to the license fee on revenue share basis as a percentage of AGR. Spectrum to these licensees was allocated 10.01.2008 onwards. 

WHEREAS Subscriber based criteria for CMTS was prescribed in the year 2002 for allocation of additional spectrum of 1.8 + 1.8 MHz beyond 6.2 + 6.2 MHz with a levy of additional spectrum usage charge of 1% of AGR. The allocation criteria was revised from time to time. A copy of the DoT letter dated 01.02.2002 in this regard is annexed hereto as Annexure XIV

WHEREAS for the spectrum allotted beyond 6.2 MHz, in the frequency allocation letters issued by DoT May 2008 onwards, it was mentioned inter-alia that allotment of spectrum is subject to pricing as determined in future by the GoI for spectrum beyond 6.2 MHz + 6.2 MHz and the outcome of Court orders. However, annual spectrum usage charges were levied on the basis of AGR, as per the quantum of spectrum assigned. A sample copy of the frequency allocation letter is annexed hereto as Annexure XV. 

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WHEREAS Spectrum for the 3G Band (i.e. 2100 MHz band) was auctioned in 2010. The terms of the auction stipulated that, for successful new entrants, a fresh license agreement would be entered into and for existing licensees who were successful in the auction, the license agreement would be amended for use of Spectrum in the 3G band. A copy of the Notice inviting Applications and Clarifications thereto are annexed hereto and marked as Annexure XVI (Colly). The terms of the amendment letter provided, inter alia, that the 3G spectrum would stand withdrawn if the license stood terminated for any reason. A copy of the standard form of the amendment letter is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure XVII

WHEREAS letters of intent were issued for 122 Licenses for providing 2G services on or after 10 January 2008, against which licenses (the “2008 Licenses”) were subsequently issued. However, pursuant to the judgment of this Hon’ble Court dated 2nd February, 2012 in Writ Petition (Civil) No.423 of 2010 (the “Judgment”), the 2008 Licenses have been quashed. A copy of the judgment is annexed hereto and marked Annexure XVIII

WHEREAS the GoI has also filed an Interlocutory Application for clarification of the Judgment, wherein the GoI has placed on record the manner in which the auction is proposed to be held pursuant to the Judgment and sought appropriate clarificatory orders/directions from the Hon’ble Court. A copy of the Interlocutory Application is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure XIX

WHEREAS while the GoI is implementing the directions set out in the Judgment at paragraph 81 and proceeding with a fresh grant of licences and allocation of spectrum by auction, the GoI is seeking a limited review of the Judgment to the extent it impacts generally the method for allocation of national resources by the State. A copy of the Review Petition is annexed hereto and marked as Annexure XX. 

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WHEREAS by the Judgment, this Hon’ble Court directed TRAI to make fresh recommendations for grant of licenses and allocation of Spectrum in the 2G band by holding an auction, as was done for the allocation of Spectrum for the 3G licenses. 

WHEREAS, in terms of the directions of this Hon’ble Court, GoI would now be allocating Spectrum in the relevant 2G bands at prices discovered through auction. 

WHEREAS based on the recommendations of TRAI dated 11.05.2010 followed by further clarifications and recommendations, the GoI has prescribed in February 2012, the limit for spectrum assignment in the Metro Service Areas as 2x10MHz/2×6.25 MHz and in rest of the Service Areas as 2x8MHz/2×5 MHz for GSM (900 MHz, 1800 MHz band)/CDMA(800 MHZ band), respectively subject to the condition that the Licensee can acquire additional spectrum beyond prescribed limit in the open market should there be an auction of spectrum subject to the further condition that total spectrum held by it does not exceed the limits prescribed for merger of licenses i.e. 25% of the total spectrum assigned in that Service Area by way of auction or otherwise. This limit for CDMS spectrum is 10 MHz. 

WHEREAS, in view of the fact that Spectrum may need to be allocated to individual entities from time to time in accordance with criteria laid down by the GoI, such as subscriber base, availability of Spectrum in a particular circle, inter-se priority depending on whether the Spectrum comprises the initial allocation or additional allocation, etc., it may not always be possible to conduct an auction for the allocation of Spectrum. 

AND WHEREAS in view of the aforesaid, the auctioning of Spectrum in the 2G bands may result in a situation where none of the Licensees, using the 2G bands of 800 MHz., 900 MHz and 1800 MHz would have paid any separate upfront fee for the allocation of Spectrum. 

AND WHEREAS the Government of India has 9

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received various notices from companies based in other countries, invoking bilateral investment agreements and seeking damages against the Union of India by reason of the cancellation/threat of cancellation of the licenses. 

AND WHEREAS in the circumstance certain questions of law of far reaching national and international implications have arisen, including in relation to the conduct of the auction and the regulation of the telecommunications industry in accordance with the Judgment and FDI into this country in the telecom industry and otherwise in other sectors. 

Given that the issues which have arisen are of great public importance, and that questions of law have arisen of public importance and with such far reaching consequences for the development of the country that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India thereon. 

NOW THEREFORE, in exercise of powers conferred upon me by clause (1) of Article 143 of the Constitution of India, I, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, hereby refer the following questions to the Supreme Court of India for consideration and report thereon, namely: 

Q.1 Whether the only permissible method for disposal of all natural resources across all sectors and in all circumstances is by the conduct of auctions? 

Q.2 Whether a broad proposition of law that only the route of auctions can be resorted to for disposal of natural resources does not run contrary to several judgments of the Supreme Court including those of Larger Benches? 

Q.3 Whether the enunciation of a broad principle, even though expressed as a matter of constitutional law, does not really amount to formulation of a policy and has the effect of unsettling policy decisions formulated and approaches taken by various successive governments over the years for valid considerations, including lack of public resources 

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and the need to resort to innovative and different approaches for the development of various sectors of the economy? 

Q.4 What is the permissible scope for interference by courts with policy making by the Government including methods for disposal of natural resources? 

Q.5 Whether, if the court holds, within the permissible scope of judicial review, that a policy is flawed, is the court not obliged to take into account investments made under the said policy including investments made by foreign investors under multilateral/bilateral agreements? 

Q.6 If the answers to the aforesaid questions lead to an affirmation of the judgment dated 02.02.2012 then the following questions may arise, viz. 

(i) whether the judgment is required to be given retrospective effect so as to unsettle all licences issued and 2G spectrum (800, 900, and 1800 MHz bands) allocated in and after 1994 and prior to 10.01.2008? 

(ii) whether the allocation of 2G spectrum in all circumstances and in all specific cases for different policy considerations would nevertheless have to be undone? 

And specifically 

(iii) Whether the telecom licences granted in 1994 would be affected? 

(iv) Whether the Telecom licences granted by way of basic licences in 2001 and licences granted between the period 2003-2007 would be affected? 

(v) Whether it is open to the Government of India to take any action to alter the terms of any licence to ensure a level playing field among all existing licensees? 

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(vi) Whether dual technology licences granted in 2007 and 2008 would be affected? 

(vii) Whether it is necessary or obligatory for the Government of India to withdraw the Spectrum allocated to all existing licensees or to charge for the same with retrospective effect and if so on what basis and from what date? 

Q.7 Whether, while taking action for conduct of auction in accordance with the orders of the Supreme Court, it would remain permissible for the Government to: 

(i) Make provision for allotment of Spectrum from time to time at the auction discovered price and in accordance with laid down criteria during the period of validity of the auction determined price? 

(ii) Impose a ceiling on the acquisition of Spectrum with the aim of avoiding the emergence of dominance in the market by any licensee/applicant duly taking into consideration TRAI recommendations in this regard? 

(iii) Make provision for allocation of Spectrum at auction related prices in accordance with laid down criteria in bands where there may be inadequate or no competition (for e.g. there is expected to be a low level of competition for CDMA in 800 MHz band and TRAI has recommended an equivalence ratio of 1.5 or 1.3X1.5 for 800 MHz and 900 MHz bands depending upon the quantum of spectrum held by the licensee that can be applied to auction price in 1800 MHz band in the absence of a specific price for these bands)? 

Q.8 What is the effect of the judgment on 3G Spectrum acquired by entities by auction whose licences 

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have been quashed by the said judgment? 

NEW DELHI; 

DATED: 12 April 2012 PRESIDENT OF INDIA” 

  1. A bare reading of the Reference shows that it is occasioned by the decision of this Court, rendered by a bench of two learned Judges on 2nd February, 2012 in Centre for Public Interest Litigation & Ors. Vs. Union of India & Ors.1 (for brevity “2G Case”). 
  2. On receipt of the Reference, vide order dated 9th May, 2012, notice was issued to the Attorney General for India. Upon hearing the learned Attorney General, it was directed vide order dated 11th May, 2012, that notice of the Reference shall be issued to all the States through their Standing Counsel; on Centre for Public Interest Litigation (CPIL) and Dr. Subramanian Swamy (petitioners in the 2G Case); as also on the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), as representatives of the Indian industry. On the suggestion of the learned Attorney General, it was also directed (though not recorded in the 

order), that the reference shall be dealt with in two parts 1 (2012) 3 SCC 1 

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viz. in the first instance, only questions No. 1 to 5 would be taken up for consideration and the remaining questions shall be taken up later in the light of our answers to the first five questions. 

  1. At the commencement of the hearing of the Reference on 10th July, 2012, a strong objection to the maintainability of the Reference was raised by the writ petitioners in the 2G Case. Accordingly, it was decided to first hear the learned counsel on the question of validity of the Reference.  

 SUBMISSIONS ON MAINTAINABILITY

  1. Mr. Soli Sorabjee, learned senior counsel, appearing for CPIL, strenuously urged that in effect and substance, the Reference seeks to question the correctness of the judgment in the 2G Case, which is not permissible once this Court has pronounced its authoritative opinion on the question of law now sought to be raised. The learned counsel argued that reference under Article 143(1) of the Constitution does not entail appellate or review jurisdiction, especially in respect of a judgment which has attained finality. According to the learned counsel, it is 

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evident from the format of the Reference that it does not express or suggest any ‘doubt’ as regards the question of fact or law relating to allocation of all natural resources, a sine-qua-non for a valid reference. In support of the proposition, learned counsel placed reliance on observations in earlier references In Re: The Delhi Laws Act, 1912, the Ajmer-Merwara (Extension of Laws) Act, 1947 And The Part C States (Laws) Act, 19502, In Re: The Berubari Union and Exchange of Enclaves Reference Under Article 143(1) of the Constitution of India3, In Re: The Kerala Education Bill, 195,7 In Reference Under Article 143(1) Of The Constitution of India4, Special Reference No.1 of 19645(commonly referred to as Keshav Singh), In Re: Presidential Poll6, In Re: The Special Courts Bill, 19787, In the Matter of : Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal8(hereinafter referred to as “Cauvery-II”) and Special Reference No.1 of 1998 Re.9 

2 [1951] S.C.R. 747 

3 [1960] 3 S.C.R. 250 

4 [1959] S.C.R. 995 

5 [1965] 1 S.C.R. 413 

6 (1974) 2 SCC 33 

7 (1979) 1 SCC 380 

8 1993 Supp (1) SCC 96 (II) 

9 (1998) 7 SCC 739 

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  1. Next, it was contended by the learned senior counsel that if for any reason, the Executive feels that the 2G Case does not lay down a correct proposition of law, it is open to it to persuade another bench, before which the said judgment is relied upon, to refer the issue to a larger bench for reconsideration. In short, the submission was that an authoritative pronouncement, like the one in the 2G Case, cannot be short circuited by recourse to Article 143(1). 
  2. Learned counsel also contended that the Reference as framed is of an omnibus nature, seeking answers on hypothetical and vague questions, and therefore, must not be answered. Commending us to In Re: The Special Courts Bill, 1978 (supra) and several other decisions, learned counsel urged that a reference under Article 143(1) of the Constitution for opinion has to be on a specific question or questions. It was asserted that by reason of the construction of the terms of Reference, the manner in which the questions have been framed and the nature of the answers proposed, this Court would be entitled to return the Reference unanswered by pointing 

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out the aforesaid impediments in answering it. Lastly, it was fervently pleaded that if the present Reference is entertained, it would pave the way for the Executive to circumvent or negate the effect of inconvenient judgments, like the decision in the 2G Case, which would not only set a dangerous and unhealthy precedent, but would also be clearly contrary to the ratio of the decision in Cauvery II

  1. Mr. Prashant Bhushan, learned senior counsel, while adopting the arguments advanced by Mr. Soli Sorabjee, reiterated that from the format of questions No.1 to 5, as well as from the review petition filed by the Government in the 2G Case, it is clear that the present Reference seeks to overrule the decision in the 2G Case by reading down the direction that allowed only ‘auction’ as the permissible means for allocation of all natural resource, in paragraphs 94 to 96 of the 2G Case, to the specific case of spectrum. It was argued by the learned counsel that it is apparent from the grounds urged in the review petition filed by the Government that it understood the ratio of the 2G Case, binding them to the form of procedure to be followed while 

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alienating precious natural resources belonging to the people, and yet it is seeking to use the advisory jurisdiction of this Court as an appeal over its earlier decision. It was contended that even if it be assumed that a doubt relating to the disposal of all natural resources has arisen on account of conflict of decisions on the point, such a conflict cannot be resolved by way of a Presidential reference; that would amount to holding that one or the other judgments is incorrectly decided, which, according to the learned counsel, is beyond the scope of Article 143(1). Learned counsel alleged that the language in which the Reference is couched, exhibits mala fides on the part of the Executive. He thus, urged that we should refrain from giving an opinion. 

  1. Dr. Subramanian Swamy, again vehemently objecting to the maintainability of the Reference, on similar grounds, added that the present Reference is against the very spirit of Article 143(1), which, according to the constituent assembly debates, was meant to be invoked sparingly, unlike the case here. It was pleaded that the Reference is yet another attempt to delay the implementation of the 

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directions in the 2G Case. Relying on the decision of this Court in Dr. M. Ismail Faruqui & Ors. Vs. Union of India & Ors.10, Dr. Swamy submitted that we will be well advised to return the Reference unanswered. 

  1. Mr. G.E. Vahanvati, the learned Attorney General for India, defending the Reference, submitted that the plea regarding non-maintainability of the Reference on the ground that it does not spell out a ‘doubt’, is fallacious on a plain reading of the questions framed therein. According to him, Article 143(1) uses the word ‘question’ which arises only when there is a ‘doubt’ and the very fact that the President has sought the opinion of this Court on the questions posed, shows that there is a doubt in the mind of the Executive on those issues. It was stressed that merely because the Reference does not use the word ‘doubt’ in the recitals, as in other cited cases, does not imply that in substance no doubt is entertained in relation to the mode of alienation of all natural resources, other than spectrum, more so when the questions posed for opinion have far reaching national and international implications. It was 

10 (1994) 6 SCC 360 

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urged that the content of the Reference is to be appreciated in proper perspective, keeping in view the context and not the form. 

  1. It was urged that maintainability and the discretion to decline to answer a reference are two entirely different things. The question of maintainability arises when ex facie, the Presidential reference does not meet the basic requirements of Article 143(1), contrastive to the question of discretion, which is the power of the Court to decline to answer a reference, for good reasons, once the reference is maintainable. In support of the proposition, reliance was placed on In Re: The Kerala Education Bill, 1957 (supra), Keshav Singh and In Re: The Special Courts Bill, 1978 (supra). According to the learned counsel, the question as to whether the reference is to be answered or not, is not an aspect of maintainability, and is to be decided only after hearing the reference on merits. 
  2. Learned Attorney General, while contesting the plea that in a reference under Article 143(1), correctness or otherwise of earlier decisions can never be gone into, submitted that in a Presidential reference, there is no constitutional 

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embargo against reference to earlier decisions in order to clarify, restate or even to form a fresh opinion on a principle of law, as long as an inter partes decision is left unaffected. In support of the contention that in the past, references have been made on questions in relation to the correctness of judgments, learned counsel placed reliance on the decisions of this Court In Re: The Delhi Laws Act, 1912 (supra), Special Reference No.1 of 1998 (supra), Keshav Singh (supra) and of the Privy Council In re Piracy Jure Gentium11. It was asserted that it has been repeatedly clarified on behalf of the Executive that the decision in the 2G Case has been accepted and is not being challenged. The Reference was necessitated by certain observations made as a statement of law in the said judgment which require to be explicated. Referring to certain observations in Re: The Berubari Union and Exchange of Enclaves (supra), learned counsel submitted that this Court had accepted that a reference could be answered to avoid protracted litigation.  

  1. Learned Attorney General also contended that withdrawal 

11 [1934] A.C. 586 

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of the review petition by the Government is of no consequence ; its withdrawal does not imply that the question about the permissible manner of disposal of other natural resources, and the issues regarding the environment for investment in the country, stood settled. Stoutly refuting the allegation that the reference is mala fide, learned counsel submitted that in In Re Presidential Poll (supra), it is clearly laid down that the Court cannot question the bona fides of the President making the reference. 

  1. Mr. T.R. Andhyarujina, learned senior counsel, voiced concerns arising out of an apparent conflict between provisions of the statutes and the judgment delivered in the 2G Case; specifically with reference to Sections 10 and 11 of the Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 (for short, “MMRD Act”), which prescribe a policy of preferential treatment and first come first served, unlike the 2G Case, which according to the learned counsel only mandates auction for all natural resources. He thus, urged this Court to dispel all uncertainties regarding the true position of law after the 

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judgment in the 2G Case, by holding it as per incuriam in light of the provisions of the MMRD Act and other statutes. 

  1. Mr. Harish Salve, learned senior counsel, appearing on behalf of CII, while supporting the Reference, fervently urged that the contention that the Reference deserves to be returned unanswered due to the absence of the use of the word ‘doubt’ in the recitals of the Reference, is untenable. According to the learned counsel, under Article 143(1), the President can seek an opinion on any question of law or fact that has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and such public importance that it is expedient to seek the opinion of this Court. There is no additional condition that there should be any ‘doubt’ in the mind of the President. It was submitted by the learned counsel that the need for a Presidential reference may also arise to impart certainty to certain questions of law or fact which are of such a nature and of such moment as to warrant seeking opinion of this Court. It was urged that a pedantic interpretation, by which a Presidential reference would be declined on semantic considerations, such as the failure to use the word ‘doubt’ in the reference, should be 

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eschewed. 

  1. Learned counsel contended that at the stage of making a reference, it is the satisfaction of the President in relation to the nature of the question and its importance that is relevant. As a matter of comity of institutions, this Court has always declined to go behind the reasons that prevailed upon the President to make a reference and its bona fides. Nevertheless, this Court always has the discretion not to answer any such reference or the questions raised therein for good reasons. It was stressed that since this Court does not sit in review over the satisfaction of the President, the question of jurisdiction and of maintainability does not arise. 
  2. Learned counsel also argued that the premise that earlier judgments of this Court are binding in reference jurisdiction, and thus any reference, which impinges upon an earlier judgment should be returned unanswered, is equally fallacious. It was argued that the principle of stare decisis and the doctrine of precedent are generally accepted and followed as rules of judicial discipline and not jurisdictional fetters and, therefore, this Court is not 

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prevented from re-examining the correctness of an earlier decision. On the contrary, the precedents support the proposition that this Court can, when exercising its jurisdiction under Article 143(1), examine the correctness of past precedents. According to the learned counsel, in Keshav Singh, this Court did examine the correctness of the judgment in Pandit M.S.M. Sharma Vs. Shri Sri Krishna Sinha & Ors.12 (hereinafter referred to as “Sharma”). Explaining the ratio of the decision in Cauvery-II, learned counsel submitted that it is clear beyond any pale of doubt that the said pronouncement does not lay down, as an abstract proposition of law, that under Article 143(1), this Court cannot consider the correctness of any precedent. What it lays down is that once a lis between the parties is decided, the operative decree can only be opened by way of a review. According to the learned counsel, overruling a judgment — as a precedent — does not tantamount to reopening the decree. 

  1. Arguing on similar lines, Mr. C.A. Sundaram, learned senior 

12 [1959] Supp. 1 S.C.R. 806 

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counsel appearing on behalf of FICCI, contended that if the observations in the 2G Case are read as applying to all natural resources and not limited to spectrum, it would tantamount to de facto policy formulation by the Court, which is beyond the scope of judicial review. He also took a nuanced stance on this Court’s power of reconsideration over its precedents. It was submitted that a precedent can be sliced into two parts viz. the decision or operative part of an order or decree pertaining to the inter partes dispute and the ratio with respect to the position of law; the former being beyond this Court’s powers of review once an earlier bench of this Court has pronounced an authoritative opinion on it, but not the latter. He thus, urged that this Court does have the power to reconsider the principles of law laid down in its previous pronouncements even under Article 141. 

  1. Mr. Darius Khambata, learned Advocate General of Maharashtra, submitted that observations in the 2G Case were made only with regard to spectrum thus, leaving it open to this Court to examine the issue with regard to alienation of other natural resources. It was urged that 

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even if broader observations were made with respect to all natural resources, it would still be open to this Court under Article 143(1) to say otherwise. He also pointed to certain State legislations that prescribe methods other than auction and thus, urged this Court to answer the first question in the negative lest all those legislations be deemed unconstitutional.  

  1. Mr. Sunil Gupta, learned senior counsel, appearing on behalf of the State of U.P., added that when Article 143(1) of the Constitution unfolds a high prerogative of a constitutional authority, namely, the President, to consult this Court on question of law or fact, it contains a no less high prerogative of this Court to report to the President its opinion on the question referred, either by making or declining to give an answer to the question. In other words, according to the learned counsel, the issue of a reference being maintainable at the instance of the President is an issue different from the judicial power of this Court to answer or not to answer the question posed in the reference. 
  2. Mr. Ravindra Shrivastava, learned senior counsel 27

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appearing on behalf of the State of Chhattisgarh, contended that neither history supports nor reality warrants auction to be a rule of disposal of all natural resources in all situations. He referred to decisions of this Court that unambiguously strike a just balance between considerations of power of the State and duty towards public good, by leaving the choice of method of allocation of natural resources to the State, as long as it conforms to the requirements of Article 14. It was pleaded that the State be allowed the choice of methodology of allocation, especially in cases where it intends to incentivize investments and job creation in backward regions that would otherwise have been left untouched by private players if resources were given at market prices. 

  1. To sum up, the objections relating to the maintainability of the Reference converge mainly on the following points: (i) the foundational requirement for reference under Article 143(1) viz. a genuine ‘doubt’ about questions of fact or law that the executive labours under, is absent; (ii) the filing and withdrawal of a review petition whose recitals pertain to the 2G Case would be an impediment in the exercise of 

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discretion under Article 143(1); (iii) the language in which the Reference is couched exhibits mala fides on the part of the Executive; (iv) in light of enunciation of law on the point in Cauvery II, entertaining a Presidential reference on a subject matter, which has been decided upon directly and with finality, is barred; (v) the present Reference is an attempt to overturn the judgment of this Court in the 2G Case, which is against the spirit of Article 143(1) of the Constitution and (vi) the Executive is adopting the route of this Reference to wriggle out of the directions in the 2G Case as the same are inconvenient for them to follow. 

DISCUSSION

  1. Before we evaluate the rival stands on the maintainability of the Reference, it would be necessary to examine the scope and breadth of Article 143 of the Constitution, which reads thus: 

143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court.—(1) If at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court upon it, he may refer the question to that Court for consideration and the Court may, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon. 

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(2) The President may, notwithstanding anything in the proviso to article 131, refer a dispute of the kind mentioned in the said proviso to the Supreme Court for opinion and the Supreme Court shall, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon.” 

A bare reading at the Article would show that it is couched in broad terms. It is plain from the language of Article 143(1) that it is not necessary that the question on which the opinion of the Supreme Court is sought must have actually arisen. The President can make a reference under the said Article even at an anterior stage, namely, at the stage when the President is satisfied that the question is likely to arise. The satisfaction whether the question meets the pre-requisites of Article 143(1) is essentially a matter for the President to decide. Upon receipt of a reference under Article 143(1), the function of this Court is to consider the reference; the question(s) on which the President has made the reference, on the facts as stated in the reference and report to the President its opinion thereon.  

  1. Nevertheless, the usage of the word “may” in the latter part of Article 143(1) implies that this Court is not bound to render advisory opinion in every reference and may refuse to express its opinion for strong, compelling and good

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reasons. In Keshav Singh, highlighting the difference in the phraseology used in clauses (1) and (2) of Article 143, P.B. Gajendragadkar, C.J., speaking for the majority, held as follows: 

“…whereas in the case of reference made under Article 143 (2) it is the constitutional obligation of this Court to make a report on that reference embodying its advisory opinion, in a reference made under Article 143 (1) there is no such obligation. In dealing with this latter class of reference, it is open to this Court to consider whether it should make a report to the President giving its advisory opinion on the questions under reference.” 

  1. Further, even in an earlier judgment in In re: Allocation of Lands and Buildings Situate in a Chief Commissioner’s Province and in the matter of Reference by the Governor-General under S. 213, Government of India Act, 193513, the Federal Court had said that even though the Court is within its authority to refuse to answer a question on a reference, it must be unwilling to exercise its power of refusal “except for good reasons.” A similar phrase was used in In Re: The Kerala Education Bill, 1957 (supra) when this Court observed that opinion on a reference under Article 143(1), may be 13 A.I.R. (30) 1943 FC 13 

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declined in a “proper case” and “for good reasons”. In Dr. M. Ismail Faruqui & Ors. (supra), it was added that a reference may not be answered when the Court is not competent to decide the question which is based on expert evidence or is a political one. 

  1. Having noted the relevant contours of Article 143(1) of the Constitution, we may now deal with the objections to the maintainability of the Reference. 
  2. There is no denying the fact that in the entire Reference the word ‘doubt’ has not been used. It is also true that in all previous references, noted in para 5 (supra), it had been specifically mentioned that doubts had arisen about various issues. Nonetheless, the fact remains that Article 143(1) does not use the term ‘doubt’. No specific format has been provided in any of the Schedules of the Constitution as to how a reference is to be drawn. The use of the word ‘doubt’ in a reference is also not a constitutional command or mandate. Needless to 

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emphasise that the expression, ‘doubt’, which refers to a state of uncertainty, may be with regard to a fact or a principle. In P. Ramanatha Aiyar’s, The Major Law Lexicon, 4th Edition, the words ‘doubt’ and ‘question’ have been dealt with in the following manner:- 

“Doubt, Question. These terms express the act of the mind in staying its decision. Doubt lies altogether in the mind; it is a less active feeling than question; by the former we merely suspend decision; by the latter we actually demand proofs in order to assist us in deciding. We may doubt in silence. We cannot question without expressing it directly or indirectly. He who suggests doubts does it with caution: he who makes a question throws in difficulties with a degree of confidence. We doubt the truth of a position; we question the veracity of an author. (Crabb.)” 

As per the Concise Oxford Dictionary (Tenth Edition), ‘question’ means : “a doubt; the raising of a doubt or objection; a problem requiring solution”.  

In Black’s Law Dictionary ‘doubt’, as a verb, has been defined as follows: 

“To question or hold questionable.” 

The word ‘doubt’, as a noun, has been described as under:- 

“Uncertainty of mind; the absence of a settled opinion or conviction; the attitude of mind towards the acceptance of or belief in a proposition, theory, or 

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statement, in which the judgment is not at rest but inclines alternately to either side.” 

  1. The afore-extracted recitals of the instant Reference state that in the current circumstances, certain questions of law with far reaching national and international implications have arisen, including in relation to conduct of the auction and the regulation of the telecommunications industry in accordance with the judgment (2G Case) that may affect the flow of FDI in the telecom industry and otherwise in other sectors into this country. Thereafter, it is also stated that questions of law that have arisen are of great public importance and are of far reaching consequences for the development of the country and hence, it is thought expedient to obtain the opinion of this Court. Question No.1 of the reference reads as follows:- 

“Whether the only permissible method for disposal of all natural resources across all sectors and in all circumstances is by the conduct of auctions?” 

  1. At this juncture, reference may profitably be made to the decision in In Re: The Special Courts Bill, 1978 (supra), an opinion by a Bench of seven learned Judges, wherein it was observed as follows: 

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“27. We were, at one stage of the arguments, so much exercised over the undefined breadth of the reference that we were considering seriously whether in the circumstances it was not advisable to return the reference unanswered. But the written briefs filed by the parties and the oral arguments advanced before us have, by their fullness and ability, helped to narrow down the legal controversies surrounding the Bill and to crystallize the issues which arise for our consideration. We propose to limit our opinion to the points specifically raised before us. It will be convenient to indicate at this stage what those points are.” 

While expressing the hope that, in future, specific questions would be framed for the opinion of this Court, Y.V. Chandrachud (as his Lordship then was), speaking for the majority, said: 

“30. We hope that in future, whenever a reference is made to this Court under Article 143 of the Constitution, care will be taken to frame specific questions for the opinion of the Court. Fortunately, it has been possible in the instant reference to consider specific questions as being comprehended within the terms of the reference but the risk that a vague and general reference may be returned unanswered is real and ought to engage the attention of those whose duty it is to frame the reference. Were the Bill not as short as it is, it would have been difficult to infuse into the reference the comprehension of the two points mentioned by us above and which we propose to decide. A long Bill would have presented to us a rambling task in the absence of reference on specific points, rendering it impossible to formulate succinctly the nature of constitutional challenge to the provisions of the Bill.” 

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  1. From the afore-extracted paragraphs, three broad principles emerge: (i) a reference should not be vague, general and undefined, (ii) this Court can go through the written briefs and arguments to narrow down the legal controversies, and (iii) when the question becomes unspecific and incomprehensible, the risk of returning the reference unanswered arises. In Keshav Singh, this Court while dealing with the validity of the reference, referred to earlier decisions and opined as follows: 

“…It would thus be seen that the questions so far referred by the President for the Advisory opinion of this Court under Article 143(1) do not disclose a uniform pattern and that is quite clearly consistent with the broad and wide words used in Article 143(1).” 

  1. An analysis of the afore-noted cases, indicates that neither has a particular format been prescribed nor any specific pattern been followed in framing references. The first principle relates to the ‘form’ and the second pertains to the ‘pattern of content’. Holistically understood, on the ground of form or pattern alone, a reference is not to be returned unanswered. It requires appropriate analysis, 

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understanding and appreciation of the content or the issue on which doubt is expressed, keeping in view the concept of constitutional responsibility, juridical propriety and judicial discretion. 

  1. Thus, we find it difficult to accept the stand that use of the word ‘doubt’ is a necessary condition for a reference to be maintainable under Article 143(1). That apart, in our view, question No.1, quoted above, is neither vague nor general or unspecific, but is in the realm of comprehension which is relatable to a question of law. It expresses a ‘doubt’ and seeks the opinion of the Court on that question, besides others. 
  2. In so far as the impact of filing and withdrawal of the review application by the Union of India, against the decision in the 2G Case on the maintainability of the instant Reference is concerned, it is a matter of record that in the review petition, certain aspects of the grounds for review which have been stated in the recitals of the Reference as well as in some questions, were highlighted. 

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However, there is a gulf of difference between the jurisdiction exercised by this Court in a review and the discretion exercised in answering a reference under Article 143(1) of the Constitution. A review is basically guided by the well-settled principles for review of a judgment and a decree or order passed inter se parties. The Court in exercise of power of review may entertain the review under the acceptable and settled parameters. But, when an opinion of this Court is sought by the Executive taking recourse to a constitutional power, needless to say, the same stands on a different footing altogether. A review is lis specific and the rights of the parties to the controversy are dealt with therein, whereas a reference is answered keeping in view the terms of the reference and scrutinising whether the same satisfies the requirements inherent in the language employed under Article 143(1) of the Constitution. In our view, therefore, merely because a review had been filed and withdrawn and in the recital the narration pertains to the said case, the same would not be an embargo or impediment for exercise of discretion to answer the Reference. 

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  1. As far as the allegation of mala fide is concerned, it is trite that this Court is neither required to go into the truth or otherwise of the facts of the recitals nor can it go into the question of bona fides or otherwise of the authority making a reference. [See: In Re: Presidential Poll (supra)]. To put it differently, the constitutional power to seek opinion of this Court rests with the President. The only discretion this Court has is either to answer the reference or respectfully decline to send a report to the President. Therefore, the challenge on the ground of mala fide, as raised, is unsustainable. 
  2. The principal objection to the maintainability of the Reference is that it is an indirect endeavour to unsettle and overturn the verdict in the 2G Case, which is absolutely impermissible. The stand of the objectors is that the 2G Case is an authoritative precedent in respect of the principle or proposition of law that all natural resources are to be disposed of by way of public auction and, therefore, the Reference should be held as not maintainable. 

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Emphasis in this behalf was on paragraphs 85 and 94 to 96 of the said judgment. In support of the proposition, heavy reliance was placed on Cauvery II.  

  1. At the outset, we may note that the learned Attorney General has more than once stated that the Government of India is not questioning the correctness of the directions in the 2G Case, in so far as the allocation of spectrum is concerned, and in fact the Government is in the process of implementing the same, in letter and spirit. Therefore, in the light of the said statement, we feel that it would be unnecessary to comment on the submission that the Reference is an attempt to get an opinion to unsettle the decision and directions of this Court in the 2G Case. Nevertheless, since in support of the aforesaid submission, the opinion of this Court in Cauvery II has been referred to and relied upon in extenso, it would be appropriate to decipher the true ratio of Cauvery II, the lynchpin of the opposition to maintainability of the present Reference. 

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  1. Cauvery II was preceded by State of Tamil Nadu Vs. State of Karnataka & Ors.14 (hereinafter referred to as Cauvery I), which dwelled on the issue whether the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (for short “the Tribunal”) had the power to grant interim relief. In that case, applications filed by the State of Tamil Nadu for urgent interim reliefs were rejected by the Tribunal on the ground that they were not maintainable. This order was challenged, resulting in the judgment dated 26th April, 1991 by this Court, where it was held as follows: 

“15. Thus, we hold that this Court is the ultimate interpreter of the provisions of the Interstate Water Disputes Act, 1956 and has an authority to decide the limits, powers and the jurisdiction of the Tribunal constituted under the Act. This Court has not only the power but obligation to decide as to whether the Tribunal has any jurisdiction or not under the Act, to entertain any interim application till it finally decides the dispute referred to it…” 

  1. The Tribunal had ruled that since it was not like other courts with inherent powers to grant interim relief, only in case the Central Government referred a case for interim relief to it, would it have the jurisdiction to grant the same. 14 1991 Supp (1) SCC 240 

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Inter-alia, the Court observed that the Tribunal was wrong in holding that the Central Government had not made any reference for granting any interim relief, and concluded that the interim reliefs prayed for clearly fell within the purview of the dispute referred by the Central Government. Accordingly, the appeals preferred by the State of Tamil Nadu were allowed and the Tribunal was directed to decide the applications for interim relief. However, the Court did not decide the larger question of whether a Tribunal, constituted under the Interstate Water Disputes Act, 1956 had the power to grant an interim relief, though the answer to the same may be deduced from the final direction. 

  1. In pursuance of these directions, the Tribunal decided the application and vide its order dated 25th June, 1991, proceeded to issue certain directions to the State of Karnataka. Thereafter, on 25th July 1991, the Governor of Karnataka issued an Ordinance named “The Karnataka Cauvery Basin Irrigation Protection Ordinance, 1991”. Hot on the heels of the Ordinance, the State of Karnataka also 

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instituted a suit under Article 131 of the Constitution against the State of Tamil Nadu for a declaration that the Tribunal’s order granting interim relief was without jurisdiction and, therefore, null and void, etc. The Ordinance was replaced by Act 27 of 1991. In the context of these developments, the President made a reference to this Court under Article 143(1) of the Constitution, posing three questions for opinion. The third question of the reference, relevant for the present Reference, was :- 

3. Whether a Water Disputes Tribunal constituted under the Act is competent to grant any interim relief to the parties to the dispute.” 

However, while dealing with the reference in Cauvery II, the Court split the question, viz., whether a Water Disputes Tribunal constituted under the Act is competent to grant any interim relief into two parts: (i) when a reference for grant of interim relief is made to the Tribunal, and (ii) when no such reference is made to it. It was contended by the States of Karnataka and Kerala that if the Tribunal did not have power to grant interim relief, the Central Government would be incompetent to make a 

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reference for the purpose in the first place and the Tribunal in turn would have no jurisdiction to entertain such reference, if made. Dealing with the said submission, after making a reference to the earlier order, this Court observed that once the Central Government had made a reference to the Tribunal for consideration of the claim for interim relief, prayed for by the State of Tamil Nadu, the Tribunal had jurisdiction to consider the said request being a part of the reference itself. Implicit in the said decision was the finding that the subject of interim relief was a matter connected with or relevant to the water dispute within the meaning of Section 5(1) of the said Act. It was held that the Central Government could refer the matter for granting interim relief to the Tribunal for adjudication. 

  1. The consequence of the Court in coming to the conclusion, while replying to the third question was that the Tribunal did not have the jurisdiction to make an interim award or grant interim relief, would have not only resulted in the Court overruling its earlier decision between the two contending parties i.e. the two States, but it would have also then required the Court to declare the order of the 

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Tribunal as being without jurisdiction. The Court therefore, said : 

“83…Although this Court by the said decision has kept open the question, viz., whether the Tribunal has incidental, ancillary, inherent or implied power to grant the interim relief when no reference for grant of such relief is made to it, it has in terms concluded the second part of the question. We cannot, therefore, countenance a situation whereby question 3 and for that matter questions 1 and 2 may be so construed as to invite our opinion on the said decision of this Court. That would obviously be tantamount to our sitting in appeal on the said decision which it is impermissible for us to do even in adjudicatory jurisdiction. Nor is it competent for the President to invest us with an appellate jurisdiction over the said decision through a Reference under Article 143 of the Constitution.” 

These observations would suggest that the Court declined to construe Article 143 as a power any different from its adjudicative powers and for that reason, said that what could not be done in the adjudicatory process would equally not be achieved through the process of a reference. 

  1. The expression, “sitting in appeal” was accurately used. An appellate court vacates the decree (or writ, order or direction) of the lower court when it allows an appeal – which is what this Court was invited to do in Cauvery I. This Court, in that appeal decided earlier, held that the Tribunal had the jurisdiction to pass the interim order 

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sought by the State of Tamil Nadu. To nullify the interim order passed by the Tribunal, pursuant to a direction of the Supreme Court, on the ground that it was without jurisdiction, would necessarily require vacating the direction of the Supreme Court to the Tribunal to exercise its jurisdiction and decide the interim matter. Para 85 of that decision puts the matter beyond any pale of doubt: 

85… In the first instance, the language of clause (1) of Article 143 far from supporting Shri Nariman’s contention is opposed to it. The said clause empowers the President to refer for this Court’s opinion a question of law or fact which has arisen or is likely to arise. When this Court in its adjudicatory jurisdiction pronounces its authoritative opinion on a question of law, it cannot be said that there is any doubt about the question of law or the same is res integra so as to require the President to know what the true position of law on the question is. The decision of this Court on a question of law is binding on all courts and authorities. Hence under the said clause the President can refer a question of law only when this Court has not decided it. Secondly, a decision given by this Court can be reviewed only under Article 137 read with Rule 1 of Order 40 of the Supreme Court Rules, 1966 and on the conditions mentioned therein. When, further, this Court overrules the view of law expressed by it in an earlier case, it does not do so sitting in appeal and exercising an appellate jurisdiction over the earlier decision. It does so in exercise of its inherent power and only in exceptional circumstances such as when the earlier decision is per incuriam or is delivered in the absence of relevant or material 

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facts or if it is manifestly wrong and productive of public mischief. [See: Bengal Immunity Company Ltd. v. State of Bihar (1955) 2 SCR 603]. Under the Constitution such appellate jurisdiction does not vest in this Court, nor can it be vested in it by the President under Article 143. To accept Shri Nariman’s contention would mean that the advisory jurisdiction under Article 143 is also an appellate jurisdiction of this Court over its own decision between the same parties and the executive has a power to ask this Court to revise its decision. If such power is read in Article 143 it would be a serious inroad into the independence of judiciary.” 

  1. Eventually, the reference was answered in respect of question No.3 in the following terms:- 

Question No.3: (i) A Water Disputes Tribunal constituted under the Act is competent to grant any interim relief to the parties to the dispute when a reference for such relief is made by the Central Government; 

(ii) whether the Tribunal has power to grant interim relief when no reference is made by the Central Government for such relief is a question which does not arise in the facts and circumstances under which the Reference is made. Hence we do not deem it necessary to answer the same.” 

  1. The main emphasis of Mr. Soli Sorabjee was on the second part of paragraph 85, which, according to him, prohibits 

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this Court from overruling a view expressed by it previously under Article 143(1). We are not persuaded to agree with the learned senior counsel. The paragraph has to be read carefully. Sawant J. first considers the case of a “decision” of this Court whereas in the subsequent sentence he considers a “view of law” expressed by the Court, and attempts to explain the difference between the approaches to these two situations. These words are sometimes used interchangeably but not hereinabove. We believe that Justice Sawant consciously draws a difference between the two by using the words “When, further, this Court overrules the view of law…” after discussing the case of a “decision”. 

  1. Black’s Law Dictionary defines a “decision” as “a determination arrived at after consideration of facts, and, in legal context, law”; an “opinion” as “the statement by a judge or court of the decision reached in regard to a cause tried or argued before them, expounding the law as applied to the case, and detailing the reasons upon which the judgment is based”; and explains the difference between a “decision” and “opinion” as follows: 

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“Decision is not necessarily synonymous with ‘opinion’. A decision of the Court is its judgment; the opinion is the reasons given for that judgment, or the expression of the views of the judge.” 

  1. Therefore, references in Para 85 to “decision” and “view of law” must be severed from each other. The learned Judge observes that in case of a decision, the appellate structure is exhausted after a pronouncement by the Supreme Court. Therefore, the only option left to the parties is of review or curative jurisdiction (a remedy carved out in the judgment in Rupa Ashok Hurra Vs. Ashok Hurra & Anr.15). After the exercise of those limited options, the concerned parties have absolutely no relief with regard to the dispute; it is considered settled for eternity in the eyes of the law. However what is not eternal and still malleable in the eyes of law is the opinion or “view of law” pronounced in the course of reaching the decision. Justice Sawant clarifies that unlike this Court’s appellate power, its power to overrule a previous precedent is an outcome of its inherent power when he says, “…it does not do so sitting in appeal and exercising an appellate jurisdiction 

15 (2002) 4 SCC 388 

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over the earlier decision. It does so in exercise of its inherent power and only in exceptional circumstances….” This Court has pointed out the difference between the two expressions in Rupa Ashok Hurra (supra), in the following words: 

“24. There is no gainsaying that the Supreme Court is the court of last resort — the final court on questions both of fact and of law including constitutional law. The law declared by this Court is the law of the land; it is precedent for itself and for all the courts/tribunals and authorities in India. In a judgment there will be declaration of law and its application to the facts of the case to render a decision on the dispute between the parties to the lis. It is necessary to bear in mind that the principles in regard to the highest court departing from its binding precedent are different from the grounds on which a final judgment between the parties, can be reconsidered. Here, we are mainly concerned with the latter. However, when reconsideration of a judgment of this Court is sought the finality attached both to the law declared as well as to the decision made in the case, is normally brought under challenge…” 

Therefore, there are two limitations – one jurisdictional and the other self-imposed. 

  1. The first limitation is that a decision of this Court can be reviewed only under Article 137 or a Curative Petition and in no other way. It was in this context that in para 85 of 

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Cauvery II, this Court had stated that the President can refer a question of law when this Court has not decided it. Mr. Harish Salve, learned senior counsel, is right when he argues that once a lis between parties is decided, the operative decree can only be opened in review. Overruling the judgment – as a precedent – does not reopen the decree. 

  1. The second limitation, a self imposed rule of judicial discipline, was that overruling the opinion of the Court on a legal issue does not constitute sitting in appeal, but is done only in exceptional circumstances, such as when the earlier decision is per incuriam or is delivered in the absence of relevant or material facts or if it is manifestly wrong and capable of causing public mischief. For this proposition, the Court relied upon the judgment in the Bengal Immunity case (supra) wherein it was held that when Article 141 lays down that the law declared by this Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India, it quite obviously refers to courts other than this Court; and that the Court would normally follow past 

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precedents save and except where it was necessary to reconsider the correctness of law laid down in that judgment. In fact, the overruling of a principle of law is not an outcome of appellate jurisdiction but a consequence of its inherent power. This inherent power can be exercised as long as a previous decree vis-à-vis lis inter partes is not affected. It is the attempt to overturn the decision of a previous case that is problematic which is why the Court observes that “under the Constitution such appellate jurisdiction does not vest in this Court, nor can it be vested in it by the President under Article 143.” 

  1. Therefore, the controversy in Cauvery II was covered by the decision rendered by this Court in Cauvery I between the parties and the decision operated as res judicata and hence, it was opined that discretion under Article 143(1) could not be exercised. It has also been observed that this Court had analysed the relevant provisions of the Inter State Water Disputes Act, 1956 and thereafter had come to the conclusion that the Tribunal had jurisdiction to grant interim relief if the question of granting interim relief 

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formed part of the reference. On this bedrock it was held that the decision operated as res judicata. It is, therefore, manifest from Cauvery II that the Court was clearly not opposed to clarifying the ratio of a previous judgment in Cauvery I, in the course of an advisory jurisdiction. Afore extracted para 85 of Cauvery II, restricts this Court’s advisory jurisdiction on the limited point of overturning a decided issue vis-à-vis a ‘dispute’ or lis inter partes

  1. Finally a seven Judge Bench of this Court has clearly held that this Court, under Article 143(1), does have the power to overrule a previous view delivered by it. Justice Chandrachud, C.J. in In re: The Special Courts Bill (supra) held: 

“101…We are inclined to the view that though it is always open to this Court to re-examine the question already decided by it and to overrule, if necessary, the view earlier taken by it, insofar as all other courts in the territory of India are concerned they ought to be bound by the view expressed by this Court even in the exercise of its advisory jurisdiction under Article 143(1) of the Constitution.” 

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  1. There is a catena of pronouncements in which this Court has either explained, clarified or read down the ratio of previous judgments. In the very first reference, In Re: Delhi Laws Act, 1912 (supra), the reference was made by reason of a judgment of the Federal Court in Jatindra Nath Gupta Vs. The Province of Bihar & Ors.16. The background of that reference was explained by Mukherjea, J. as under: 

“The necessity of seeking the advisory opinion of this Court is stated to have arisen from the fact that because of the decision of the Federal Court in 

Jatindra Nath Gupta v. The Province of Bihar, which held the proviso to sub-section (3) of Section 1 of the Bihar Maintenance of Public Order Act, 1947, ultra vires the Bihar Provincial Legislature, by reason of its amounting to a delegation of its legislative powers to an extraneous authority, doubts have arisen regarding the validity of the three legislative provisions mentioned above, the legality of the first and the second being actually called in question in certain judicial proceedings which are pending before some of the High Courts in India.” 

Justice Das in the same opinion, while noting that reliance was placed by learned counsel for the interveners on the judgment of the Federal Court in Jatindra Nath Gupta (supra), recorded that the learned Attorney General had strenuously challenged 

16 [1949-50] F.C.R. 595 

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the correctness of the decision of the majority of the Federal Court in that case. Inter-alia, observing that the reference was in a way occasioned by that decision, the learned Judge held as follows: 

“I feel bound to say, with the utmost humility and for reasons given already, that the observations of the majority of the Federal Court in that case went too far and, in agreement with the learned Attorney-General, I am unable to accept them as correct exposition of the principles relating to the delegation of legislative power.” 

  1. In this context, it would be beneficial to refer to Keshav Singh’s case. In the said case, a reference was made by the President which fundamentally pertained to the privileges of the Legislative Assembly and exercise of jurisdiction by a Bench of the High Court. The High Court entertained a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution, challenging the decision of the Assembly committing one Keshav Singh, who was not one of its members, to prison for its contempt. The issue was whether by entertaining the writ petition, the Judges of the High Court were in contempt of the Legislature for infringement of its privileges and immunities. For the 

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same, this Court proceeded to construe the relevant provisions contained in Article 194(3) and its harmonization with other Articles of the Constitution, especially Articles 19(1)(a), 21 & 22. In that context, the decision in Sharma(supra) came up for consideration. One of the questions that arose in Sharma’s case was the impact of Articles 19(1)(a) and 21 on the provisions contained in the latter part of Article 194(3). The majority view was that the privilege in question was subsisting at the relevant time and must, therefore, deemed to be included under the latter part of Article 194(3). It was held that Article 19(1)(a) did not apply under the rule of harmonious construction, where Article 19(1)(a) was in direct conflict with Article 194(3). The particular provision in the latter Article would prevail over the general provision contained in the former. It was further held that though Article 21 applied, it had not been contravened. The minority view, on the other hand, held that the privilege in question had not been established; even assuming the same was established and it was to be included in the latter part of Article 194(3), yet it must be 

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controlled by Article 19(1)(a) on the ground that Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution were of paramount importance and must prevail over a provision like the one contained in Article 194(3) which may be inconsistent with them. The majority decision also commented on the decision in Gunupati Keshavram Reddy Vs. Nafisul Hasan & the State of U.P.17 and observed that the said decision was based entirely on a concession and could not, therefore, be deemed to be a considered decision of this Court. 

  1. The decision in Keshavram Reddy (supra) dealt with the applicability of Article 22(2) to a case falling under the latter part of Article 194(3). It is worth noting that the minority opinion of Sharma treated Keshavram Reddy, as expressing a considered opinion, which was binding on the Court. In Keshav Singh it was opined that in Sharma’s case, the majority decision held in terms that Article 21 was applicable to the contents of Article 194(3), but on merits, it came to the conclusion that the alleged 

17 AIR 1954 SC 636 

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contravention had not been proved. Commenting on the minority view it was opined that it was unnecessary to consider whether Article 21 as such applied because the said view treated all the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Part III as paramount, and therefore, each one of them could control the provisions of Article 194(3). 

  1. At that juncture, the Bench stated that in the case of Sharma, contentions urged by the petitioner did not raise a general issue as to the relevance and applicability of all the fundamental rights guaranteed by Part III at all. The contravention of only two Articles was pleaded and they were Articles 19(1)(a) and 21. Strictly speaking, it was, therefore, unnecessary to consider the larger issue as to whether the latter part of Article 194(3) was subject to the fundamental rights in general, and indeed, even on the majority view it could not be said that the said view excluded the application of all fundamental rights, for the obvious and simple reason that Article 21 was held to be applicable and the merits of the petitioner’s arguments about its alleged contravention in his case were examined 

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and rejected. Therefore, it was not right to read the majority decision as laying down a general proposition that whenever there is a conflict between the provisions of the latter part of Article 194(3) and any of the provisions of the fundamental rights guaranteed by Part III, the latter must always yield to the former. It was further observed that the majority decision had incidentally commented on the decision in Keshavram Reddy’s case (supra). Apart from that there was no controversy about the applicability of Article 22 in that case, and, therefore, the comment made by the majority judgment on the earlier decision was partly not accurate. Their Lordships adverted to the facts in Sharma’s case wherein the majority judgment had observed that it “proceeded entirely on a concession of counsel and cannot be regarded as a considered opinion on the subject.” After so stating, the Bench opined thus: 

“…There is no doubt that the first part of this comment is not accurate. A concession was made by the Attorney-General not on a point of law which was decided by the Court, but on a point of fact; and so, this part of the comment cannot strictly be said to be justified. It is, however, true that there is no discussion about the merits of the contention raised on behalf of Mr. Mistry and to that extent, it may have been permissible to the majority judgment to say that 

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it was not a considered opinion of the Court. But, as we have already pointed out, it was hardly necessary for the majority decision to deal with the point pertaining to the applicability of Article 22(2), because that point did not arise in the proceedings before the Court in Pandit Sharma’s case. That is why we wish to make it clear that the obiter observations made in the majority judgment about the validity or correctness of the earlier decision of this Court in Gunupati Keshavram Reddy’s case should not be taken as having decided the point in question. In other words, the question as to whether Article 22(2) would apply to such a case may have to be considered by this Court if and when it becomes necessary to do so.” 

  1. From the aforesaid decision it is clear that while exercising jurisdiction under Article 143(1) of the Constitution this Court can look into an earlier decision for the purpose of whether the contentions urged in the previous decision did raise a general issue or not; whether it was necessary to consider the larger issue that did not arise; and whether a general proposition had been laid down. It has also been stated that where no controversy arose with regard to applicability of a particular facet of constitutional law, the comments made in a decision could be treated as not 

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accurate; and further it could be opined that in an earlier judgment there are certain obiter observations. 

  1. Thus, in Keshav Singh, a seven-Judge Bench, while entertaining a reference under Article 143(1), dealt with a previous decision in respect of its interpretation involving a constitutional principle in respect of certain Articles, and proceeded to opine that the view expressed in Sharma’s case, in relation to a proposition laid down in Keshavram Reddy’s case, was inaccurate. 
  2. At this stage, it is worthy to refer to Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association and Ors. Vs. Union of India18. J.S. Verma, J., (as his Lordship then was) speaking for the majority, apart from other conclusions relating to appointment of Judges and the Chief Justices, while dealing with transfer, expressed thus: 

18 (1993) 4 SCC 441 

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“(8) Consent of the transferred Judge/Chief Justice is not required for either the first or any subsequent transfer from one High Court to another. 

(9) Any transfer made on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India is not to be deemed to be punitive, and such transfer is not justiciable on any ground. 

(10) In making all appointments and transfers, the norms indicated must be followed. However, the same do not confer any justiciable right in anyone. 

(11) Only limited judicial review on the grounds specified earlier is available in matters of appointments and transfers.” 

As far as the ground of limited judicial review is concerned the majority opined thus: 

“481. These guidelines in the form of norms are not to be construed as conferring any justiciable right in the transferred Judge. Apart from the constitutional requirement of a transfer being made only on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India, the issue of transfer is not justiciable on any other ground, including the reasons for the transfer or their sufficiency. The opinion of the Chief Justice of India formed in the manner indicated is sufficient safeguard and protection against any arbitrariness or bias, as well as any erosion of the independence of the judiciary. 

  1. Except on the ground of want of consultation with the named constitutional functionaries or lack of any condition of eligibility in the case of an 

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appointment, or of a transfer being made without the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India, these matters are not justiciable on any other ground, including that of bias, which in any case is excluded by the element of plurality in the process of decision making.” 

  1. In Special Reference No. 1 of 1998, (commonly referred as the “Second Judges Case”), question No. 2 reads as follows: 

“(2) Whether the transfer of Judges is judicially reviewable in the light of the observation of the Supreme Court in the aforesaid judgment that ‘such transfer is not justiciable on any ground’ and its further observation that limited judicial review is available in matters of transfer, and the extent and scope of judicial review.” 

While answering the same, the Bench opined thus: 

“37. It is to our mind imperative, given the gravity involved in transferring High Court Judges, that the Chief Justice of India should obtain the views of the Chief Justice of the High Court from which the proposed transfer is to be effected as also the Chief Justice of the High Court to which the transfer is to be effected. This is in accord with the majority judgment in the Second Judges case which postulates consultation with the Chief Justice of another High Court. The Chief Justice of India should also take into account the views of one or more Supreme Court Judges who are in a position to provide material which would assist in the process of deciding whether or not a proposed transfer should take place. These views should be expressed in writing and should be considered by the Chief Justice of India and the four seniormost puisne Judges of the Supreme Court. 

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These views and those of each of the four seniormost puisne Judges should be conveyed to the Government of India along with the proposal of transfer. Unless the decision to transfer has been taken in the manner aforestated, it is not decisive and does not bind the Government of India.” 

In the conclusion their Lordships clearly state as follows: 

“1. The expression “consultation with the Chief Justice of India” in Articles 217(1) and 222(1) of the Constitution of India requires consultation with a plurality of Judges in the formation of the opinion of the Chief Justice of India. The sole individual opinion of the Chief Justice of India does not constitute “consultation” within the meaning of the said articles. 

  1. 2. The transfer of puisne Judges is judicially reviewable only to this extent: that the recommendation that has been made by the Chief Justice of India in this behalf has not been made in consultation with the four seniormost puisne Judges of the Supreme Court and/or that the views of the Chief Justice of the High Court from which the transfer is to be effected and of the Chief Justice of the High Court to which the transfer is to be effected have not been obtained.” 
  2. From the aforesaid, it is demonstrable that while entertaining the reference under Article 143(1), this Court had analysed the principles enunciated in the earlier judgment and also made certain modifications. The said modifications may be stated as one of the mode or method 

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of inclusion by way of modification without changing the ratio decidendi. For the purpose of validity of a reference, suffice it to say, dwelling upon an earlier judgment is permissible. That apart, one cannot be oblivious of the fact that the scope of limited judicial review, in the Second Judges Case, which otherwise is quite restricted, was slightly expanded in the Court’s opinion to the Presidential reference. 

  1. It is of some interest to note that almost every reference, filed under Article 143(1), has witnessed challenge as to its maintainability on one ground or the other, but all the same, the references have been answered, except in Dr. M. Ismail Faruqui & Ors. (supra), which was returned unanswered, mainly on the ground that the reference did not serve a constitutional purpose. 
  2. From the aforesaid analysis, it is quite vivid that this Court would respectfully decline to answer a reference if it is improper, inadvisable and undesirable; or the questions formulated have purely socio-economic or political reasons, which have no relation whatsoever with any of the 

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provisions of the Constitution or otherwise are of no constitutional significance; or are incapable of being answered; or would not subserve any purpose; or there is authoritative pronouncement of this Court which has already decided the question referred. 

  1. In the case at hand, it is to be scrutinized whether the 2G Case is a decision which has dealt with and decided the controversy encapsulated in question No. 1 or meets any of the criteria mentioned above. As we perceive, the question involves interpretation of a constitutional principle inherent under Article 14 of the Constitution and it is of great public importance as it deals with allocation/alienation/disposal/ distribution of natural resources. Besides, the question whether the 2G Case is on authoritative pronouncement in that regard, has to be looked into and only then an opinion can be expressed. For the said purpose all other impediments do not remotely come into play in the present Reference. 

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  1. We are, therefore, of the view that as long as the decision with respect to the allocation of spectrum licenses is untouched, this Court is within its jurisdiction to evaluate and clarify the ratio of the judgment in the 2G Case. For the purpose of this stage of argumentation, it needs little emphasis, that we have the jurisdiction to clarify the ratio of the judgment in 2G Case, irrespective of whether we actually choose to do so or not. Therefore, the fact that this Reference may require us to say something different to what has been enunciated in the 2G Case as a proposition of law, cannot strike at the root of the maintainability of the Reference. Consequently, we reject the preliminary objection and hold that this Reference is maintainable, notwithstanding its effect on the ratio of the 2G Case, as long as the decision in that case qua lis inter partes is left unaffected. 

 ON MERITS

  1. This leads us to the merits of the controversy disclosed in the questions framed in the Reference for our advisory opinion.  

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  1. As already pointed out, the judgment in the 2G Case triggered doubts about the validity of methods other than ‘auction’ for disposal of natural resources which, ultimately led to the filing of the present Reference. Therefore, before we proceed to answer question No.1, it is imperative to understand what has been precisely stated in the 2G Case and decipher the law declared in that case. 
  2. All the counsel agreed that paragraphs 94 to 96 in the said decision are the repository of the ratio vis-à-vis disposal of natural resources in the 2G Case. On the one hand it was argued that these paragraphs lay down, as a proposition of law, that all natural resources across all sectors, and in all circumstances are to be disposed of by way of public auction, and on the other, it was urged that the observations therein were made only qua spectrum. Before examining the strength of the rival stands, we may briefly recapitulate the principles that govern the determination of the ‘law declared’ by a judgment and its true ratio. 

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  1. Article 141 of the Constitution lays down that the ‘law declared’ by the Supreme Court is binding upon all the courts within the territory of India. The ‘law declared’ has to be construed as a principle of law that emanates from a judgment, or an interpretation of a law or judgment by the Supreme Court, upon which, the case is decided. [See: Fida Hussain & Ors. Vs. Moradabad Development Authority & Anr.19]. Hence, it flows from the above that the ‘law declared’ is the principle culled out on the reading of a judgment as a whole in light of the questions raised, upon which the case is decided. [Also see: Ambica Quarry Works Vs. State of Gujarat & Ors.20 and Commissioner of Income Tax Vs. Sun Engineering Works (P) Ltd.21]. In other words, the ‘law declared’ in a judgment, which is binding upon courts, is the ratio decidendi of the judgment. It is the essence of a decision and the principle upon which, the case is decided, which has to be ascertained in relation to the subject-matter of the decision. 

19 (2011) 12 SCC 615 

20 (1987) 1 SCC 213 

21 (1992) 4 SCC 363 

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  1. Each case entails a different set of facts and a decision is a precedent on its own facts; not everything said by a Judge while giving a judgment can be ascribed precedental value. The essence of a decision that binds the parties to the case is the principle upon which the case is decided and for this reason, it is important to analyse a decision and cull out from it, the ratio decidendi. In the matter of applying precedents, the erudite Justice Benjamin Cardozo in “The Nature of a Judicial Process”, had said that “if the judge is to pronounce it wisely, some principles of selection there must be to guide him along all potential judgments that compete for recognition” and “almost invariably his first step is to examine and compare them;” “it is a process of search, comparison and little more” and ought not to be akin to matching “the colors of the case at hand against the colors of many sample cases” because in that case “the man who had the best card index of the cases would also be the wisest judge”. Warning against comparing precedents with matching colours of one case with another, he summarized the process, in case the colours don’t match, in the following wise words:- 

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“It is when the colors do not match, when the references in the index fail, when there is no decisive precedent, that the serious business of the judge begins. He must then fashion law for the litigants before him. In fashioning it for them, he will be fashioning it for others. The classic statement is Bacon’s: “For many times, the things deduced to judgment may be meum and tuum, when the reason and consequence thereof may trench to point of estate. The sentence of today will make the right and wrong of tomorrow.” 

  1. With reference to the precedential value of decisions, in State of Orissa & Ors. Vs. Md. Illiyas22 this Court observed: 

“…According to the well-settled theory of precedents, every decision contains three basic postulates: (i) findings of material facts, direct and inferential. An inferential finding of facts is the inference which the Judge draws from the direct, or perceptible facts; (ii) statements of the principles of law applicable to the legal problems disclosed by the facts; and (iii) judgment based on the combined effect of the above. A decision is an authority for what it actually decides. What is of the essence in a decision is its ratio and not every observation found therein nor what logically flows from the various observations made in the judgment…”  

  1. Recently, in Union of India Vs. Amrit Lal Manchanda & Anr.23, this Court has observed as follows: 

22 (2006) 1 SCC 275 

23 (2004) 3 SCC 75 

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“…Observations of courts are neither to be read as Euclid’s theorems nor as provisions of the statute and that too taken out of their context. These observations must be read in the context in which they appear to have been stated. Judgments of courts are not to be construed as statutes. To interpret words, phrases and provisions of a statute, it may become necessary for Judges to embark into lengthy discussions but the discussion is meant to explain and not to define. Judges interpret statutes, they do not interpret judgments. They interpret words of statutes; their words are not to be interpreted as statutes.” 

  1. It is also important to read a judgment as a whole keeping in mind that it is not an abstract academic discourse with universal applicability, but heavily grounded in the facts and circumstances of the case. Every part of a judgment is intricately linked to others constituting a larger whole and thus, must be read keeping the logical thread intact. In this regard, in Islamic Academy of Education & Anr. Vs. State of Karnataka & Ors.24, the Court made the following observations: 

“The ratio decidendi of a judgment has to be found out only on reading the entire judgment. In fact, the ratio of the judgment is what is set out in the judgment itself. The answer to the question would necessarily have to be read in the context of what is set out in the judgment and not in isolation. In case of any doubt as regards any observations, reasons and 

24 (2003) 6 SCC 697 

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principles, the other part of the judgment has to be looked into. By reading a line here and there from the judgment, one cannot find out the entire ratio decidendi of the judgment.” 

  1. The ratio of the 2G Case must, therefore, be understood and appreciated in light of the above guiding principles. 
  2. In the 2G Case, the Bench framed five questions. Questions No. (ii) and (v) pertain to the factual matrix and are not relevant for settling the controversy at hand. The remaining three questions are reproduced below: 

“(i) Whether the Government has the right to alienate, transfer or distribute natural resources/national assets otherwise than by following a fair and transparent method consistent with the fundamentals of the equality clause enshrined in the Constitution? 

(iii) Whether the exercise undertaken by DoT from September 2007 to March 2008 for grant of UAS licences to the private respondents in terms of the recommendations made by TRAI is vitiated due to arbitrariness and mala fides and is contrary to public interest? 

(iv) Whether the policy of first-come-first-served followed by DoT for grant of licences is ultra vires the provisions of Article 14 of the Constitution and whether the said policy was arbitrarily changed by the Minister of Communications and Information Technology (hereinafter referred to as “the Minister of 

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Communications and Information Technology”), without consulting TRAI, with a view to favour some of the applicants?” 

  1. While dealing with question No.(i), the Court observed that the State is empowered to distribute natural resources as they constitute public property/national assets. Thereafter, the Bench observed as follows: 

“75.…while distributing natural resources the State is bound to act in consonance with the principles of equality and public trust and ensure that no action is taken which may be detrimental to public interest. Like any other State action, constitutionalism must be reflected at every stage of the distribution of natural resources. In Article 39(b) of the Constitution it has been provided that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community should be so distributed so as to best subserve the common good, but no comprehensive legislation has been enacted to generally define natural resources and a framework for their protection…” 

  1. The learned Judges adverted to the ‘public trust doctrine’ as enunciated in The Illinois Central Railroad Co. Vs. The People of the State of Illinois25; M.C. Mehta Vs. Kamal Nath & Ors.26; Jamshed Hormusji Wadia Vs. Board of Trustees, Port of Mumbai & Anr.27; Intellectuals Forum, Tirupathi Vs. State of A.P. & Ors.28; Fomento Resorts And Hotels Limited & Anr. 

25 36 L ED 1018 : 146 U.S. 387 (1892) 

26 (1997) 1 SCC 388 

27 (2004) 3 SCC 214 

28 (2006) 3 SCC 549 

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Vs. Minguel Martins & Ors.29 and Reliance Natural Resources Limited Vs. Reliance Industries Limited30 and held: 

“85. As natural resources are public goods, the doctrine of equality, which emerges from the concepts of justice and fairness, must guide the State in determining the actual mechanism for distribution of natural resources. In this regard, the doctrine of equality has two aspects: first, it regulates the rights and obligations of the State vis-à-vis its people and demands that the people be granted equitable access to natural resources and/or its products and that they are adequately compensated for the transfer of the resource to the private domain; and second, it regulates the rights and obligations of the State vis-à vis private parties seeking to acquire/use the resource and demands that the procedure adopted for distribution is just, non-arbitrary and transparent and that it does not discriminate between similarly placed private parties.” 

Referring to the decisions of this Court in Akhil Bhartiya Upbhokta Congress Vs. State of Madhya Pradesh & Ors.31 and Sachidanand Pandey & Anr. Vs. State of West Bengal & Ors.32, the Bench ultimately concluded thus: 

“89. In conclusion, we hold that the State is the legal owner of the natural resources as a trustee of the people and although it is empowered to distribute the same, the process of distribution must be guided by the constitutional principles including the doctrine of equality and larger public good.” 

29 (2009) 3 SCC 571 

30 (2010) 7 SCC 1 

31 (2011) 5 SCC 29 

32 (1987) 2 SCC 295 

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  1. On a reading of the above paragraphs, it can be noticed that the doctrine of equality; larger public good, adoption of a transparent and fair method, opportunity of competition; and avoidance of any occasion to scuttle the claim of similarly situated applicants were emphasised upon. While dealing with alienation of natural resources like spectrum, it was stated that it is the duty of the State to ensure that a non-discriminatory method is adopted for distribution and alienation which would necessarily result in the protection of national/public interest. 
  2. Paragraphs 85 and 89, while referring to the concept of ‘public trust doctrine’, lay emphasis on the doctrine of equality, which has been segregated into two parts – one is the substantive part and the other is the regulatory part. In the regulatory facet, paragraph 85 states that the procedure adopted for distribution should be just and non arbitrary and must be guided by constitutional principles including the doctrine of equality and larger public good. Similarly, in paragraph 89 stress has been laid on transparency and fair opportunity of competition. It is 

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further reiterated that the burden of the State is to ensure that a non-discriminatory method is adopted for distribution and alienation which would necessarily result in the protection of national and public interest. 

  1. Dealing with Questions No.(iii) and (iv) in paragraphs 94 to 96 of the judgment, the Court opined as follows: 

“94. There is a fundamental flaw in the first-come first-served policy inasmuch as it involves an element of pure chance or accident. In matters involving award of contracts or grant of licence or permission to use public property, the invocation of first-come-first served policy has inherently dangerous implications. Any person who has access to the power corridor at the highest or the lowest level may be able to obtain information from the government files or the files of the agency/instrumentality of the State that a particular public property or asset is likely to be disposed of or a contract is likely to be awarded or a licence or permission is likely to be given, he would immediately make an application and would become entitled to stand first in the queue at the cost of all others who may have a better claim. 

  1. This Court has repeatedly held that wherever a contract is to be awarded or a licence is to be given, the public authority must adopt a transparent and fair method for making selections so that all eligible persons get a fair opportunity of competition. To put it differently, the State and its agencies/ instrumentalities must always adopt a rational method for disposal of public property and no attempt should be made to scuttle the claim of worthy applicants. When it comes to alienation of scarce natural resources like spectrum, etc. it is the burden of the State to ensure that a non-discriminatory method is adopted for distribution and alienation, 

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which would necessarily result in protection of national/public interest. 

  1. In our view, a duly publicised auction conducted fairly and impartially is perhaps the best method for discharging this burden and the methods like first come-first-served when used for alienation of natural resources/public property are likely to be misused by unscrupulous people who are only interested in garnering maximum financial benefit and have no respect for the constitutional ethos and values. In other words, while transferring or alienating the natural resources, the State is duty-bound to adopt the method of auction by giving wide publicity so that all eligible persons can participate in the process.” 
  2. Our reading of these paragraphs suggests that the Court was not considering the case of auction in general, but specifically evaluating the validity of those methods adopted in the distribution of spectrum from September 2007 to March 2008. It is also pertinent to note that reference to auction is made in the subsequent paragraph (96) with the rider ‘perhaps’. It has been observed that “a duly publicized auction conducted fairly and impartially is perhaps the best method for discharging this burden.” We are conscious that a judgment is not to be read as a statute, but at the same time, we cannot be oblivious to the fact that when it is argued with vehemence that the 

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judgment lays down auction as a constitutional principle, the word “perhaps” gains significance. This suggests that the recommendation of auction for alienation of natural resources was never intended to be taken as an absolute or blanket statement applicable across all natural resources, but simply a conclusion made at first blush over the attractiveness of a method like auction in disposal of natural resources. The choice of the word ‘perhaps’ suggests that the learned Judges considered situations requiring a method other than auction as conceivable and desirable. 

  1. Further, the final conclusions summarized in paragraph 102 of the judgment (SCC) make no mention about auction being the only permissible and intra vires method for disposal of natural resources; the findings are limited to the case of spectrum. In case the Court had actually enunciated, as a proposition of law, that auction is the only permissible method or mode for alienation/allotment of natural resources, the same would have found a mention in the summary at the end of the judgment. 

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  1. Moreover, if the judgment is to be read as holding auction as the only permissible means of disposal of all natural resources, it would lead to the quashing of a large number of laws that prescribe methods other than auction, e.g., the MMRD Act. While dealing with the merits of the Reference, at a later stage, we will discuss whether or not auction can be a constitutional mandate under Article 14 of the Constitution, but for the present, it would suffice to say that no court would ever implicitly, indirectly, or by inference, hold a range of laws as ultra vires the Constitution, without allowing every law to be tested on its merits. One of the most profound tenets of constitutionalism is the presumption of constitutionality assigned to each legislation enacted. We find that the 2G Case does not even consider a plethora of laws and judgments that prescribe methods, other than auction, for dispensation of natural resources; something that it would have done, in case, it intended to make an assertion as wide as applying auction to all natural resources. Therefore, we are convinced that the observations in Paras 

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