Bare Act

THE TRADE MARKS ACT, 1999 

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ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS 

Last Updated: 17-9-2021 

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CHAPTER I 

PRELIMINARY 

SECTIONS 

  1. Short title, extent and commencement. 
  2. Definitions and interpretation. 

CHAPTER II 

THE REGISTER AND CONDITIONS FOR REGISTRATION 

  1. Appointment of Registrar and other officers. 
  2. Power of Registrar to withdraw or transfer cases, etc. 
  3. Trade Marks Registry and offices thereof. 
  4. The Register of Trade Marks. 
  5. Classification of goods and services. 
  6. Publication of alphabetical index. 
  7. Absolute grounds for refusal of registration. 
  8. Limitation as to colour. 
  9. Relative grounds for refusal of registration. 
  10. Registration in the case of honest concurrent use, etc. 
  11. Prohibition of registration of names of chemical elements or international non-proprietary names. 14. Use of names and representations of living persons or persons recently dead. 15. Registration of parts of trade marks and of trade marks as a series. 
  12. Registration of trade marks as associated trade marks. 
  13. Effect of registration of parts of a mark. 

CHAPTER III 

PROCEDURE FOR AND DURATION OF REGISTRATION 

  1. Application for registration. 
  2. Withdrawal of acceptance. 
  3. Advertisement of application. 
  4. Opposition to registration. 
  5. Correction and amendment. 
  6. Registration. 
  7. Jointly owned trade marks. 
  8. Duration, renewal, removal and restoration of registration. 
  9. Effect of removal from register for failure to pay fee for renewal. 

CHAPTER IV 

EFFECT OF REGISTRATION 

  1. No action for infringement of unregistered trade mark. 
  2. Rights conferred by registration. 
  3. Infringement of registered trade marks. 
  4. Limits on effect of registered trade mark. 
  5. Registration to be prima facie evidence of validity. 
  6. Protection of registration on ground of distinctiveness in certain cases. 
  7. Effect of acquiescence.

SECTIONS 

  1. Saving for vested rights. 
  2. Saving for use of name, address or description of goods or services. 
  3. Saving for words used as name or description of an article or substance or service. 

CHAPTER IVA 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROTECTION OF TRADE MARKS THROUGH INTERNATIONAL  REGISTRATION UNDER THE MADRID PROTOCOL 

36A. Application of Act in case of international registration under Madrid Protocol. 36B. Definitions. 

36C. Trade Marks Registry to deal with international applications. 

36D. International application originating from India. 

36E. International registrations where India has been designated. 

36F. Effects of international registration. 

36G. Duration and renewal of international registration. 

CHAPTER V 

ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSMISSION 

  1. Power of registered proprietor to assign and give receipts. 
  2. Assignability and transmissibility of registered trade marks. 
  3. Assignability and transmissibility of unregistered trade marks. 
  4. Restriction on assignment or transmission where multiple exclusive rights would be created. 41. Restriction on assignment or transmission when exclusive rights would be created in different  parts of India. 
  5. Conditions for assignment otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of a business. 43. Assignability and transmissibility of certification trade marks. 
  6. Assignability and transmissibility of associated trade marks. 
  7. Registration of assignments and transmissions. 

CHAPTER VI 

USE OF TRADE MARKS AND REGISTERED USERS 

  1. Proposed use of trade mark by company to be formed, etc.  
  2. Removal from register and imposition of limitations on ground of non-use.  
  3. Registered users.  
  4. Registration as registered user.  
  5. Power of Registrar for variation or cancellation of registration as registered user.  51. Power of Registrar to call for information relating to agreement in respect of registered users.  52. Right of registered user to take proceedings against infringement.  
  6. No right of permitted user to take proceeding against infringement.  
  7. Registered user not to have right of assignment or transmission. 
  8. Use of one of associated or substantially identical trade marks equivalent to use of another.  56. Use of trade mark for export trade and use when form of trade connection changes.  

CHAPTER VII 

RECTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF THE REGISTER 

  1. Power to cancel or vary registration and to rectify the register. 
  2. Correction of register. 
  3. Alteration of registered trade marks. 
  4. Adaptation of entries in register to amended or substituted classification of goods or services.

CHAPTER VIII 

COLLECTIVE MARKS 

SECTIONS 

  1. Special provisions for collective marks. 
  2. Collective mark not to be misleading as to character or significance. 63. Application to be accompanied by regulations governing use of collective marks. 64. Acceptance of application and regulations by Registrar. 
  3. Regulations to be open to inspection. 
  4. Amendment of regulations. 
  5. Infringement proceedings by registered proprietor of collective mark. 68. Additional grounds for removal of registration of collective mark. 

CHAPTER IX 

CERTIFICATION TRADE MARKS 

  1. Certain provisions of this Act not applicable to certification trade marks. 70. Registration of certification trade marks. 
  2. Applications for registration of certification trade marks. 
  3. Consideration of application for registration by Registrar. 
  4. Opposition to registration of certification trade marks. 
  5. Filing of regulations governing use of a certification trade mark. 75. Infringement of certification trade marks. 
  6. Acts not constituting infringement of certification trade marks. 
  7. Cancellation or varying of registration of certification trade marks. 78. Rights conferred by registration of certification trade marks. 

CHAPTER X. —SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR TEXTILE GOODS. [Omitted

  1. [Omitted.] 
  2. [Omitted.
  3. [Omitted.] 
  4. [Omitted.] 

CHAPTER XI 

APPEALS 

  1. [Omitted.] 
  2. [Omitted.] 
  3. [Omitted.] 
  4. [Omitted.] 
  5. [Omitted.] 
  6. [Omitted.] 
  7. [Omitted.] 

89A. [Omitted.] 

  1. [Omitted.] 
  2. Appeals to High Court. 
  3. [Omitted.] 
  4. [Omitted.]

SECTIONS 

  1. Bar to appear before Registrar. 
  2. [Omitted.] 
  3. [Omitted.] 
  4. Procedure for application for rectification, etc., before High Court. 
  5. Appearance of Registrar in legal proceedings. 
  6. [Omitted.] 
  7. [Omitted.] 

CHAPTER XII 

OFFENCES, PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE 

  1. Meaning of applying trade marks and trade descriptions. 
  2. Falsifying and falsely applying trade marks. 
  3. Penalty for applying false trade marks, trade descriptions, etc. 
  4. Penalty for selling goods or providing services to which false trade mark or false trade  description is applied. 
  5. Enhanced penalty on second or subsequent conviction. 
  6. Penalty for removing piece goods, etc., contrary to section 81. 
  7. Penalty for falsely representing a trade mark as registered. 
  8. Penalty for improperly describing a place of business as connected with the Trade Marks Office. 109. Penalty for falsification of entries in the register. 
  9. No offence in certain cases. 
  10. Forfeiture of goods. 
  11. Exemption of certain persons employed in ordinary course of business. 
  12. Procedure where invalidity of registration is pleaded by the accused. 
  13. Offences by companies. 
  14. Cognizance of certain offences and the powers of police officer for search and seizure. 116. Evidence of origin of goods imported by sea. 
  15. Costs of defence or prosecution. 
  16. Limitation of prosecution. 
  17. Information as to commission of offence. 
  18. Punishment of abetment in India of acts done out of India. 
  19. Instructions of Central Government as to permissible variation to be observed by criminal  courts. 

CHAPTER XIII 

MISCELLANEOUS 

  1. Protection of action taken in good faith. 
  2. Certain persons to be public servants. 
  3. Stay of proceedings where the validity of registration of the trade mark is questioned, etc. 125. Application for rectification of register to be made to High Court in certain cases. 126. Implied warranty on sale of marked goods. 
  4. Powers of Registrar. 
  5. Exercise of discretionary power by Registrar. 
  6. Evidence before Registrar. 
  7. Death of party to a proceeding. 
  8. Extension of time. 
  9. Abandonment. 
  10. Preliminary advice by the Registrar as to distinctiveness. 
  11. Suit for infringement, etc., to be instituted before District Court. 
  12. Relief in suits for infringement or for passing off. 
  13. Registered user to be impleaded in certain proceedings.

SECTIONS 

  1. Evidence of entries in register, etc., and things done by the Registrar. 
  2. Registrar and other officers not compellable to produce register, etc. 
  3. Power to require goods to show indication of origin. 
  4. Power to require information of imported goods bearing false trade marks. 141. Certificate of validity. 
  5. Groundless threats of legal proceedings. 
  6. Address for service. 
  7. Trade usages, etc., to be taken into consideration. 
  8. Agents. 
  9. Marks registered by an agent or representative without authority. 
  10. Indexes. 
  11. Documents open to public inspection. 
  12. Reports of Registrar to be placed before Parliament. 
  13. Fees and surcharge. 
  14. Savings in respect of certain matters in Chapter XII. 
  15. Declaration as to ownership of trade mark not registrable under the Registration Act, 1908. 153. Government to be bound. 
  16. Special provisions relating to applications for registration from citizens of convention countries. 155. Provision as to reciprocity. 
  17. Power of Central Government to remove difficulties. 
  18. Power to make rules. 
  19. Amendments. 
  20. Repeal and savings. 

THE SCHEDULE.

THE TRADE MARKS ACT, 1999 

ACT NO. 47 OF 1999 

[30th December, 1999.] 

An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to trade marks, to provide for registration and  better protection of trade marks for goods and services and for the prevention of the use of  fraudulent marks. 

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fiftieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:CHAPTER I 

PRELIMINARY  

  1. Short title, extent and commencement.(1) This Act may be called the Trade Marks Act, 1999. (2) It extends to the whole of India. 

(3) It shall come into force on such date1as the Central Government may, by notification in the  Official Gazette, appoint: 

Provided that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference  in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming  into force of that provision. 

  1. Definitions and interpretation.(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,2* * * * * (b) “assignment” means an assignment in writing by act of the parties concerned; 

(c) “associated trade marks” means trade marks deemed to be, or required to be, registered as  associated trade marks under this Act; 

2* * * * * 

(e) “certification trade mark” means a mark capable of distinguishing the goods or services in  connection with which it is used in the course of trade which are certified by the proprietor of the  mark in respect of origin, material, mode of manufacture of goods or performance of services, quality,  accuracy or other characteristics from goods or services not so certified and registrable as such under  Chapter IX in respect of those goods or services in the name, as proprietor of the certification trade  mark, of that person; 

2* * * * * 

(g) “collective mark” means a trade mark distinguishing the goods or services of members of an  association of persons (not being a partnership within the meaning of the Indian Partnership  Act, 1932 (9 of 1932) which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others; 

(h) “deceptively similar”.A mark shall be deemed to be deceptively similar to another mark if  it so nearly resembles that other mark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion; 

(i) “false trade description” means— 

(I) a trade description which is untrue or misleading in a material respect as regards the goods  or services to which it is applied; or 

(II) any alteration of a trade description as regards the goods or services to which it is applied,  whether by way of addition, effacement or otherwise, where that alteration makes the description  untrue or misleading in a material respect; or 

  

  1. 15th September, 2003, vide notification No. S.O. 1048(E), dated 15th September, 2003, see Gazette of India, Extraordinary,  Part II, sec. 3(ii). 
  2. Clauses (a), (d) and (f) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

(III) any trade description which denotes or implies that there are contained, as regards the  goods to which it is applied, more yards or metres than there are contained therein standard yards  or standard metres; or 

(IV) any marks or arrangement or combination thereof when applied— 

(a) to goods in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the goods are  the manufacture or merchandise of some person other than the person whose merchandise or  manufacture they really are; 

(b) in relation to services in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that  the services are provided or rendered by some person other than the person whose services  they really are; or 

(V) any false name or initials of a person applied to goods or services in such manner as if  such name or initials were a trade description in any case where the name or initials— 

(a) is or are not a trade mark or part of a trade mark; and 

(b) is or are identical with or deceptively similar to the name or initials of a person  carrying on business in connection with goods or services of the same description or both and  who has not authorised the use of such name or initials; and 

(c) is or are either the name or initials of a fictitious person or some person not bona fide carrying on business in connection with such goods or services, 

and the fact that a trade description is a trade mark or part of a trade mark shall not prevent such  trade description being a false trade description within the meaning of this Act; 

(j) “goods” means anything which is the subject of trade or manufacture; 

1* * * * * 

(l) “limitations” (with its grammatical variations) means any limitation of the exclusive right to  the use of a trade mark given by the registration of a person as proprietor thereof, including  limitations of that right as to mode or area of use within India or outside India; 

(m) “mark” includes a device, brand, heading, label, ticket, name, signature, word, letter,  numeral, shape of goods, packaging or combination of colours or any combination thereof; 

1* * * * * 

(o) “name” includes any abbreviation of a name; 

(p) “notify” means to notify in the Trade Mark Journal published by the Registrar; 

(q) “package” includes any case, box, container, covering, folder, receptacle, vessel, casket,  bottle, wrapper, label, band, ticket, reel, frame, capsule, cap, lid, stopper and cork; 

(r) “permitted use”, in relation to a registered trade mark, means the use of trade mark(i) by a registered user of the trade mark in relation to goods or services— 

(a) with which he is connected in the course of trade; and 

(b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being; and 

(c) for which he is registered as registered user; and 

(d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which the registration of registered user is subject; or 

(ii) by a person other than the registered proprietor and registered user in relation to goods or  services— 

(a) with which he is connected in the course of trade; and 

  

  1. Clauses (k) and (n) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

(b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being; and 

(c) by consent of such registered proprietor in a written agreement; and 

(d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which such user is subject and to  which the registration of the trade mark is subject; 

1[(s) “prescribed” means,— 

(i) in relation to proceedings before a High Court, prescribed by rules made by the High  Court; and 

(ii) in other cases, prescribed by rules made under this Act;] 

(t) “register” means the Register of Trade Marks referred to in sub-section (1) of section 6; (u) “registered” (with its grammatical variations) means registered under this Act; 

(v) “registered proprietor”, in relation to a trade mark, means the person for the time being  entered in the register as proprietor of the trade mark; 

(w) “registered trade mark” means a trade mark which is actually on the register and remaining in  force; 

(x) “registered user” means a person who is for the time being registered as such under  section 49; 

(y) “Registrar” means the Registrar of Trade Marks referred to in section 3; 

(z) “Service” means service of any description which is made available to potential users and  includes the provision of services in connection with business of any industrial or commercial matters  such as banking, communication, education, financing, insurance, chit funds, real estate, transport,  storage, material treatment, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, boarding, lodging,  entertainment, amusement, construction, repair, conveying of news or information and advertising; 

(za) “trade description” means any description, statement or other indication, direct or indirect,(i) as to the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of any goods; or 

(ii) as to the standard of quality of any goods or services according to a classification  commonly used or recognised in the trade; or 

(iii) as to fitness for the purpose, strength, performance or behaviour of any goods, being  “drug” as defined in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (23 of 1940), or “food” as defined in the  Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954); or 

(iv) as to the place or country in which or the time at which any goods or services were made,  produced or provided, as the case may be; or 

(v) as to the name and address or other indication of the identity of the manufacturer or of the  person providing the services or of the person for whom the goods are manufactured or services  are provided; or 

(vi) as to the mode of manufacture or producing any goods or providing services; or (vii) as to the material of which any goods are composed; or 

(viii) as to any goods being the subject of an existing patent, privilege or copyright, and includes— 

(a) any description as to the use of any mark which according to the custom of the trade is  commonly taken to be an indication of any of the above matters; 

(b) the description as to any imported goods contained in any bill of entry or shipping bill; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for clause (s) (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

(c) any other description which is likely to be misunderstood or mistaken for all or any of the  said matters; 

(zb) “trade mark” means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of  distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others and may include shape of  goods, their packaging and combination of colours; and— 

(i) in relation to Chapter XII (other than section 107), a registered trade mark or a mark used  in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in  the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the  right as proprietor to use the mark; and 

(ii) in relation to other provisions of this Act, a mark used or proposed to be used in relation  to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of  trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right, either  as proprietor or by way of permitted user, to use the mark whether with or without any indication  of the identity of that person, and includes a certification trade mark or collective mark; 

(zc) “transmission” means transmission by operation of law, devolution on the personal  representative of a deceased person and any other mode of transfer, not being assignment; 

(zd) “Technical Member” means a Member who is not a Judicial Member; 

1* * * * * 

(zg) “well known trade mark”, in relation to any goods or services, means a mark which has  become so to the substantial segment of the public which uses such goods or receives such services  that the use of such mark in relation to other goods or services would be likely to be taken as  indicating a connection in the course of trade or rendering of services between those goods or services  and a person using the mark in relation to the first-mentioned goods or services. 

(2) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference— 

(a) to “trade mark” shall include reference to “collective mark” or “certification trade mark”; 

(b) to the use of a mark shall be construed as a reference to the use of printed or other visual  representation of the mark; 

(c) to the use of a mark,— 

(i) in relation to goods, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark upon, or in  any physical or in any other relation whatsoever, to such goods; 

(ii) in relation to services, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark as or as part  of any statement about the availability, provision or performance of such services; 

(d) to the Registrar shall be construed as including a reference to any officer when discharging the  functions of the Registrar in pursuance of sub-section (2) of section 3; 

(e) to the Trade Marks Registry shall be construed as including a reference to any office of the  Trade Marks Registry. 

(3) For the purposes of this Act, goods and services are associated with each other if it is likely that  those goods might be sold or otherwise traded in and those services might be provided by the same  business and so with descriptions of goods and descriptions of services. 

(4) For the purposes of this Act, “existing registered trade mark” means a trade mark registered under  the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) immediately before the commencement of this  Act. 

  

  1. Clauses (ze) and (zf) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

CHAPTER II 

THE REGISTER AND CONDITIONS FOR REGISTRATION 

  1. Appointment of Registrar and other officers.(1) The Central Government may, by  notification in the Official Gazette, appoint a person to be known as the Controller-General of Patents,  Designs and Trade Marks, who shall be the Registrar of Trade Marks for the purposes of this Act. 

(2) The Central Government may appoint such other officers with such designations as it thinks fit for  the purpose of discharging, under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar, such functions of the  Registrar under this Act as he may from time to time authorise them to discharge. 

  1. Power of Registrar to withdraw or transfer cases, etc.Without prejudice to the generality of  the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 3, the Registrar may, by order in writing and for reasons to be  recorded therein, withdraw any matter pending before an officer appointed under the said sub-section (2)  and deal with such matter himself either de novo or from the stage it was so withdrawn or transfer the  same to another officer so appointed who may, subject to special directions in the order of transfer,  proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred. 
  2. Trade Marks Registry and offices thereof.(1) For the purposes of this Act, there shall be a  trade marks registry and the Trade Marks Registry established under the Trade and Merchandise Marks  Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) shall be the Trade Marks Registry under this Act. 

(2) The head office of the Trade Marks Registry shall be at such place as the Central Government  may specify, and for the purpose of facilitating the registration of trade marks, there may be established at  such places as the Central Government may think fit branch offices of the Trade Marks Registry. 

(3) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, define the territorial limits  within which an office of the Trade Marks Registry may exercise its functions. 

(4) There shall be a seal of the Trade Marks Registry. 

  1. The Register of Trade Marks.(1) For the purposes of this Act, a record called the Register of  Trade Marks shall be kept at the head office of the Trade Marks Registry, wherein shall be entered all  registered trade marks with the names, addresses and description of the proprietors, notifications of  assignment and transmissions, the names, addresses and descriptions of registered users, conditions,  limitations and such other matter relating to registered trade marks as may be prescribed. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Registrar to keep  the records wholly or partly in computer floppies diskettes or in any other electronic form subject to such  safeguards as may be prescribed. 

(3) Where such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer under sub-section (2) any  reference in this Act to entry in the Register shall be construed as the reference to any entry as maintained  on computer or in any other electronic form. 

(4) No notice of any trust, express or implied or constructive, shall be entered in the register and no  such notice shall be receivable by the Registrar. 

(5) The register shall be kept under the control and management of the Registrar. 

(6) There shall be kept at each branch office of the Trade Marks Registry a copy of the register and  such of the other documents mentioned in section 148 as the Central Government may, by notification in  the Official Gazette, direct. 

(7) The Register of Trade Marks, both Part A and Part B, existing at the commencement of this Act,  shall be incorporated in and form part of the register under this Act. 

  1. Classification of goods and services.(1) The Registrar shall classify goods and services, as far  as may be, in accordance with the International classification of goods and services for the purposes of  registration of trade marks. 

(2) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services falls shall be determined  by the Registrar whose decision shall be final.

10 

  1. Publication of alphabetical index.(1) The Registrar may publish in the prescribed manner an  alphabetical index of classification of goods and services referred to in section 7. 

(2) Where any goods or services are not specified in the alphabetical index of goods and services  published under sub-section (1), the classification of goods or services shall be determined by the  Registrar in accordance with sub-section (2) of section 7. 

  1. Absolute grounds for refusal of registration.(1) The trade marks— 

(a) which are devoid of any distinctive character, that is to say, not capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of another person; 

(b) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which may serve in trade to designate the  kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical origin or the time of production of the  goods or rendering of the service or other characteristics of the goods or service; 

(c) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which have become customary in the  current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade, 

shall not be registered: 

Provided that a trade mark shall not be refused registration if before the date of application for  registration it has acquired a distinctive character as a result of the use made of it or is a well-known trade  mark. 

(2) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if— 

(a) it is of such nature as to deceive the public or cause confusion; 

(b) it contains or comprises of any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class  or section of the citizens of India; 

(c) it comprises or contains scandalous or obscene matter; 

(d) its use is prohibited under the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (12 of 1950). 

(3) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if it consists exclusively of— 

(a) the shape of goods which results from the nature of the goods themselves; or 

(b) the shape of goods which is necessary to obtain a technical result; or 

(c) the shape which gives substantial value to the goods. 

Explanation.For the purposes of this section, the nature of goods or services in relation to which  the trade mark is used or proposed to be used shall not be a ground for refusal of registration. 

  1. Limitation as to colour.(1) A trade mark may be limited wholly or in part to any combination  of colours and any such limitation shall be taken into consideration by the 1[Registrar or the High Court,  as the case may be] having to decide on the distinctive character of the trade mark. 

(2) So far as a trade mark is registered without limitation of colour, it shall be deemed to be registered  for all colours. 

  1. Relative grounds for refusal of registration.(1) Save as provided in section 12, a trade mark  shall not be registered if, because of— 

(a) its identity with an earlier trade mark and similarity of goods or services covered by the trade  mark; or 

(b) its similarity to an earlier trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services  covered by the trade mark, 

there exists a likelihood of confusion on the part of the public, which includes the likelihood of  association with the earlier trade mark. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

11 

(2) A trade mark which— 

(a) is identical with or similar to an earlier trade mark; and 

(b) is to be registered for goods or services which are not similar to those for which the earlier  trade mark is registered in the name of a different proprietor, 

shall not be registered if or to the extent the earlier trade mark is a well-known trade mark in India and the  use of the later mark without due cause would take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive  character or repute of the earlier trade mark. 

(3) A trade mark shall not be registered if, or to the extent that, its use in India is liable to be  prevented— 

(a) by virtue of any law in particular the law of passing off protecting an unregistered trade mark  used in the course of trade; or 

(b) by virtue of law of copyright. 

(4) Nothing in this section shall prevent the registration of a trade mark where the proprietor of the  earlier trade mark or other earlier right consents to the registration, and in such case the Registrar may  register the mark under special circumstances under section 12. 

Explanation.For the purposes of this section, earlier trade mark means— 

1[(a) a registered trade mark or an application under section 18 bearing an earlier date of filing or  an international registration referred to in section 36E or convention application referred to in  section 154 which has a date of application earlier than that of the trade mark in question, taking  account, where appropriate, of the priorities claimed in respect of the trade marks;] 

(b) a trade mark which, on the date of the application for registration of the trade mark in  question, or where appropriate, of the priority claimed in respect of the application, was entitled to  protection as a well-known trade mark. 

(5) A trade mark shall not be refused registration on the grounds specified in sub-sections (2) and (3),  unless objection on any one or more of those grounds is raised in opposition proceedings by the proprietor  of the earlier trade mark. 

(6) The Registrar shall, while determining whether a trade mark is a well-known trade mark, take into  account any fact which he considers relevant for determining a trade mark as a well-known trade mark  including— 

(i) the knowledge or recognition of that trade mark in the relevant section of the public including  knowledge in India obtained as a result of promotion of the trade mark; 

(ii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any use of that trade mark; 

(iii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any promotion of the trade mark, including  advertising or publicity and presentation, at fairs or exhibition of the goods or services to which the  trade mark applies; 

(iv) the duration and geographical area of any registration of or any application for registration of  that trade mark under this Act to the extent that they reflect the use or recognition of the trade mark; 

(v) the record of successful enforcement of the rights in that trade mark, in particular the extent to  which the trade mark has been recognised as a well-known trade mark by any court or Registrar under  that record. 

(7) The Registrar shall, while determining as to whether a trade mark is known or recognised in a  relevant section of the public for the purposes of sub-section (6), take into account— 

(i) the number of actual or potential consumers of the goods or services; 

(ii) the number of persons involved in the channels of distribution of the goods or services; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 40 of 2010, s. 2, for clause (a) (w.e.f. 8-7-2013).

12 

(iii) the business circles dealing with the goods or services, 

to which that trade mark applies. 

(8) Where a trade mark has been determined to be well known in at least one relevant section of the  public in India by any court or Registrar, the Registrar shall consider that trade mark as a well-known  trade mark for registration under this Act. 

(9) The Registrar shall not require as a condition, for determining whether a trade mark is a  well-known trade mark, any of the following, namely:— 

(i) that the trade mark has been used in India; 

(ii) that the trade mark has been registered; 

(iii) that the application for registration of the trade mark has been filed in India; (iv) that the trade mark— 

(a) is well-known in; or 

(b) has been registered in; or 

(c) in respect of which an application for registration has been filed in, 

any jurisdiction other than India, or 

(v) that the trade mark is well-known to the public at large in India. 

(10) While considering an application for registration of a trade mark and opposition filed in respect thereof, the Registrar shall— 

(i) protect a well-known trade mark against the identical or similar trade marks; 

(ii) take into consideration the bad faith involved either of the applicant or the opponent affecting  the right relating to the trade mark. 

(11) Where a trade mark has been registered in good faith disclosing the material informations to the  Registrar or where right to a trade mark has been acquired through use in good faith before the  commencement of this Act, then, nothing in this Act shall prejudice the validity of the registration of that  trade mark or right to use that trade mark on the ground that such trade mark is identical with or similar to  a well-known trade mark. 

  1. Registration in the case of honest concurrent use, etc.In the case of honest concurrent use or  of other special circumstances which in the opinion of the Registrar, make it proper so to do, he may  permit the registration by more than one proprietor of the trade marks which are identical or similar  (whether any such trade mark is already registered or not) in respect of the same or similar goods or  services, subject to such conditions and limitations, if any, as the Registrar may think fit to impose. 
  2. Prohibition of registration of names of chemical elements or international non-proprietary  names.No word— 

(a) which is the commonly used and accepted name of any single chemical element or any single  chemical compound (as distinguished from a mixture) in respect of a chemical substance or  preparation, or 

(b) which is declared by the World Health Organisation and notified in the prescribed manner by  the Registrar from time to time, as an international non-proprietary name or which is deceptively  similar to such name, 

shall be registered as a trade mark and any such registration shall be deemed for the purpose of section 57  to be an entry made in the register without sufficient cause or an entry wrongly remaining on the register,  as the circumstances may require. 

  1. Use of names and representations of living persons or persons recently dead.Where an  application is made for the registration of a trade mark which falsely suggests a connection with any  living person, or a person whose death took place within twenty years prior to the date of application for  registration of the trade mark, the Registrar may, before he proceeds with the application, require the 

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applicant to furnish him with the consent in writing of such living person or, as the case may be, of the  legal representative of the deceased person to the connection appearing on the trade mark, and may refuse  to proceed with the application unless the applicant furnishes the Registrar with such consent. 

  1. Registration of parts of trade marks and of trade marks as a series.(1) Where the  proprietor of a trade mark claims to be entitled to the exclusive use of any part thereof separately, he may  apply to register the whole and the part as separate trade marks. 

(2) Each such separate trade mark shall satisfy all the conditions applying to and have all the incidents of, an independent trade mark. 

(3) Where a person claiming to be the proprietor of several trade marks in respect of the same or  similar goods or services or description of goods or description of services, which, while resembling each  other in the material particulars thereof, yet differ in respect of— 

(a) statement of the goods or services in relation to which they are respectively used or proposed to be used; or 

(b) statement of number, price, quality or names of places; or 

(c) other matter of a non-distinctive character which does not substantially affect the identity of  the trade mark; or 

(d) colour, 

seeks to register those trade marks, they may be registered as a series in one registration. 

  1. Registration of trade marks as associated trade marks.(1) Where a trade mark which is  registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in respect of any goods or services is  identical with another trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in  the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or  description of services or so nearly resembles it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion if used by a  person other than the proprietor, the Registrar may, at any time, require that the trade marks shall be  entered on the register as associated trade marks. 

(2) Where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of  applications for registration in the name of the same proprietor, in respect of goods and services which are  associated with those goods or services, or goods or services of that description, sub-section (1) shall  apply as it applies as where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the  subject of applications for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or  description of goods or same services or description of services. 

(3) Where a trade mark and any part thereof are, in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1)  of section 15, registered as separate trade marks in the name of the same proprietor, they shall be deemed  to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks. 

(4) All trade marks registered in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 15 as a  series in one registration shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks. 

(5) On application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor of two or more trade  marks registered as associated trade marks, the Registrar may dissolve the association as respects any of  them if he is satisfied that there would be no likelihood of deception or confusion being caused if that  trade mark were used by any other person in relation to any of the goods or services or both in respect of  which it is registered, and may amend the register accordingly. 

  1. Effect of registration of parts of a mark.(1) When a trade mark consists of several matters,  its registration shall confer on the proprietor exclusive right to the use of the trade mark taken as a whole. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), when a trade mark(a) contains any part— 

(i) which is not the subject of a separate application by the proprietor for registration as a  trade mark; or

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(ii) which is not separately registered by the proprietor as a trade mark; or 

(b) contains any matter which is common to the trade or is otherwise of a non-distinctive  character, 

the registration thereof shall not confer any exclusive right in the matter forming only a part of the whole  of the trade mark so registered. 

CHAPTER III 

PROCEDURE FOR AND DURATION OF REGISTRATION 

  1. Application for registration.(1) Any person claiming to be the proprietor of a trade mark used  or proposed to be used by him, who is desirous of registering it, shall apply in writing to the Registrar in  the prescribed manner for the registration of his trade mark. 

(2) A single application may be made for registration of a trade mark for different classes of goods  and services and fee payable therefor shall be in respect of each such class of goods or services. 

(3) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry  within whose territorial limits the principal place of business in India of the applicant or in the case of  joint applicants the principal place of business in India of the applicant whose name is first mentioned in  the application as having a place of business in India, is situate: 

Provided that where the applicant or any of the joint applicants does not carry on business in India,  the application shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the  place mentioned in the address for service in India as disclosed in the application, is situate. 

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Registrar may refuse the application or may accept it  absolutely or subject to such amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, if any, as he may  think fit. 

(5) In the case of a refusal or conditional acceptance of an application, the Registrar shall record in  writing the grounds for such refusal or conditional acceptance and the materials used by him in arriving at  his decision. 

  1. Withdrawal of acceptance.Where, after the acceptance of an application for registration of a  trade mark but before its registration, the Registrar is satisfied— 

(a) that the application has been accepted in error; or 

(b) that in the circumstances of the case the trade mark should not be registered or should be  registered subject to conditions or limitations or to conditions additional to or different from the  conditions or limitations subject to which the application has been accepted, 

the Registrar may, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, withdraw the acceptance and proceed as if  the application had not been accepted. 

  1. Advertisement of application.(1) When an application for registration of a trade mark has been accepted, whether absolutely or subject to conditions or limitations, the Registrar shall, as soon as  may be after acceptance, cause the application as accepted together with the conditions or limitations, if  any, subject to which it has been accepted, to be advertised in the prescribed manner: 

Provided that the Registrar may cause the application to be advertised before acceptance if it relates  to a trade mark to which sub-section (1) of section 9 and sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 11 apply, or in  any other case where it appears to him that it is expedient by reason of any exceptional circumstances so  to do. 

(2) Where— 

(a) an application has been advertised before acceptance under sub-section (1); or (b) after advertisement of an application,— 

(i) an error in the application has been corrected; or

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(ii) the application has been permitted to be amended under section 22, 

the Registrar may in his discretion cause the application to be advertised again or in any case falling under  clause (b) may, instead of causing the application to be advertised again, notify in the prescribed manner  the correction or amendment made in the application. 

  1. Opposition to registration.1[(1) Any person may, within four months from the date of the  advertisement or re-advertisement of an application for registration, give notice in writing in the  prescribed manner and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, to the Registrar, of opposition to the  registration.] 

(2) The Registrar shall serve a copy of the notice on the applicant for registration and, within two  months from the receipt by the applicant of such copy of the notice of opposition, the applicant shall send  to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a counterstatement of the grounds on which he relies for his  application, and if he does not do so he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application. 

(3) If the applicant sends such counter-statement, the Registrar shall serve a copy thereof on the  person giving notice of opposition. 

(4) Any evidence upon which the opponent and the applicant may rely shall be submitted in the  prescribed manner and within the prescribed time to the Registrar, and the Registrar shall give an  opportunity to them to be heard, if they so desire. 

(5) The Registrar shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering the evidence, decide  whether and subject to what conditions or limitations, if any, the registration is to be permitted, and may  take into account a ground of objection whether relied upon by the opponent or not. 

(6) Where a person giving notice of opposition or an applicant sending a counter-statement after  receipt of a copy of such notice neither resides nor carries on business in India, the Registrar may require  him to give security for the costs of proceedings before him, and in default of such security being duly  given, may treat the opposition or application, as the case may be, as abandoned. 

(7) The Registrar may, on request, permit correction of any error in, or any amendment of, a notice of  opposition or a counter-statement on such terms as he thinks just. 

  1. Correction and amendment.The Registrar may, on such terms as he thinks just, at any time,  whether before or after acceptance of an application for registration under section 18, permit the  correction of any error in or in connection with the application or permit an amendment of the  application: 

Provided that if an amendment is made to a single application referred to in sub-section (2) of section  18 involving division of such application into two or more applications, the date of making of the initial  application shall be deemed to be the date of making of the divided applications so divided. 

  1. Registration.(1) Subject to the provisions of section 19, when an application for registration of  a trade mark has been accepted and either— 

(a) the application has not been opposed and the time for notice of opposition has expired; or 

(b) the application has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the  applicant, 

the Registrar shall, unless the Central Government otherwise directs, register the said trade mark 2[within  eighteen months of the filing of the application] and the trade mark when registered shall be registered as  of the date of the making of the said application and that date shall, subject to the provisions of section  154, be deemed to be the date of registration. 

(2) On the registration of a trade mark, the Registrar shall issue to the applicant a certificate in the  prescribed form of the registration thereof, sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry. 

(3) Where registration of a trade mark is not completed within twelve months from the date of the  application by reason of default on the part of the applicant, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 40 of 2010, s. 3, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 
  2. Ins. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 8-7-2013).

16 

applicant in the prescribed manner, treat the application as abandoned unless it is completed within the  time specified in that behalf in the notice. 

(4) The Registrar may amend the register or a certificate of registration for the purpose of correcting a  clerical error or an obvious mistake. 

  1. Jointly owned trade marks.(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), nothing in this Act shall  authorise the registration of two or more persons who use a trade mark independently, or propose so as to  use it, as joint proprietors thereof. 

(2) Where the relations between two or more persons interested in a trade mark are such that no one  of them is entitled as between himself and the other or others of them to use it except— 

(a) on behalf of both or all of them; or\ 

(b) in relation to an article or service with which both or all of them are connected in the course of  trade, 

those persons may be registered as joint proprietors of the trade mark, and this Act shall have effect in  relation to any rights to the use of the trade mark vested in those persons as if those rights had been vested  in a single person. 

  1. Duration, renewal, removal and restoration of registration.(1) The registration of a trade  mark, after the commencement of this Act, shall be for a period of ten years, but may be renewed from  time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section. 

(2) The Registrar shall, on application made by the registered proprietor of a trade mark in the  prescribed manner and within the prescribed period and subject to payment of the prescribed fee, renew  the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years from the date of expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration, as the case may be (which date is in this section referred  to as the expiration of the last registration). 

(3) At the prescribed time before the expiration of the last registration of a trade mark the Registrar  shall send notice in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor of the date of expiration and the  conditions as to payment of fees and otherwise upon which a renewal of registration may be obtained,  and, if at the expiration of the time prescribed in that behalf those conditions have not been duly complied  with the Registrar may remove the trade mark from the register: 

Provided that the Registrar shall not remove the trade mark from the register if an application is made  in the prescribed form and the prescribed fee and surcharge is paid within six months from the expiration  of the last registration of the trade mark and shall renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of  ten years under sub-section (2). 

(4) Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for non-payment of the prescribed fee, the  Registrar shall, after six months and within one year from the expiration of the last registration of the  trade mark, on receipt of an application in the prescribed form and on payment of the prescribed fee, if  satisfied that it is just so to do, restore the trade mark to the register and renew the registration of the trade  mark either generally or subject to such conditions or limitations as he thinks fit to impose, for a period of  ten years from the expiration of the last registration. 

  1. Effect of removal from register for failure to pay fee for renewal.Where a trade mark has  been removed from the register for failure to pay the fee for renewal, it shall nevertheless, for the purpose  of any application for the registration of another trade mark during one year, next after the date of the  removal, be deemed to be a trade mark already on the register, unless the 1[Registrar or the High Court, as  the case may be] is satisfied either— 

(a) that there has been no bona fide trade use of the trade mark which has been removed during  the two years immediately preceding its removal; or 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “Tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

17 

(b) that no deception or confusion would be likely to arise from the use of the trade mark which is  the subject of the application for registration by reason of any previous use of the trade mark which  has been removed. 

CHAPTER IV 

EFFECT OF REGISTRATION 

  1. No action for infringement of unregistered trade mark.(1) No person shall be entitled to  institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover damages for, the infringement of an unregistered trade  mark. 

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for passing off  goods or services as the goods of another person or as services provided by another person, or the  remedies in respect thereof. 

  1. Rights conferred by registration.(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the  registration of a trade mark shall, if valid, give to the registered proprietor of the trade mark the exclusive  right to the use of the trade mark in relation to the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is  registered and to obtain relief in respect of infringement of the trade mark in the manner provided by this  Act. 

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any  conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject. 

(3) Where two or more persons are registered proprietors of trade marks, which are identical with or  nearly resemble each other, the exclusive right to the use of any of those trade marks shall not (except so  far as their respective rights are subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register) be deemed  to have been acquired by any one of those persons as against any other of those persons merely by  registration of the trade marks but each of those persons has otherwise the same rights as against other  persons (not being registered users using by way of permitted use) as he would have if he were the sole  registered proprietor. 

  1. Infringement of registered trade marks.(1) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person  who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of  trade, a mark which is identical with, or deceptively similar to, the trade mark in relation to goods or  services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and in such manner as to render the use of the  mark likely to be taken as being used as a trade mark. 

(2) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person  using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which because of— 

(a) its identity with the registered trade mark and the similarity of the goods or services covered  by such registered trade mark; or 

(b) its similarity to the registered trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services  covered by such registered trade mark; or 

(c) its identity with the registered trade mark and the identity of the goods or services covered by  such registered trade mark, 

is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public, or which is likely to have an association with the  registered trade mark. 

(3) In any case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (2), the court shall presume that it is likely to  cause confusion on the part of the public. 

(4) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person  using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which— 

(a) is identical with or similar to the registered trade mark; and

18 

(b) is used in relation to goods or services which are not similar to those for which the trade mark  is registered; and 

(c) the registered trade mark has a reputation in India and the use of the mark without due cause  takes unfair advantage of or is detrimental to, the distinctive character or repute of the registered trade  mark. 

(5) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person if he uses such registered trade mark, as his trade  name or part of his trade name, or name of his business concern or part of the name, of his business  concern dealing in goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered. 

(6) For the purposes of this section, a person uses a registered mark, if, in particular, he(a) affixes it to goods or the packaging thereof; 

(b) offers or exposes goods for sale, puts them on the market, or stocks them for those purposes  under the registered trade mark, or offers or supplies services under the registered trade mark; 

(c) imports or exports goods under the mark; or 

(d) uses the registered trade mark on business papers or in advertising. 

(7) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who applies such registered trade mark to a  material intended to be used for labeling or packaging goods, as a business paper, or for advertising goods  or services, provided such person, when he applied the mark, knew or had reason to believe that the  application of the mark was not duly authorised by the proprietor or a licensee. 

(8) A registered trade mark is infringed by any advertising of that trade mark if such advertising— 

(a) takes unfair advantage of and is contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial  matters; or 

(b) is detrimental to its distinctive character; or 

(c) is against the reputation of the trade mark. 

(9) Where the distinctive elements of a registered trade mark consist of or include words, the trade  mark may be infringed by the spoken use of those words as well as by their visual representation and  reference in this section to the use of a mark shall be construed accordingly. 

  1. Limits on effect of registered trade mark.(1) Nothing in section 29 shall be construed as  preventing the use of a registered trade mark by any person for the purposes of identifying goods or  services as those of the proprietor provided the use— 

(a) is in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, and 

(b) is not such as to take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or  repute of the trade mark. 

(2) A registered trade mark is not infringed where— 

(a) the use in relation to goods or services indicates the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose,  value, geographical origin, the time of production of goods or of rendering of services or other  characteristics of goods or services; 

(b) a trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations, the use of the trade mark in  any manner in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place, or in relation to goods  to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in any place  or country outside India or in any other circumstances, to which, having regard to those conditions or  limitations, the registration does not extend; 

(c) the use by a person of a trade mark— 

(i) in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user  of the trade mark if, as to those goods or a bulk of which they form part, the registered proprietor  or the registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the trade mark and has not 

19 

subsequently removed or obliterated it, or has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the  use of the trade mark; or 

(ii) in relation to services to which the proprietor of such mark or of a registered user  conforming to the permitted use has applied the mark, where the purpose and effect of the use of  the mark is to indicate, in accordance with the fact, that those services have been performed by  the proprietor or a registered user of the mark; 

(d) the use of a trade mark by a person in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or to be  accessory to, other goods or services in relation to which the trade mark has been used without  infringement of the right given by registration under this Act or might for the time being be so used, if  the use of the trade mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so  adapted, and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the trade mark is to indicate, otherwise  than in accordance with the fact, a connection in the course of trade between any person and the  goods or services, as the case may be; 

(e) the use of a registered trade mark, being one of two or more trade marks registered under this  Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in exercise of the right to the use of that trade  mark given by registration under this Act. 

(3) Where the goods bearing a registered trade mark are lawfully acquired by a person, the sale of the  goods in the market or otherwise dealing in those goods by that person or by a person claiming under or  through him is not infringement of a trade mark by reason only of— 

(a) the registered trade mark having been assigned by the registered proprietor to some other  person, after the acquisition of those goods; or 

(b) the goods having been put on the market under the registered trade mark by the proprietor or  with his consent. 

(4) Sub-section (3) shall not apply where there exists legitimate reasons for the proprietor to oppose  further dealings in the goods in particular, where the condition of the goods, has been changed or  impaired after they have been put on the market. 

  1. Registration to be prima facie evidence of validity.(1) In all legal proceedings relating to a  trade mark registered under this Act (including applications under section 57), the original registration of  the trade mark and of all subsequent assignments and transmissions of the trade mark shall be prima facie evidence of the validity thereof. 

(2) In all legal proceedings as aforesaid a registered trade mark shall not be held to be invalid on the  ground that it was not a registrable trade mark under section 9 except upon evidence of distinctiveness  and that such evidence was not submitted to the Registrar before registration, if it is proved that the trade  mark had been so used by the registered proprietor or his predecessor in title as to have become  distinctive at the date of registration. 

  1. Protection of registration on ground of distinctiveness in certain cases.Where a trade mark  is registered in breach of sub-section (1) of section 9, it shall not be declared invalid if, in consequence of  the use which has been made of it, it has after registration and before commencement of any legal  proceedings challenging the validity of such registration, acquired a distinctive character in relation to the  goods or services for which it is registered. 
  2. Effect of acquiescence.(1) Where the proprietor of an earlier trade mark has acquiesced for a  continuous period of five years in the use of a registered trade mark, being aware of that use, he shall no  longer be entitled on the basis of that earlier trade mark— 

(a) to apply for a declaration that the registration of the later trade mark is invalid, or 

(b) to oppose the use of the later trade mark in relation to the goods or services in relation to  which it has been so used, 

unless the registration of the later trade mark was not applied in good faith.

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(2) Where sub-section (1) applies, the proprietor of the later trade mark is not entitled to oppose the  use of the earlier trade mark, or as the case may be, the exploitation of the earlier right, notwithstanding  that the earlier trade mark may no longer be invoked against his later trade mark. 

  1. Saving for vested rights.Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of  registered trade mark to interfere with or restrain the use by any person of a trade mark identical with or  nearly resembling it in relation to goods or services in relation to which that person or a predecessor in  title of his has continuously used that trade mark from a date prior— 

(a) to the use of the first-mentioned trade mark in relation to those goods or services by the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his; or 

(b) to the date of registration of the first-mentioned trade mark in respect of those goods or  services in the name of the proprietor of a predecessor in title of his; 

whichever is the earlier, and the Registrar shall not refuse (on such use being proved) to register the  second mentioned trade mark by reason only of the registration of the first-mentioned trade mark. 

  1. Saving for use of name, address or description of goods or services.Nothing in this Act  shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of a registered trade mark to interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his own name or that of his place of business, or of the name, or of the name of the  place of business, of any of his predecessors in business, or the use by any person of any bona fide description of the character or quality of his goods or services. 
  2. Saving for words used as name or description of an article or substance or service.(1) The  registration of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of any use after  the date of the registration of any word or words which the trade mark contains or of which it consists as  the name or description of an article or substance or service: 

Provided that, if it is proved either— 

(a) that there is a well known and established use of the said word as the name or description of  the article or substance or service by a person or persons carrying on trade therein, not being use in  relation to goods or services connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user  of the trade mark or (in the case of a certification trade mark) in relation to goods or services certified  by the proprietor; or 

(b) that the article or substance was formerly manufactured under a patent that a period of two  years or more after the cesser of the patent has elapsed and that the said word is the only practicable  name or description of the article or substance, 

the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply. 

(2) Where the facts mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1) are proved  with respect to any words, then,— 

(a) for the purposes of any proceedings under section 57 if the trade mark consists solely of such  words, the registration of the trade mark, so far as regards registration in respect of the article or  substance in question or of any goods of the same description, or of the services or of any services of  the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to be an entry wrongly remaining on the  register; 

(b) for the purposes of any other legal proceedings relating to the trade mark,— 

(i) if the trade mark consists solely of such words, all rights of the proprietor under this Act or  any other law to the use of the trade mark; or 

(ii) if the trade mark contains such words and other matter, all such right of the proprietor to  the use of such words, 

in relation to the article or substance or to any goods of the same description, or to the service or to any  services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to have ceased on the date on  which the use mentioned in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1) first became well known and  established or at the expiration of the period of two years mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso.

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1[CHAPTER IVA 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROTECTION OF TRADE MARKS THROUGH INTERNATIONAL  REGISTRATION UNDER THE MADRID PROTOCOL 

36A. Application of Act in case of international registration under Madrid Protocol.—The  provisions of this Chapter shall apply to international applications and international registrations under  the Madrid Protocol. 

36B. Definitions.—In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,— 

(a) “application”, in relation to a Contracting State or a Contracting Organisation, means an  application made by a person who is a citizen of, or is domiciled in, or has a real and effective  industrial or commercial establishment in, that Contracting State or a State which is a member of that  Contracting Organisation, as the case may be. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, “real and effective industrial or commercial  establishment” means and includes any establishment where some bona fide industrial or commercial  activity takes place and need not necessarily be the principal place of business; 

(b) “basic application” means an application for the registration of a trade mark filed under  section 18 and which is used as a basis for applying for an international registration; 

(c) “basic registration” means the registration of a trade mark under section 23 and which is used  as a basis for applying for an international registration; 

(d) “Common Regulations” means the Regulations concerning the implementation of the Madrid  Protocol; 

(e) “Contracting Organisation” means a Contracting Party that is an intergovernmental  organisation; 

(f) “Contracting Party” means a Contracting State or Contracting Organisation party to the  Madrid Protocol; 

(g) “Contracting State” means a country party to the Madrid Protocol; 

(h) “international application” means an application for international registration or for extension  of the protection resulting from an international registration to any Contracting Party made under the  Madrid Protocol; 

(i) “International Bureau” means the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property  Organisation; 

(j) “international registration” means the registration of a trade mark in the register of the  International Bureau effected under the Madrid Protocol; 

(k) “Madrid Agreement” means the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration  of Marks adopted at Madrid on the 14th day of April, 1891, as subsequently revised and amended; 

(l) “Madrid Protocol” means the Protocol relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the  International Registration of Marks adopted at Madrid on the 27th day of June, 1989, as amended  from time to time. 

36C. Trade Marks Registry to deal with international applications.—Notwithstanding anything  contained in sub-section (3) of section 5, an international application shall be dealt with by the head office  of the Trade Marks Registry or such branch office of the Registry, as the Central Government may, by  notification in the Official Gazette, specify. 

36D. International application originating from India.—(1) Where an application for the  registration of a trade mark has been made under section 18 or a trade mark has been registered under  section 23, the applicant or the registered proprietor may make an international application on the form  prescribed by the Common Regulations for international registration of that trade mark. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 40 of 2010, s. 5 (w.e.f. 8-7-2013).

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(2) A person holding an international registration may make an international application on the form  prescribed by the Common Regulations for extension of the protection resulting from such registration to  any other Contracting Party. 

(3) An international application under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall designate the  Contracting Parties where the protection resulting from the international registration is required. 

(4) The Registrar shall certify in the prescribed manner that the particulars appearing in the  international application correspond to the particulars appearing, at the time of the certification, in the  application under section 18 or the registration under section 23, and shall indicate the date and number of  that application or the date and number of that registration as well as the date and number of the 

application from which that registration resulted, as the case may be, and shall within the prescribed  period, forward the international application to the International Bureau for registration, also indicating  the date of the international application. 

(5) Where at any time before the expiry of a period of five years of an international registration,  whether such registration has been transferred to another person or not, the application under section 18  or the registration under section 23, as the case may be, has been withdrawn or cancelled or has expired or  has been finally refused in respect of all or some of the goods or services listed in the international  registration, the protection resulting from such international registration shall cease to have effect: 

Provided that where an appeal is made against the decision of registration and an action requesting for  withdrawal of application or an opposition to the application has been initiated before the expiry of the  period of five years of an international registration, any final decision resulting into withdrawal,  cancellation, expiration or refusal shall be deemed to have taken place before the expiry of five years of  the international registration. 

(6) The Registrar shall, during the period of five years beginning with the date of international  registration, transmit to the International Bureau every information referred to in sub-section (5). 

(7) The Registrar shall notify the International Bureau the cancellation to be effected to an  international registration keeping in view the current status of the basic application or the basic  registration, as the case may be. 

36E. International registrations where India has been designated.—(1) The Registrar shall, after  receipt of an advice from the International Bureau about any international registration where India has  been designated, keep a record of the particulars of that international registration in the prescribed  manner. 

(2) Where, after recording the particulars of any international registration referred to in  sub-section (1), the Registrar is satisfied that in the circumstances of the case the protection of trade mark  in India should not be granted or such protection should be granted subject to conditions or limitations or  to conditions additional to or different from the conditions or limitations subject to which the international  registration has been accepted, he may, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, refuse grant of  protection and inform the International Bureau in the prescribed manner within eighteen months from the  date on which the advice referred to in sub-section (1) was received. 

(3) Where the Registrar finds nothing in the particulars of an international registration to refuse grant  of protection under sub-section (2), he shall within the prescribed period cause such international  registration to be advertised in the prescribed manner. 

(4) The provisions of sections 9 to 21 (both inclusive), 63 and 74 shall apply mutatis mutandis in  relation to an international registration as if such international registration was an application for  registration of a trade mark under section 18. 

(5) When the protection of an international registration has not been opposed and the time for notice  of opposition has expired, the Registrar shall within a period of eighteen months of the receipt of advice  under sub-section (1) notify the International Bureau its acceptance of extension of protection of the trade  mark under such international registration and, in case the Registrar fails to notify the International  Bureau, it shall be deemed that the protection has been extended to the trade mark. 

(6) Where a registered proprietor of a trade mark makes an international registration of that trade  mark and designates India, the international registration from the date of the registration shall be deemed 

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to replace the registration held in India without prejudice to any right acquired under such previously held  registration and the Registrar shall, upon request by the applicant, make necessary entry in the register  referred to in sub-section (1) of section 6. 

(7) A holder of international registration of a trade mark who designates India and who has not been  extended protection in India shall have the same remedy which is available to any person making an  application for the registration of a trade mark under section 18 and which has not resulted in registration  under section 23. 

(8) Where at any time before the expiry of a period of five years of an international registration,  whether such registration has been transferred to another person or not, the related basic application or, as  the case may be, the basic registration in a Contracting Party other than India has been withdrawn or  cancelled or has expired or has been finally refused in respect of all or some of the goods or services  listed in the international registration, the protection resulting from such international registration in India  shall cease to have effect. 

36F. Effects of international registration.—(1) From the date of the international registration of a  trade mark where India has been designated or the date of the recording in the register of the International  Bureau about the extension of the protection resulting from an international registration of a trade mark to  India, the protection of the trade mark in India shall be the same as if the trade mark had been registered  in India. 

(2) The indication of classes of goods and services given by the applicant shall not bind the Registrar  with regard to the determination of the scope of the protection of the trade mark. 

36G. Duration and renewal of international registration.—(1) The international registration of a  trade mark at the International Bureau shall be for a period of ten years and may be renewed for a period  of ten years from the expiry of the preceding period. 

(2) Subject to payment of a surcharge prescribed by the rules, a grace period of six months shall be  allowed for renewal of the international registration.] 

CHAPTER V 

ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSMISSION 

  1. Power of registered proprietor to assign and give receipts.The person for the time being  entered in the register as proprietor of a trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Act and to any  rights appearing from the register to be vested in any other person, have power to assign the trade mark,  and to give effectual receipts for any consideration for such assignment. 
  2. Assignability and transmissibility of registered trade marks.Notwithstanding anything in  any other law to the contrary, a registered trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be  assignable and transmissible, whether with or without the goodwill of the business concerned and in  respect either of all the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered or of some only  of those goods or services. 
  3. Assignability and transmissibility of unregistered trade marks.An unregistered trade mark  may be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned. 
  4. Restriction on assignment or transmission where multiple exclusive rights would be  created.(1) Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or  transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the  circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law, exclusive rights in more than one of the  persons concerned to the use, in relation to— 

(a) same goods or services; 

(b) same description of goods or services; 

(c) goods or services or description of goods or services which are associated with each other,

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of trade marks nearly resembling each other or of identical trade mark, if having regard to the similarity  of the goods and services and to the similarity of the trade marks, the use of the trade marks in exercise of  those rights would be likely to deceive or cause confusion: 

Provided that an assignment or transmission shall not be deemed to be invalid under this sub-section  if the exclusive rights subsisting as a result thereof in the persons concerned respectively are, having  regard to limitations imposed thereon, such as not to be exercisable by two or more of those persons in  relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, within India otherwise than for export therefrom, or in  relation to goods to be exported to the same market outside India or in relation to services for use at any  place in India or any place outside India in relation to services available for acceptance in India. 

(2) The proprietor of a registered trade mark who proposes to assign it may submit to the Registrar in  the prescribed manner a statement of case setting out the circumstances and the Registrar may issue to  him a certificate stating whether, having regard to the similarity of the goods or services and of the trade  marks referred to in the case, the proposed assignment would or would not be invalid under  sub-section (1), and a certificate so issued shall, subject to appeal and unless it is shown that the  certificate was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be conclusive as to the validity or invalidity under  sub-section (1) of the assignment in so far as such validity or invalidity depends upon the facts set out in  the case, but, as regards a certificate in favour of validity, only if application for the registration under  section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which  the certificate is issued. 

  1. Restriction on assignment or transmission when exclusive rights would be created in  different parts of India.Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be  assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in  the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law— 

(a) an exclusive right in one of the persons concerned, to the use of the trade mark limited to use  in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place in India, or in relation to services  for use, or services available for acceptance in any place in India; and 

(b) an exclusive right in another of these persons concerned, to the use of a trade mark nearly  resembling the first-mentioned trade mark or of an identical trade mark in relation to— 

(i) the same goods or services; or 

(ii) the same description of goods or services; or 

(iii) services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description or goods  which are associated with those services or services of that description, 

limited to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, or services for use, or available for  acceptance, in any other place in India: 

Provided that in any such case, on application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor of a trade  mark who proposes to assign it, or by a person who claims that a registered trade mark has been  transmitted to him or to a predecessor in title of his since the commencement of this Act, the Registrar, if  he is satisfied that in all the circumstances the use of the trade mark in exercise of the said rights would  not be contrary to the public interest may approve the assignment or transmission, and an assignment or  transmission so approved shall not, unless it is shown that the approval was obtained by fraud or  misrepresentation, be deemed to be invalid under this section or section 40 if application for the  registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from  the date on which the approval is given or, in the case of a transmission, was made before that date. 

  1. Conditions for assignment otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of a business.Where an assignment of a trade mark, whether registered or unregistered is made otherwise than in  connection with the goodwill of the business in which the mark has been or is used, the assignment shall  not take effect unless the assignee, not later than the expiration of six months from the date on which the  assignment is made or within such extended period, if any, not exceeding three months in the aggregate,  as the Registrar may allow, applies to the Registrar for directions with respect to the advertisement of the  assignment, and advertises it in such form and manner and within such period as the Registrar may direct.

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Explanation.For the purposes of this section, an assignment of a trade mark of the following  description shall not be deemed to be an assignment made otherwise than in connection with the goodwill  of the business in which the mark is used, namely:— 

(a) an assignment of a trade mark in respect only of some of the goods or services for which the  trade mark is registered accompanied by the transfer of the goodwill of the business concerned in  those goods or services only; or 

(b) an assignment of a trade mark which is used in relation to goods exported from India or in  relation to services for use outside India if the assignment is accompanied by the transfer of the  goodwill of the export business only. 

  1. Assignability and transmissibility of certification trade marks.A certification trade mark  shall not be assignable or transmissible otherwise than with the consent of the Registrar, for which  application shall be made in writing in the prescribed manner. 
  2. Assignability and transmissibility of associated trade marks.Associated trade marks shall  be assignable and transmissible only as a whole and not separately, but, subject to the provisions of this  Act, they shall, for all other purposes, be deemed to have been registered as separate trade mark. 

1[45. Registration of assignments and transmissions.(1) Where a person becomes entitled by  assignment or transmission to a registered trade mark, he shall apply in the prescribed manner to the  Registrar to register his title, and the Registrar shall, on receipt of the application, register him as the  proprietor of the trade mark in respect of the goods or services in respect of which the assignment or  transmission has effect, and shall cause particulars of such assignment or transmission to be entered on  the register. 

(2) The Registrar may require the applicant to furnish evidence or further evidence in proof of title  only where there is a reasonable doubt about the veracity of any statement or any document furnished. 

(3) Where the validity of an assignment or transmission is in dispute between the parties, the  Registrar may refuse to register the assignment or transmission until the rights of the parties have been  determined by a competent court and in all other cases the Registrar shall dispose of the application  within the prescribed period. 

(4) Until an application under sub-section (1) has been filed, the assignment or transmission shall be  ineffective against a person acquiring a conflicting interest in or under the registered trade mark without  the knowledge of assignment or transmission.] 

CHAPTER VI 

USE OF TRADE MARKS AND REGISTERED USERS 

  1. Proposed use of trade mark by company to be formed, etc.(1) No application for the  registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services shall be refused nor shall permission for  such registration be withheld, on the ground only that it appears that the applicant does not use or propose  to use the trade mark if the Registrar is satisfied that— 

(a) a company is about to be formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) and that the applicant intends to assign the trade mark to that company with a view to the use thereof  in relation to those goods or services by the company, or 

(b) the proprietor intends it to be used by a person, as a registered user after the registration of the  trade mark. 

(2) The provisions of section 47 shall have effect, in relation to a trade mark registered under the  powers conferred by this sub-section, as if for the reference, in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of that  section, to the intention on the part of an applicant for registration that a trade mark should be used by him there were substituted a reference to the intention on his part that it should be used by the company or  registered user concerned. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 40 of 2010, s. 6, for section 45 (w.e.f. 8-7-2013).

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(3) The 1[Registrar or the High Court, as the case may be] may, in a case to which sub-section (1)  applies, require the applicant to give security for the costs of any proceedings relating to any opposition or  appeal, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the application as abandoned. 

(4) Where in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, a trade mark in respect of any goods or services  is registered in the name of an applicant who, relies on intention to assign the trade mark to a company,  then, unless within such period as may be prescribed or within such further period not exceeding six  months as the Registrar may, on application being made to him in the prescribed manner, allow, the  company has been registered as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of those goods or services, the  registration shall cease to have effect in respect thereof at the expiration of that period and the Registrar  shall amend the register accordingly. 

  1. Removal from register and imposition of limitations on ground of non-use.(1) A registered  trade mark may be taken off the register in respect of the goods or services in respect of which it is registered on application made in the prescribed manner to the Registrar or the 2[High Court] by any  person aggrieved on the ground either— 

(a) that the trade mark was registered without any bona fide intention on the part of the applicant  for registration that it should be used in relation to those goods or services by him or, in a case to  which the provisions of section 46 apply, by the company concerned or the registered user, as the case  may be, and that there has, in fact, been no bona fide use of the trade mark in relation to those goods  or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being up to a date three months before the date of  the application; or 

(b) that up to a date three months before the date of the application, a continuous period of five  years from the date on which the trade mark is actually entered in the register or longer had elapsed  during which the trade mark was registered and during which there was no bona fide use thereof in  relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being: 

Provided that except where the applicant has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical  or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of the goods or services in question, or where the 1[Registrar or  the High Court, as the case may be] is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a  trade mark, the 1[Registrar or the High Court, as the case may be] may refuse an application under clause  (a) or clause (b) in relation to any goods or services, if it is shown that there has been, before the relevant  date or during the relevant period, as the case may be, bona fide use of the trade mark by any proprietor  thereof for the time being in relation to— 

(i) goods or services of the same description; or 

(ii) goods or services associated with those goods or services of that description being goods or  services, as the case may be, in respect of which the trade mark is registered. 

(2) Where in relation to any goods or services in respect of which a trade mark is registered— 

(a) the circumstances referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) are shown to exist so far as  regards non-use of the trade mark in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in a particular  place in India (otherwise than for export from India), or in relation to goods to be exported to a  particular market outside India; or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in a  particular place in India or for use in a particular market outside India; and 

(b) a person has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling  trade mark in respect of those goods, under a registration extending to use in relation to goods to be  so sold, or otherwise traded in, or in relation to goods to be so exported, or in relation to services for  use or available for acceptance in that place or for use in that country, or the tribunal is of opinion that  he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark, 

on application by that person in the prescribed manner to the 2[High Court] or to the Registrar, the  tribunal may impose on the registration of the first-mentioned trade mark such limitations as it thinks  proper for securing that that registration shall cease to extend to such use. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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(3) An applicant shall not be entitled to rely for the purpose of clause (b) of sub-section (1) or for the  purposes of sub-section (2) on any non-use of a trade mark which is shown to have been due to special  circumstances in the trade, which includes restrictions on the use of the trade mark in India imposed by  any law or regulation and not to any intention to abandon or not to use the trade mark in relation to the  goods or services to which the application relates. 

  1. Registered users.(1) Subject to the provisions of section 49, a person other than the registered  proprietor of a trade mark may be registered as a registered user thereof in respect of any or all of the  goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered. 

(2) The permitted use of a trade mark shall be deemed to be used by the proprietor thereof, and shall  be deemed not to be used by a person other than the proprietor, for the purposes of section 47 or for any  other purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law. 

  1. Registration as registered user.(1) Where it is proposed that a person should be registered as  a registered user of a trade mark, the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user shall jointly apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner, and every such application shall be  accompanied by— 

(a) the agreement in writing or a duly authenticated copy thereof, entered into between the  registered proprietor and the proposed registered user with respect to the permitted use of the trade  mark; and 

(b) an affidavit made by the registered proprietor or by some person authorised to the satisfication  of the Registrar to act on his behalf,— 

(i) giving particulars of the relationship, existing or proposed, between the registered  proprietor and the proposed registered user, including particulars showing the degree of control  by the proprietor over the permitted use which their relationship will confer and whether it is a  term of their relationship that the proposed registered user shall be the sole registered user or that  there shall be any other restriction as to persons for whose registration as registered users  application may be made; 

(ii) stating the goods or services in respect of which registration is proposed; 

(iii) stating the conditions or restrictions, if any, proposed with respect to the characteristics  of the goods or services, to the mode or place of permitted use, or to any other matter; 

(iv) stating whether the permitted use is to be for a period or without limit of period, and, if  for a period, the duration thereof; and 

(c) such further documents or other evidence as may be required by the Registrar or as may be  prescribed. 

(2) When the requirements of sub-section (1) have been complied with, the Registrar shall register the  proposed registered user in respect of the goods or services as to which he is so satisfied. 

(3) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner of the registration of a person as a  registered user, to other registered users of the trade mark, if any. 

(4) The Registrar shall, if so requested by the applicant, take steps for securing that information given  for the purposes of an application under this section (other than matters entered in the register) is not  disclosed to rivals in trade. 

  1. Power of Registrar for variation or cancellation of registration as registered user.(1)  Without prejudice to the provisions of section 57, the registration of a person as registered user— 

(a) may be varied by the Registrar as regards the goods or services in respect of which it has  effect on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor of the trade  mark; 

(b) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of  the registered proprietor or of the registered user or of any other registered user of the trade mark;

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(c) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of  any person on any of the following grounds, namely:— 

(i) that the registered user has used the trade mark otherwise than in accordance with the  agreement under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 or in such way as to cause or to be  likely to cause, deception or confusion; 

(ii) that the proprietor or the registered user misrepresented, or failed to disclose, some fact  material to the application for registration which if accurately represented or disclosed would not  have justified the registration of the registered user; 

(iii) that the circumstances have changed since the date of registration in such a way that at  the date of such application for cancellation they would not have justified registration of the  registered user; 

(iv) that the registration ought not to have been effected having regard to rights vested in the  applicant by virtue of a contract in the performance of which he is interested; 

(d) may be cancelled by the Registrar on his own motion or on the application in writing in the  prescribed manner by any person, on the ground that any stipulation in the agreement between the  registered proprietor and the registered user regarding the quality of the goods or services in relation  to which the trade mark is to be used is either not being enforced or is not being complied with; 

(e) may be cancelled by the Registrar in respect of any goods or services in relation to which the  trade mark is no longer registered. 

(2) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner in respect of every application under this  section to the registered proprietor and each registered user (not being the applicant) of the trade mark. 

(3) The procedure for cancelling a registration shall be such as may be prescribed: 

Provided that before cancelling of registration, the registered proprietor shall be given a reasonable  opportunity of being heard. 

  1. Power of Registrar to call for information relating to agreement in respect of registered  users.(1) The Registrar may, at any time during the continuance of the registration of the registered  user, by notice in writing, require the registered proprietor to confirm to him within one month that the  agreement filed under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 continues to be in force. 

(2) If the registered proprietor fails to furnish the confirmation within one month as required under  sub-section (1), the registered user shall cease to be the registered user on the day immediately after the  expiry of the said period and the Registrar shall notify the same. 

  1. Right of registered user to take proceedings against infringement.(1) Subject to any  agreement subsisting between the parties, a registered user may institute proceedings for infringement in  his own name as if he were the registered proprietor, making the registered proprietor a defendant and the  rights and obligations of such registered user in such case being concurrent with those of the registered  proprietor. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered proprietor so added as  defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the  proceedings. 

  1. No right of permitted user to take proceeding against infringement.A person referred to in  sub-clause (ii) of clause (r) of sub-section (1) of section 2 shall have no right to institute any proceeding  for any infringement. 
  2. Registered user not to have right of assignment or transmission.Nothing in this Act shall  confer on a registered user of a trade mark any assignable or transmissible right to the use thereof. 

Explanation I.The right of a registered user of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have been  assigned or transmitted within the meaning of this section in the following cases, namely:

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(a) where the registered user being an individual enters into a partnership with any other person for  carrying on the business concerned; but in any such case the firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in  force, only for so long as the registered user is a member of the firm; 

(b) where the registered user being a firm subsequently undergoes a change in its constitution; but in  any such case the reconstituted firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as any  partner of the original firm at the time of its registration as registered user, continues to be a partner of the  reconstituted firm. 

Explanation II.—For the purposes of Explanation I, “firm” has the same meaning as in the Indian  Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932). 

  1. Use of one of associated or substantially identical trade marks equivalent to use of another.—(1)  Where under the provisions of this Act, use of a registered trade mark is required to be proved for any purpose,  the 1[Registrar or the High Court, as the case may be] may, if and, so far as it shall think right, accept use of a  registered associated trade mark, or of the trade mark with additions or alterations not substantially affecting its  identity, as an equivalent for the use required to be proved. 

(2) The use of the whole of a registered trade mark shall, for the purpose of this Act, be deemed to be also  use of any trade mark being a part thereof and registered in accordance with sub-section (1) of section 15 in the  name of the same proprietor. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything in section 32, the use of part of the registered trade mark in sub section (2) shall not be conclusive as to its evidence of distinctiveness for any purpose under this Act. 56. Use of trade mark for export trade and use when form of trade connection changes.—(1) The  application in India of trade mark to goods to be exported from India or in relation to services for use outside  India and any other act done in India in relation to goods to be so exported or services so rendered outside  India which, if done in relation to goods to be sold or services provided or otherwise traded in within India  would constitute use of a trade mark therein, shall be deemed to constitute use of the trade mark in relation to  those goods or services for any purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law. (2) The use of a registered trade mark in relation to goods or services between which and the person using  the mark any form of connection in the course of trade subsists shall not be deemed to be likely to cause  deception or confusion on the ground only that the mark has been or is used in relation to goods or services  between which and the said person or a predecessor in title of that person a different form of connection in the  course of trade subsisted or subsists. 

CHAPTER VII 

RECTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF THE REGISTER 

  1. Power to cancel or vary registration and to rectify the register.—(1) On application made in the  prescribed manner to the 2[High Court] or to the Registrar by any person aggrieved, the 3[Register or the High  Court, as the case may be,] may make such order as it may think fit for cancelling or varying the registration of  a trade mark on the ground of any contravention, or failure to observe a condition entered on the register in  relation thereto. 

(2) Any person aggrieved by the absence or omission from the register of any entry, or by any entry made  in the register without sufficient cause, or by any entry wrongly remaining on the register, or by any error or  defect in any entry in the register, may apply in the prescribed manner to the 2[High Court] or to the Registrar,  and the 3[Register or the High Court, as the case may be,] may make such order for making, expunging or  varying the entry as it may think fit. 

(3) The 3[Register or the High Court, as the case may be,] may in any proceeding under this section decide  any question that may be necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register. (4) The 3[Register or the High Court, as the case may be,] of its own motion, may, after giving notice in  the prescribed manner to the parties concerned and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, make any  order referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2). 

(5) Any order of the 2[High Court] rectifying the register shall direct that notice of the rectification  shall be served upon the Registrar in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of such notice rectify  the register accordingly. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  3. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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  1. Correction of register.(1) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner  by the registered proprietor,— 

(a) correct any error in the name, address or description of the registered proprietor of a trade  mark, or any other entry relating to the trade mark; 

(b) enter any change in the name, address or description of the person who is registered as  proprietor of a trade mark; 

(c) cancel the entry of a trade mark on the register; 

(d) strike out any goods or classes of goods or services from those in respect of which a trade  mark is registered, 

and may make any consequential amendment or alteration in the certificate of registration, and for that  purpose, may require the certificate of registration to be produced to him. 

(2) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by a registered user of a trade  mark, and after notice to the registered proprietor, correct any error, or enter any change, in the name,  address or description of the registered user. 

  1. Alteration of registered trade marks.(1) The registered proprietor of a trade mark may apply  in the prescribed manner to the Registrar for leave to add to or alter the trade mark in any manner not  substantially affecting the identity thereof, and the Registrar may refuse leave or may grant it on such  terms and subject to such limitations as he may think fit. 

(2) The Registrar may cause an application under this section to be advertised in the prescribed  manner in any case where it appears to him that it is expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within  the prescribed time from the date of the advertisement any person gives notice to the Registrar in the  prescribed manner of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall, after hearing the parties if so  required, decide the matter. 

(3) Where leave is granted under this section, the trade mark as altered shall be advertised in the  prescribed manner, unless the application has already been advertised under sub-section (2). 

  1. Adaptation of entries in register to amended or substituted classification of goods or  services.(1) The Registrar shall not make any amendment of the register which would have the effect  of adding any goods or classes of goods or services to those in respect of which a trade mark is registered  (whether in one or more classes) immediately before the amendment is to be made or of antedating the  registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services: 

Provided that this sub-section, shall not apply when the Registrar is satisfied that compliance therewith would involve undue complexity and that the addition or antedating, as the case may be, would  not affect any substantial quantity of goods or services and would not substantially prejudice the rights of  any person. 

(2) A proposal so to amend the register shall be brought to the notice of the registered proprietor of  the trade mark affected and advertised in the prescribed manner, and may be opposed before the Registrar  by any person aggrieved on the ground that the proposed amendment contravenes the provisions of  sub-section (1). 

CHAPTER VIII 

COLLECTIVE MARKS 

  1. Special provisions for collective marks.(1) The provisions of this Act shall apply to collective  marks subject to the provisions contained in this Chapter. 

(2) In relation to a collective mark the reference in clause (zb) of sub-section (1) of section 2 to  distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others shall be construed as a reference  to distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others. 

  1. Collective mark not to be misleading as to character or significance.A collective mark shall  not be registered if it is likely to deceive or cause confusion on the part of public in particular if it is likely 

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to be taken to be something other than a collective mark, and in such case the Registrar may require that a  mark in respect of which application is made for registration comprise some indication that it is a  collective mark. 

  1. Application to be accompanied by regulations governing use of collective marks.(1) An  application for registration of a collective mark shall be accompanied by the regulations governing the use  of such collective mark. 

(2) The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify the persons authorised to use the mark,  the conditions of membership of the association and, the conditions of use of the mark, including any  sanctions against misuse and such other matters as may be prescribed. 

  1. Acceptance of application and regulations by Registrar.If it appears to the Registrar that the  requirements for registration are satisfied, he shall accept the application together with the regulations,  either unconditionally or subject to such conditions including amendments of the said regulations, if any,  as he may deem fit or refuse to accept it and if accepted shall notify the regulations. 
  2. Regulations to be open to inspection.The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section  63 shall be open to public inspection in the same way as the register as provided in section 148. 
  3. Amendment of regulations.Any amendment of regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of  section 63 shall not be effective unless the amended regulations are filed with the Registrar, and accepted  and published by him in accordance with section 64. 
  4. Infringement proceedings by registered proprietor of collective mark.In a suit for  infringement instituted by the registered proprietor of a collective mark as plaintiff the court shall take  into account any loss suffered or likely to be suffered by authorised users and may give such directions as  it thinks fit as to the extent to which the plaintiff shall hold the proceeds of any pecuniary remedy on  behalf of such authorised users. 
  5. Additional grounds for removal of registration of collective mark.The registration of a  collective mark may also be removed from the register on the ground— 

(a) that the manner in which the collective mark has been used by the proprietor or authorised  user has caused it to become liable to mislead the public as a collective mark; or 

(b) that the proprietor has failed to observe, or to secure the observance of the regulations governing the use of the mark. 

Explanation I.For the purposes of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, “authorised  user” means a member of an association authorised to use the registered collective mark of the  association. 

Explanation II.For the purposes of this Act, use of a collective mark by an authorised user referred  to in Explanation I shall be deemed to be the use by the registered proprietor thereof. 

CHAPTER IX 

CERTIFICATION TRADE MARKS 

  1. Certain provisions of this Act not applicable to certification trade marks.The following  provisions of this Act shall not apply to certification trade marks, that is to say,— 

(a) clauses (a) and (c) of sub-section (1) of section 9; 

(b) Sections 18, 20 and 21, except as expressly applied by this Chapter; 

(c) Sections 28, 29, 30, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54 and sub-section (2) of section 56; (d) Chapter XII, except section 107. 

  1. Registration of certification trade marks.A mark shall not be registrable as a certification  trade mark in the name of a person who carries on a trade in goods of the kind certified or a trade of the  provision of services of the kind certified.

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  1. Applications for registration of certification trade marks.(1) An application for the  registration of a mark as a certification trade mark shall be made to the Registrar in the prescribed manner  by the person proposed to be registered as the proprietor thereof, and accompanied by a draft for the  regulations to be deposited under section 74. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of section 70, the provisions of sections 18, 19 and 22 shall apply in  relation to an application under this section as they apply in relation to an application under section 18,  subject to the modification that references therein to acceptance of an application shall be construed as  references to authorisation to proceed with an application. 

(3) In dealing under the said provisions with an application under this section, the 1[Registrar or the  High Court, as the case may be,] shall have regard to the like considerations, so far as relevant, as if the  application were applications under section 18 and to any other considerations relevant to applications  under this section, including the desirability of securing that a certification trade mark shall comprise  some indication that it is a certification trade mark. 

  1. Consideration of application for registration by Registrar.(1) The Registrar shall consider  the application made under section 71 with regard to the following matters, namely:— 

(a) whether the applicant is competent to certify the goods in respect of which the mark is to be  registered; 

(b) whether the draft of the regulations to be filed under section 74 is satisfactory; (c) whether in all the circumstances the registration applied for would be to the public advantage, and may either— 

(i) refuse the application; or 

(ii) accept the application and approve the said draft of the regulations either without modification  and unconditionally or subject to any conditions or limitations, or to any amendments or  modifications of the application or of the regulations, which he thinks requisite having regard to any  of the said matters. 

(2) Except in the case of acceptance and approval without modification and unconditionally, the  Registrar shall not decide any matter under sub-section (1) without giving the applicant an opportunity of  being heard. 

  1. Opposition to registration of certification trade marks.When an application has been  accepted, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be thereafter, cause the application as accepted to be  advertised in the prescribed manner, and the provisions of section 21 shall apply in relation to the  registration of the mark as they apply in relation to an application under section 18. 
  2. Filing of regulations governing use of a certification trade mark.(1) There shall be filed at  the Trade Marks Registry in respect of every mark registered as a certification trade mark regulations for  governing the use thereof, which shall include provisions as to the cases in which the proprietor is to  certify goods or services and to authorise the use of the certification trade mark, and may contain any  other provisions which the Registrar may by general or special order, require or permit to be inserted  therein (including provisions conferring a right of appeal to the Registrar against any refusal of the  proprietor to certify goods or to authorise the use of the certification trade mark in accordance with the  regulations); and regulations so filed shall be open to inspection in like manner as the register as provided  in section 148. 

(2) The regulations so filed may, on the application of the registered proprietor, be altered by the  Registrar. 

(3) The Registrar may cause such application to be advertised in any case where it appears to him  expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the time specified in the advertisement any person  gives notice of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall not decide the matter without giving the  parties an opportunity of being heard. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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  1. Infringement of certification trade marks.The right conferred by section 78 is infringed by  any person who, not being the registered proprietor of the certification trade mark or a person authorised  by him in that behalf under the regulations filed under section 74, using it in accordance therewith, uses in  the course of trade, a mark, which is identical with, or deceptively similar to the certification trade mark  in relation to any goods or services in respect of which it is registered, and in such manner as to render the  use of the mark likely to be taken as being a use as a trade mark. 
  2. Acts not constituting infringement of certification trade marks.(1) Notwithstanding  anything contained in this Act, the following acts do not constitute an infringement of the right to the use  of a registered certification trade mark— 

(a) where a certification trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations entered  on the register, the use of any such mark in any mode, in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise  traded in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for  use or available for acceptance in any place, country or territory or in any other circumstances, to  which having regard to any such limitations, the registration does not extend; 

(b) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor  of the mark if, as to those goods or services or a bulk of which they form part, the proprietor or  another in accordance with his authorisation under the relevant regulations has applied the mark and  has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or the proprietor has at any time expressly or  impliedly consented to the use of the mark; 

(c) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services adapted to form part of, or  to be accessory to, other goods in relation to which the mark has been used without infringement of  the right given as aforesaid or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the mark is reasonably  necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so adapted and neither the purpose nor the  effect of the use of the mark is to indicate otherwise than in accordance with the fact that the goods or  services are certified by the proprietor. 

(2) Clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall not apply to the case of use consisting of the application of a  certification trade mark to goods or services, notwithstanding that they are such goods or services as are  mentioned in that clause if such application is contrary to the regulations referred to in that clause. 

(3) Where a certification trade mark is one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act,  which are identical or nearly resemble each other, the use of any of those trade marks in exercise of the  right to the use of that trade mark given by registration, shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the  right so given to the use of any other of those trade marks. 

  1. Cancellation or varying of registration of certification trade marks.The Registrar may, on  the application in the prescribed manner of any person aggrieved and after giving the proprietor an  opportunity of opposing the application, make such order as he thinks fit for expunging or varying any  entry in the register to a certification trade mark, or for varying the regulations, on any of the following  grounds, namely:— 

(a) that the proprietor is no longer competent, in the case of any of the goods or services in  respect of which the mark is registered, to certify those goods or services; 

(b) that the proprietor has failed to observe any provisions of the regulations to be observed on his  part; 

(c) that it is no longer to the public advantage that the mark should remain registered; 

(d) that it is requisite for the public advantage that if the mark remains registered, the regulations  should be varied. 

  1. Rights conferred by registration of certification trade marks.(1) Subject to the provisions  of sections 34, 35 and 76, the registration of a person as a proprietor of certification trade mark in respect  of any goods or services shall, if valid, give to that person the exclusive right to the use of the mark in  relation to those goods or services. 

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a certification trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be  subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

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[CHAPTER X.—SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR TEXTILE GOODS.] Omitted by the Trade Marks  (Amendment) Act, 2010 (40 of 2010), s. 7 (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 

  1. [Textile goods.] Omitted by s. 7, ibid. (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 
  2. [Restriction on registration of textile goods.] Omitted by s. 7, ibid. (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 81. [Stamping of piece goods, cotton yarn and thread.] Omitted by s. 7, ibid. (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 82. [Determination of character of textile goods by sampling.] Omitted by s. 7, ibid. (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). CHAPTER XI 

1[APPEALS

  1. [Establishment of Appellate Board.]—Omitted by The Tribunal Reforms Act, 2021 (33 of 2021),  s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. [Composition of Appellate Board.]—Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 85. [Qualifications for appointment as 3[Chairperson], 4[Vice-Chairperson], or other Members.]— Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  3. [Term of office of 1[Chairperson], 2[Vice-Chairperson] and other Members.]—Omitted by s. 21,  ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  4. [Vice-Chairperson] or senior-most Member to act as [Chairperson] or discharge his functions in  certain circumstances.]— Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  5. [Salaries, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of Chairperson, Vice– [Chairperson] and other Members.]—Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  6. [Resignation and removal.]—Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

2[89A. [Qualifications, terms and conditions of service of Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and member.]—Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

  1. [Staff of Appellate Board.]—Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Appeals to 3[High Court].(1) Any person aggrieved by an order or decision of the Registrar  under this Act, or the rules made thereunder may prefer an appeal to the 3[High Court] within three  months from the date on which the order or decision sought to be appealed against is communicated to  such person preferring the appeal.  

(2) No appeal shall be admitted if it is preferred after the expiry of the period specified under  sub-section (1):  

Provided that an appeal may be admitted after the expiry of the period specified therefor, if the  appellant satisfies the 3[High Court] that he had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal within the  specified period.  

(3) An appeal to the 3[High Court] shall be in the prescribed form and shall be verified in the  prescribed manner and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order or decision appealed against and by  such fees as may be prescribed.  

  1. [Procedure and powers of Appellate Board.]—Omitted by The Tribunal Reforms Act, 2021 (33 of 2021), s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. [Bar of jurisdiction of courts, etc.]Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 4[94. Bar to appear before Registrar.On ceasing to hold the office, the erstwhile Chairperson,  Vice-Chairperson or other Members shall not appear before the Registrar.] 
  3. [Conditions as to making of interim orders.]—Omitted by The Tribunal Reforms Act, 2021 (33 of 2021), s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  4. [Power of 1[Chairperson] to transfer cases from one Bench to another.]Omitted by s. 21, ibid.  (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “APPELLATE BOARD” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by s. 161, ibid. (w.e.f. 26-5-2017). 
  3. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  4. Subs. by s. 21, ibid, for section 94 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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  1. Procedure for application for rectification, etc., before 1[High Court].(1) An application for  rectification of the register made to the 1[High Court] under section 57 shall be in such form as may be  prescribed.  

(2) A certified copy of every order or judgment of the 1[High Court] relating to a registered trade  mark under this Act shall be communicated to the Registrar by the Board and the Registrar shall give  effect to the order of the Board and shall, when so directed, amend the entries in, or rectify, the register in  accordance with such order.  

  1. Appearance of Registrar in legal proceedings.(1) The Registrar shall have the right to appear  and be heard— 

(a) in any legal proceedings before the 1[High Court] in which the relief sought includes  alteration or rectification of the register or in which any question relating to the practice of the Trade  Marks Registry is raised;  

(b) in any appeal to the 2[High Court] from an order of the Registrar on an application for  registration of a trade mark— 

(i) which is not opposed, and the application is either refused by the Registrar or is accepted  by him subject to any amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, or  

(ii) which has been opposed and the Registrar considers that his appearance is necessary in  the public interest,  

and the Registrar shall appear in any case if so directed by the Board.  

(2) Unless the 1[High Court] otherwise directs, the Registrar may, in lieu of appearing, submit a  statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before  him relating to the matter in issue or of the grounds of any decision given by him affecting it, or of the  practice of the Trade Marks Registry in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his  knowledge as Registrar, and such statement shall be evidence in the proceeding.  

  1. [Costs of Registrar in proceedings before Appellate Board.]—Omitted by The Tribunals Reforms  Act, 2021 (33 of 2021), s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).  
  2. [Transfer of pending proceedings to Appellate Board.]—Omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

CHAPTER XII 

OFFENCES, PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE 

  1. Meaning of applying trade marks and trade descriptions.(1) A person shall be deemed to  apply a trade mark or mark or trade description to goods or services who— 

(a) applies it to the goods themselves or uses it in relation to services; or  

(b) applies it to any package in or with which the goods are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in  possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture; or  

(c) places, encloses or annexes any goods which are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in  possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture, in or with any package or other thing  to which a trade mark or mark or trade description has been applied; or  

(d) uses a trade mark or mark or trade description in any manner reasonably likely to lead to the  belief that the goods or services in connection with which it is used are designated or described by  that trade mark or mark or trade description; or  

(e) in relation to the goods or services uses a trade mark or trade description in any sign,  advertisement, invoice, catalogue, business letter, business paper, price list or other commercial  document and goods are delivered or services are rendered to a person in pursuance of a request or  order made by reference to the trade mark or trade description as so used.  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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(2) A trade mark or mark or trade description shall be deemed to be applied to goods whether it is  woven in, impressed on, or otherwise worked into, or annexed or affixed to, the goods or to any package  or other thing.  

  1. Falsifying and falsely applying trade marks.(1) A person shall be deemed to falsify a trade  mark who, either,— 

(a) without the assent of the proprietor of the trade mark makes that trade mark or a deceptively  similar mark; or  

(b) falsifies any genuine trade mark, whether by alteration, addition, effacement or otherwise.  

(2) A person shall be deemed to falsely apply to goods or services a trade mark who, without the  assent of the proprietor of the trade mark,— 

(a) applies such trade mark or a deceptively similar mark to goods or services or any package  containing goods;  

(b) uses any package bearing a mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the trade  mark of such proprietor, for the purpose of packing, filling or wrapping therein any goods other than  the genuine goods of the proprietor of the trade mark.  

(3) Any trade mark falsified as mentioned in sub-section (1) or falsely applied as mentioned in  sub-section (2), is in this Act referred to as a false trade mark.  

(4) In any prosecution for falsifying a trade mark or falsely applying a trade mark to goods or  services, the burden of proving the assent of the proprietor shall lie on the accused.  

  1. Penalty for applying false trade marks, trade descriptions, etc.Any person who(a) falsifies any trade mark; or  

(b) falsely applies to goods or services any trade mark; or  

(c) makes, disposes of, or has in his possession, any die, block, machine, plate or other instrument  for the purpose of falsifying or of being used for falsifying, a trade mark; or 

(d) applies any false trade description to goods or services; or  

(e) applies to any goods to which an indication of the country or place in which they were made  or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer or person for whom the goods are  manufactured is required to be applied under section 139, a false indication of such country, place,  name or address; or  

(f) tampers with, alters or effaces an indication of origin which has been applied to any goods to  which it is required to be applied under section 139; or  

(g) causes any of the things above mentioned in this section to be done,  

shall, unless he proves that he acted, without intent to defraud, be punishable with imprisonment for a  term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which  shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:  

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment,  impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand  rupees. 

  1. Penalty for selling goods or providing services to which false trade mark or false trade  description is applied.Any person who sells, lets for hire or exposes for sale, or hires or has in his  possession for sale, goods or things, or provides or hires services, to which any false trade mark or false  trade description is applied or which, being required under section 139 to have applied to them an  indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the  manufacturer, or person for whom the goods are manufactured or services provided, as the case may be,  are without the indications so required, shall, unless he proves,— 

(a) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against this  section, he had at the time of commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the genuineness 

37 

of the trade mark or trade description or that any offence had been committed in respect of the goods  or services; or  

(b) that, on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power  with respect to the person from whom he obtained such goods or things or services; or  

(c) that otherwise he had acted innocently,  

be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may  extend to two lakh rupees:  

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment,  impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand  rupees.  

  1. Enhanced penalty on second or subsequent conviction.Whoever having already been convicted  of an offence under section 103 or section 104 is again convicted of any such offence shall be punishable  for the second and for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less  than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh  rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:  

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reason to be mentioned in the judgement,  impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than one year or a fine of less than one lakh rupees:  

Provided further that for the purposes of this section, no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction  made before the commencement of this Act.  

  1. Penalty for removing piece goods, etc., contrary to section 81.If any person removes or  attempts to remove or causes or attempts to cause to be removed for sale from any premises referred to in  section 81 or sells or exposes for sale or has in his possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or  manufacture piece goods or cotton yarn or cotton thread which is not marked as required by that section,  every such piece and every such bundle of yarn and all such thread and everything used for the packing  thereof shall be forfeited to Government and such person shall be punishable with fine which may extend  to one thousand rupees.  
  2. Penalty for falsely representing a trade mark as registered.(1) No person shall make any  representation— 

(a) with respect to a mark, not being a registered trade mark, to the effect that it is a registered  trade mark; or  

(b) with respect to a part of a registered trade mark, not being a part separately registered as a  trade mark, to the effect that it is separately registered as a trade mark; or  

(c) to the effect that a registered trade mark is registered in respect of any goods or services in  respect of which it is not in fact registered; or  

(d) to the effect that registration of a trade mark gives an exclusive right to the use thereof in any  circumstances in which, having regard to limitation entered on the register, the registration does not in  fact give that right.  

(2) If any person contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with  imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.  

(3) For the purposes of this section, the use in India in relation to a trade mark of the word  “registered”, or of any other expression, symbol or sign referring whether expressly or impliedly to  registration, shall be deemed to import a reference to registration in the register, except— 

(a) where that word or other expression, symbol or sign is used in direct association with other  words delineated in characters at least as large as those in which that word or other expression,  symbol or sign is delineated and indicating that the reference is to registration as a trade mark under  the law of a country outside India being a country under the law of which the registration referred to  is in fact in force; or 

38 

(b) where that other expression, symbol or sign is of itself such as to indicate that the reference is  to such registration as is mentioned in clause (a); or  

(c) where that word is used in relation to a mark registered as a trade mark under the law of a  country outside India and in relation solely to goods to be exported to that country or in relation to  services for use in that country.  

  1. Penalty for improperly describing a place of business as connected with the Trade Marks  Office.If any person uses on his place of business, or on any document issued by him, or otherwise,  words which would reasonably lead to the belief that his place of business is, or is officially connected  with, the Trade Marks Office, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to  two years, or with fine, or with both.  
  2. Penalty for falsification of entries in the register.If any person makes, or causes to be  made, a false entry in the register, or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in the register,  or produces or tenders or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing, knowing the  entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two  years, or with fine, or with both.  
  3. No offence in certain cases.The provisions of sections 102, 103, 104 and 105 shall, in  relation to a registered trade mark or proprietor of such mark, be subject to the rights created or  recognised by this Act and no act or omission shall be deemed to be an offence under the aforesaid  sections if,— 

(a) the alleged offence relates to a registered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted  under this Act; and  

(b) the alleged offence relates to a registered or an unregistered trade mark and the act or  omission is permitted under any other law for the time being in force.  

  1. Forfeiture of goods.(1) Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 103 or  section 104 or section 105 or is acquitted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 on proof that he  acted without intent to defraud, or under section 104 on proof of the matters specified in clause (a),  clause (b) or clause (c) of that section, the court convicting or acquitting him may direct the forfeiture to  Government of all goods and things by means of, or in relation to, which the offence has been committed,  or but for such proof as aforesaid would have been committed.  

(2) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction and an appeal lies against the conviction, an appeal  shall lie against the forfeiture also.  

(3) When a forfeiture is directed on acquittal and the goods or things to which the direction relates are  of value exceeding fifty rupees, an appeal against the forfeiture may be preferred, within thirty days from  the date of the direction, to the court to which in appealable cases appeals lie from sentences of the court  which directed the forfeiture.  

(4) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction, the court, before whom the person is convicted, may  order any forfeited articles to be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the court thinks fit.  

  1. Exemption of certain persons employed in ordinary course of business.Where a person  accused of an offence under section 103 proves— 

(a) that in the ordinary course of his business he is employed on behalf of other persons to apply  trade marks or trade descriptions, or as the case may be, to make dies, blocks, machines, plates, or  other instruments for making, or being used in making, trade marks; and  

(b) that in the case which is the subject of the charge he was so employed, and was not interested  in the goods or other thing by way of profit or commission dependent on the sale of such goods or  providing of services, as the case may be; and  

(c) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing the offence charged, he had,  at the time of the commission of the alleged offence, no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade  mark or trade description; and  

(d) that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his  power with respect to the persons on whose behalf the trade mark or trade description was applied, 

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he shall be acquitted.  

  1. Procedure where invalidity of registration is pleaded by the accused.(1) Where the  offence charged under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 is in relation to a registered trade mark  and the accused pleads that the registration of the trade mark is invalid, the following procedure shall be  followed:— 

(a) If the court is satisfied that such defence is prima facie tenable, it shall not proceed with the  charge but shall adjourn the proceeding for three months from the date on which the plea of the  accused is recorded to enable the accused to file an application before the 1[High Court] under this  Act, for the rectification of the register on the ground that the registration is invalid.  

(b) If the accused proves to the court that he has made such application within the time so limited  or within such further time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the further proceedings in the  prosecution shall stand stayed till the disposal of such application for rectification.  

(c) If within a period of three months or within such extended time as may be allowed by the  court the accused fails to apply to the 1[High Court] for rectification of the register, the court shall  proceed with the case as if the registration were valid.  

(2) Where before the institution of a complaint of an offence referred to in sub-section (1), any  application for the rectification of the register concerning the trade mark in question on the ground of  invalidity of the registration thereof has already been properly made to and is pending before the  2[Registrar or the High Court, as the case may be,], the court shall stay the further proceedings in the  prosecution pending the disposal of the application aforesaid and shall determine the charge against the  accused in conformity with the result of the application for rectification in so far as the complainant relies  upon the registration of his mark.  

  1. Offences by companies.(1) If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company,  the company as well as every person in charge of, and responsible to, the company for the conduct of its  business at the time of the commission of the offence shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall  be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:  

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any  punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all  due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.  

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been  committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or  connivance of, or that the commission of the offence is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any  director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other  officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and  punished accordingly.  

Explanation.For the purposes of this section— 

(a) “company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals;  and  

(b) “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.  

  1. Cognizance of certain offences and the powers of police officer for search and seizure.(1)  No court shall take cognizance of an offence under section 107 or section 108 or section 109 except on  complaint in writing made by the Registrar or any officer authorised by him in writing:  

Provided that in relation to clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 107, a court shall take cognizance  of an offence on the basis of a certificate issued by the Registrar to the effect that a registered trade mark  has been represented as registered in respect of any goods or services in respect of which it is not in fact  registered.  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

40 

(2) No court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall  try an offence under this Act.  

(3) The offences under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 shall be cognizable.  (4) Any police officer not below the rank of deputy superintendent of police or equivalent, may, if he  is satisfied that any of the offences referred to in sub-section (3) has been, is being, or is likely to be,  committed, search and seize without warrant the goods, die, block, machine, plate, other instruments or  things involved in committing the offence, wherever found, and all the articles so seized shall, as soon as  practicable, be produced before a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the  case may be:  

Provided that the police officer, before making any search and seizure, shall obtain the opinion of the  Registrar on facts involved in the offence relating to trade mark and shall abide by the opinion so  obtained.  

(5) Any person having an interest in any article seized under sub-section (4), may, within fifteen days  of such seizure, make an application to the Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan  Magistrate, as the case may be, for such article being restored to him and the Magistrate, after hearing the  applicant and the prosecution, shall make such order on the application as he may deem fit.  

  1. Evidence of origin of goods imported by sea.In the case of goods brought into India by sea,  evidence of the port of shipment shall, in a prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b)  of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962) relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of  section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of  the said Act for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods, be prima facie evidence of the  place or country in which the goods were made or produced.  
  2. Costs of defence or prosecution.In any prosecution under this Act, the court may order such  costs to be paid by the accused to the complainant, or by the complainant to the accused, as the court  deems reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case and the conduct of the parties and the  costs so awarded shall be recoverable as if they were a fine.  
  3. Limitation of prosecution.No prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b)  of section 112 of the Customs Act,1962 (52 of 1962), relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of  section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of  the said Act for the protection of trade marks, relating to import of goods shall be commenced after  expiration of three years next after the commission of the offence charged, or two years after the  discovery thereof by the prosecutor, whichever expiration first-happens.  
  4. Information as to commission of offence.An officer of the Government whose duty it is to  take part in the enforcement of the provisions of this Chapter shall not be compelled in any court to say  whence he got any information as to the commission of any offence against this Act.  
  5. Punishment of abetment in India of acts done out of India.If any person, being within  India, abets the commission, without India, of any act which, if committed in India, would, under this  Act, be an offence, he may be tried for such abetment in any place in India in which he may be found, and  be punished therefor with the punishment to which he would be liable if he had himself committed in that  place the act which he abetted.  
  6. Instructions of Central Government as to permissible variation to be observed by criminal  courts.The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, issue instructions for the  limits of variation, as regards number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight which are to be recognised by  criminal courts as permissible in the case of any goods.  

CHAPTER XIII 

MISCELLANEOUS 

  1. Protection of action taken in good faith.No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against  any person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this  Act. 

41 

  1. Certain persons to be public servants.Every person appointed under this Act 1*** shall be  deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).  
  2. Stay of proceedings where the validity of registration of the trade mark is questioned,  etc.(1) Where in any suit for infringement of a trade mark— 

(a) the defendant pleads that registration of the plaintiff’s trade mark is invalid; or  

(b) the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the  plaintiff pleads the invalidity of registration of the defendant’s trade mark,  

the court trying the suit (hereinafter referred to as the court), shall,— 

(i) if any proceedings for rectification of the register in relation to the plaintiff’s or defendant’s  trade mark are pending before the Registrar or the 2[High Court], stay the suit pending the final  disposal of such proceedings;  

(ii) if no such proceedings are pending and the court is satisfied that the plea regarding the  invalidity of the registration of the plaintiff’s or defendant’s trade mark is prima facie tenable, raise  an issue regarding the same and adjourn the case for a period of three months from the date of the  framing of the issue in order to enable the party concerned to apply to the 2[High Court] for  rectification of the register.  

(2) If the party concerned proves to the court that he has made any such application as is referred to in  clause (b) (ii) of sub-section (1) within the time specified therein or within such extended time as the  court may for sufficient cause allow, the trial of the suit shall stand stayed until the final disposal of the  rectification proceedings.  

(3) If no such application as aforesaid has been made within the time so specified or within such  extended time as the court may allow, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark  concerned shall be deemed to have been abandoned and the court shall proceed with the suit in regard to  the other issues in the case.  

(4) The final order made in any rectification proceedings referred to in sub-section (1) or  sub-section (2) shall be binding upon the parties and the court shall dispose of the suit conformably to  such order in so far as it relates to the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark.  

(5) The stay of a suit for the infringement of a trade mark under this section shall not preclude the  court from making any interlocutory order (including any order granting an injunction, directing account  to be kept, appointing a receiver or attaching any property), during the period of the stay of the suit.  

  1. Application for rectification of register to be made to 2[High Court] in certain cases.(1)  Where in a suit for infringement of a registered trade mark the validity of the registration of the plaintiff’s  trade mark is questioned by the defendant or where in any such suit the defendant raises a defence under  clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff questions the validity of the registration of the  defendant’s trade mark, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be  determined only on an application for the rectification of the register and, notwithstanding anything  contained in section 47 or section 57, such application shall be made to the 2[High Court] and not the  Registrar.  

(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), where an application for rectification of the register is  made to the Registrar under section 47 or section 57, the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, refer the  application at any stage of the proceedings to the 2[High Court].  

  1. Implied warranty on sale of marked goods.Where a mark or a trade mark or trade  description has been applied to the goods on sale or in the contract for sale of any goods or in relation to  any service, the seller shall be deemed to warrant that the mark is a genuine mark and not falsely applied,  or that the trade description is not a false trade description within the meaning of this Act unless the  contrary is expressed in writing signed by or on behalf of the seller and delivered at the time of the sale of  goods or providing of services on contract to and accepted by the buyer.  

  

  1. The words “and every Member of the Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 2. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

42 

  1. Powers of Registrar.In all proceedings under this Act before the Registrar,— 

(a) the Registrar shall have all the powers of a civil court for the purposes of receiving evidence,  administering oaths, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production  of documents and issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses; 

(b) the Registrar may, subject to any rules made in this behalf under section 157, make such  orders as to costs as he considers reasonable, and any such order shall be executable as a decree of a  civil court:  

Provided that the Registrar shall have no power to award costs to or against any party on an  appeal to him against a refusal of the proprietor of a certification trade mark to certify goods or  provision of services or to authorise the use of the mark;  

(c) the Registrar may, on an application made in the prescribed manner, review his own decision.  

  1. Exercise of discretionary power by Registrar.Subject to the provisions of section 131, the  Registrar shall not exercise any discretionary or other power vested to him by this Act or the rules made  thereunder adversely to a person applying for the exercise of that power without (if so required by that  person within the prescribed time) giving to the person an opportunity of being heard.  
  2. Evidence before Registrar.In any proceeding under this Act before the Registrar, evidence  shall be given by affidavit:  

Provided that the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such  evidence by affidavit.  

  1. Death of party to a proceeding.If a person who is a party to a proceeding under this Act (not  being a proceeding before 1*** a court) dies pending the proceeding, the Registrar may, on request, and  on proof to his satisfaction of the transmission of the interest of the deceased person, substitute in the  proceeding his successor in interest in his place, or, if the Registrar is of opinion that the interest of the  deceased person is sufficiently represented by the surviving parties, permit the proceeding to continue  without the substitution of his successor in interest.  
  2. Extension of time.(1) If the Registrar is satisfied, on application made to him in the  prescribed manner and accompanied by the prescribed fee, that there is sufficient cause for extending the  time for doing any act (not being a time expressly provided in this Act), whether the time so specified has  expired or not, he may, subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose, extend the time and  inform the parties accordingly.  

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to require the Registrar to hear the parties before  disposing of an application for extension of time, and no appeal shall lie from any order of the Registrar  under this section.  

  1. Abandonment.Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the  prosecution of an application filed under this Act or any Act relating to trade marks in force prior to the  commencement of this Act, the Registrar may, by notice require the applicant to remedy the default  within a time specified and after giving him, if so, desired, an opportunity of being heard, treat the  application as abandoned, unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.  
  2. Preliminary advice by the Registrar as to distinctiveness.(1) The Registrar may, on  application made to him in the prescribed manner by any person who proposes to apply for the  registration of a trade mark, give advice as to whether the trade mark appears to him prima facie to be  distinctive.  

(2) If, on an application for the registration of a trade mark as to which the Registrar has given advice  as aforesaid in the affirmative made within three months after the advice was given, the Registrar, after  further investigation or consideration, gives notice, to the applicant of objection on the ground that the  trade mark is not distinctive, the applicant shall be entitled, on giving notice of withdrawal of the  application within the prescribed period, to have repaid to him any fee paid on the filing of the  application.  

  

  1. The words “the Appellate Board or” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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  1. Suit for infringement, etc., to be instituted before District Court.(1) No suit(a) for the infringement of a registered trade mark; or  

(b) relating to any right in a registered trade mark; or  

(c) for passing off arising out of the use by the defendant of any trade mark which is identical  with or deceptively similar to the plaintiff’s trade mark, whether registered or unregistered,  

shall be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court having jurisdiction to try the suit.  

(2) For the purpose of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1), a “District Court having jurisdiction”  shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or any other  law for the time being in force, include a District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction, at the  time of the institution of the suit or other proceeding, the person instituting the suit or proceeding, or,  where there are more than one such persons any of them, actually and voluntarily resides or carries on  business or personally works for gain.  

Explanation.For the purposes of sub-section (2), “person” includes the registered proprietor and  the registered user.  

  1. Relief in suits for infringement or for passing off.(1) The relief which a court may grant in  any suit for infringement or for passing off referred to in section 134 includes injunction (subject to such  terms, if any, as the court thinks fit) and at the option of the plaintiff, either damages or an account of  profits, together with or without any order for the delivery-up of the infringing labels and marks for  destruction or erasure.  

(2) The order of injunction under sub-section (1) may include an ex parte injunction or any  interlocutory order for any of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) for discovery of documents;  

(b) preserving of infringing goods, documents or other evidence which are related to the  subject-matter of the suit;  

(c) restraining the defendant from disposing of or dealing with his assets in a manner which may  adversely affect plaintiff’s ability to recover damages, costs or other pecuniary remedies which may  be finally awarded to the plaintiff.  

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the court shall not grant relief by way of  damages (other than nominal damages) or on account of profits in any case— 

(a) where in a suit for infringement of a trade mark, the infringement complained of is in relation  to a certification trade mark or collective mark; or 

(b) where in a suit for infringement the defendant satisfies the court— 

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit, he was  unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was on  the register or that the plaintiff was a registered user using by way of permitted use; and 

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff’s right in the trade  mark, he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of  which it was registered; or 

(c) where in a suit for passing off, the defendant satisfies the court— 

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit, he was  unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark for the plaintiff was in  use; and 

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff’s trade mark he  forthwith ceased to use the trade mark complained of. 

  1. Registered user to be impleaded in certain proceedings.(1) In every proceeding under  chapter VII or under section 91, every registered user of a trade mark using by way of permitted use, who 

44 

is not himself an applicant in respect of any proceeding under that Chapter or section, shall be made a  party to the proceeding. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered user so made a party to the  proceeding shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the  proceeding. 

  1. Evidence of entries in register, etc., and things done by the Registrar.(1) A copy of any  entry in the register or of any document referred to in sub-section (1) of section 148 purporting to be  certified by the Registrar and sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry shall be admitted in  evidence in all courts and in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original. 

(2) A certificate purporting to be under the hand of the Registrar as to any entry, matter or thing that  he is authorised by this Act or the rules to make or do shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having  been made, and of the contents thereof, or of the matter or things having been done or not done. 

  1. Registrar and other officers not compellable to produce register, etc.—The Registrar or any  officer of the Trade Marks Registry shall not, in any legal proceedings to which he is not a party, be  compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody, the contents of which can be  proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear as a witness to prove the  matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special cause. 
  2. Power to require goods to show indication of origin.(1) The Central Government may, by  notification in the Official Gazette, require that goods of any class specified in the notification which are  made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, or, which are made or produced  within the limits of India, shall, from such date as may be appointed by the notification not being less than  three months from its issue, have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were  made or produced, or of the name and address of the manufacturer or the person for whom the goods were  manufactured. 

(2) The notification may specify the manner in which such indication shall be applied that is to say,  whether to goods themselves or in any other manner, and the times or occasions on which the presence of  the indication shall be necessary, that is to say, whether on importation only, or also at the time of sale,  whether by wholesale or retail or both. 

(3) No notification under this section shall be issued, unless application is made for its issue by  persons or associations substantially representing the interests of dealers in, or manufacturers, producers,  or users of, the goods concerned, or unless the Central Government is otherwise convinced that it is  necessary in the public interest to issue the notification, with or without such inquiry, as the Central  Government may consider necessary. 

(4) The provisions of section 23 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897) shall apply to the  issue of a notification under this section as they apply to the making of a rule or bye-law the making of  which is subject to the condition of previous publication. 

(5) A notification under this section shall not apply to goods made or produced beyond the limits of  India and imported into India, if in respect of those goods, the Commissioner of Customs is satisfied at  the time of importation that they are intended for exportation whether after transshipment in or transit  through India or otherwise. 

  1. Power to require information of imported goods bearing false trade marks.(1) The  proprietor or a licensee of a registered trade mark may give notice in writing to the Collector of Customs  to prohibit the importation of any goods if the import of the said goods constitute infringement under  clause (c) of sub-section (6) of section 29. 

(2) Where goods, which are prohibited to be imported into India by notification of the Central  Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), for  the protection of trade marks, and are liable to confiscation on importation under that Act, are imported  into India, the Commissioner of Customs if, upon representation made to him, he has reason to believe  that the trade mark complained of is used as a false trade mark, may require the importer of the goods, or  his agent, to produce any documents in his possession relating to the goods and to furnish information as 

45 

to the name and address of the person by whom the goods were consigned to India and the name and  address of the person to whom the goods were sent in India. 

(3) The importer or his agent shall, within fourteen days, comply with the requirement as aforesaid,  and if he fails to do so, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees. 

(4) Any information obtained from the importer of the goods or his agent under this section may be  communicated by the Commissioner of Customs to the registered proprietor or registered user of the trade  mark which is alleged to have been used as a false trade mark. 

  1. Certificate of validity.—If in any legal proceeding for rectification of the register before the  1[High Court] a decision is on contest given in favour of the registered proprietor of the trade mark on the  issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark, the 1[High Court] may grant a certificate to  that effect, and if such a certificate is granted, then, in any subsequent legal proceeding in which the said  validity comes into question the said proprietor on obtaining a final order or judgment in his favour  affirming validity of the registration of the trade mark shall, unless the said final order or judgment for  sufficient reason directs otherwise, be entitled to his full cost charges and expenses as between legal  practitioner and client. 
  2. Groundless threats of legal proceedings.(1) Where a person, by means of circulars,  advertisements or otherwise, threatens a person with an action or proceeding for infringement of a trade  mark which is registered, or alleged by the first-mentioned person to be registered, or with some other  like proceeding, a person aggrieved may, whether the person making the threats is or is not the registered  proprietor or the registered user of the trade mark, bring a suit against the first-mentioned person and may  obtain a declaration to the effect that the threats are unjustifiable, and an injunction against the  continuance of the threats and may recover such damages (if any) as he has sustained, unless the  first-mentioned person satisfies the court that the trade mark is registered and that the acts in respect of  which the proceedings were threatened, constitute, or, if done, would constitute, an infringement of the  trade mark. 

(2) The last preceding sub-section does not apply if the registered proprietor of the trade mark, or a  registered user acting in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 52 with due diligence commences and  prosecutes an action against the person threatened for infringement of the trade mark. 

(3) Nothing in this section shall render a legal practitioner or a registered trade marks agent liable to  an action under this section in respect of an act done by him in his professional capacity on behalf of a  client. 

(4) A suit under sub-section (1) shall not be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court. 

  1. Address for service.An address for service stated in an application or notice of opposition  shall for the purposes of the application or notice of opposition be deemed to be the address of the  applicant or opponent, as the case may be, and all documents in relation to the application or notice of  opposition may be served by leaving them at or sending them by post to the address for service of the  applicant or opponent, as the case may be. 
  2. Trade usages, etc., to be taken into consideration.In any proceeding relating to a trade  mark, the 2[Registrar or the High Court, as the case may be,] shall admit evidence of the usages of the  trade concerned and of any relevant trade mark or trade name or get up legitimately used by other  persons. 
  3. Agents.Where, by or under this Act, any act, other than the making of an affidavit, is required  to be done before the Registrar by any person, the act may, subject to the rules made in this behalf, be  done instead of by that person himself, by a person duly authorised in the prescribed manner, who is— 

(a) a legal practitioner, or 

(b) a person registered in the prescribed manner as a trade marks agent, or 

(c) a person in the sole and regular employment of the principal. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “tribunal” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

46 

  1. Marks registered by an agent or representative without authority.If an agent or a  representative of the proprietor of a registered trade mark, without authority uses or attempts to register or  registers the mark in his own name, the proprietor shall be entitled to oppose the registration applied for  or secure its cancellation or rectification of the register so as to bring him as the registered proprietor of  the said mark by assignment in his favour: 

Provided that such action shall be taken within three years of the registered proprietor of the trade  mark becoming aware of the conduct of the agent or representative. 

  1. Indexes.There shall be kept under the direction and supervision of the Registrar(a) an index of registered trade marks; 

(b) an index of trade marks in respect of which applications for registration are pending; (c) an index of the names of the proprietors of registered trade marks; and 

(d) an index of the names of registered users. 

  1. Documents open to public inspection.(1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (4) of  section 49,— 

(a) the register and any document upon which any entry in the register is based; 

(b) every notice of opposition to the registration of a trade mark application for rectification  before the Registrar, counter-statement thereto, and any affidavit or document filed by the parties in  any proceedings before the Registrar; 

(c) all regulations deposited under section 63 or section 74, and all applications under section 66  or section 77 for varying such regulations; 

(d) the indexes mentioned in section 147; and 

(e) such other documents as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,  specify, 

shall, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, be open to public inspection at the Trade Marks  Registry: 

Provided that when such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer, the inspection of such  register under this section shall be made by inspecting the computer printout of the relevant entry in the  register so maintained on computer. 

(2) Any person may, on an application to the Registrar and on payment of such fees as may be  prescribed, obtain a certified copy of any entry in the register or any document referred to in  sub-section (1). 

  1. Reports of Registrar to be placed before Parliament.The Central Government shall cause  to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution by or under  the Registrar of this Act. 
  2. Fees and surcharge.(1) There shall be paid in respect of 1[applications, international  applications] and registration and other matters under this Act such fees and surcharge as may be  prescribed by the Central Government. 

(2) Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Registrar, the Registrar shall not do  that act until the fee has been paid. 

(3) Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the Trade Marks Registry, the  document shall be deemed not to have been filed at the Registry until the fee has been paid. 

  1. Savings in respect of certain matters in Chapter XII.Nothing in Chapter XII shall— 

(a) exempt any person from any suit or other proceeding which might, but for anything in that  Chapter, be brought against him; or 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 40 of 2010, s. 8, for “applications” (w.e.f. 8-7-2013).

47 

(b) entitle any person to refuse to make a complete discovery, or to answer any question or  interrogatory in any suit or other proceeding, but such discovery or answer shall not be admissible in  evidence against such person in any such prosecution for an offence under that Chapter or against  clause (h) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962) relating to confiscation of goods  under clause (d) of section 111 of that Act and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of  sub-section (2) of section 11 thereof for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods; or 

(c) be construed so as to render liable to any prosecution or punishment any servant of a master  resident in India who in good faith acts in obedience to the instructions of such master, and, on  demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, has given full information as to his master and as to  the instructions which he has received from his master. 

  1. Declaration as to ownership of trade mark not registrable under the Registration  Act, 1908.Notwithstanding anything contained in the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), no  document declaring or purporting to declare the ownership or title of a person to a trade mark other than a  registered trade mark shall be registered under that Act. 
  2. Government to be bound.The provisions of this Act shall be binding on the Government. 
  3. Special provisions relating to applications for registration from citizens of convention  countries.(1) With a view to the fulfilment of a treaty, convention or arrangement with any country or  country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental  Organisation outside India which affords to citizens of India similar privileges as granted to its own  citizens, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such country or  group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation to be a convention country  or group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation, as the case may be, for  the purposes of this Act. 

(2) Where a person has made an application for the registration of a trade mark in a convention  country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental  Organisation and that person, or his legal representative or assignee, makes an application for the  registration of the trade mark in India within six months after the date on which the application was made  in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or  Inter-Governmental Organisations, the trade mark shall, if registered under this Act, be registered as of  the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a  group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation and that date shall be  deemed for the purposes of this Act to be the date of registration. 

(3) Where applications have been made for the registration of a trade mark in two or more convention  countries or country which are members of group of countries or union of countries or  Inter-Governmental Organisation, the period of six months referred to in the last preceding sub-section  shall be reckoned from the date on which the earlier or earliest of those applications was made. 

(4) Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor of a trade mark to recover damages for infringement  which took place prior to the date of application for registration under this Act. 

  1. Provision as to reciprocity.Where any country or country which is a member of a group of  countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation specified by the Central Government  in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of India the same rights in  respect of the registration and protection of trade marks as it accords to its own nationals, no national of  such country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisation, as the case may be, shall be entitled, either solely or jointly with any other  person,— 

(a) to apply for the registration of, or be registered as the proprietor of, a trade mark; (b) to be registered as the assignee of the proprietor of a registered trade mark; or (c) to apply for registration or be registered as a registered user of a trade mark under section 49. 

  1. Power of Central Government to remove difficulties.(1) If any difficulty arises in giving  effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official 

48 

Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to be  necessary for removing the difficulty: 

Provided that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of five years from the  commencement of this Act. 

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each  House of Parliament. 

  1. Power to make rules.(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official  Gazette and subject to the conditions of previous publication, make rules to carry out the provisions of  this Act. 

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may  provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(i) the matters to be included in the Register of Trade Marks under sub-section (1) of section 6,  and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of records on computer floppies or diskettes or  in any other electronic form under sub-section (2) of that section; 

(ii) the manner of publication of alphabetical index of classification of goods and services under  sub-section (1) of section 8; 

(iii) the manner in which the Registrar may notify a word as an international non-proprietary  name under section 13; 

(iv) the manner of making an application for dissolution of an association under sub-section (5) of  section 16; 

(v) the manner of making an application for registration of a trade mark under sub-section (1) of  section 18; 

(vi) the manner of advertising of an application for registration under sub-section (1), and the  manner of notifying corrections or amendments under sub-section (2), of section 20; 

1[(vii) the manner of giving a notice of opposition and the fee payable for such notice under  sub-section (1) and sending counter-statement under sub-section (2) and submission of evidence and  the time therefor under sub-section (4) of section 21;] 

(viii) the form of certificate of registration under sub-section (2), and the manner of giving notice  to the applicant under sub-section (3) of section 23; 

(ix) the forms of application for renewal and restoration the time within which such application is  to be made and fee and surcharge if any payable with each application, under section 25 and the time  within which the Registrar shall send a notice and the manner of such notice under  sub-section (3) of that section; 

2[(ixa) the time within which the international application is to be forwarded to the International  Bureau and the manner of certifying the particulars by the Registrar under sub-section (4) of section  36D; 

(ixb) the manner of keeping a record of particulars of an international registration under  sub-section (1) of section 36E; 

(ixc) the manner of informing the International Bureau under sub-section (2) of section 36E; 

(ixd) the manner of advertising the international registration and the time within which the  international registration shall be advertised under sub-section (3) of section 39E;] 

(x) the manner of submitting statement of cases under sub-section (2) of section 40; (xi) the manner of making an application by the proprietor of a trade mark under section 41; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 40 of 2010, s. 9, for clause (vii) (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 
  2. Ins. by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 8-7-2013).

49 

(xii) the manner of making an application for assignment or transmission of a certification trade  mark under section 43; 

(xiii) the manner of making an application to the Registrar to register title under sub-section (1) of  section 45; 

2[(xiiia) the period within which the Registrar shall dispose of an application under  sub-section (3) of section 45;] 

(xiv) the manner in which and the period within which an application is to be made under  sub-section (4) of section 46; 

(xv) the manner of making an application under sub-section (2) of section 47; 

(xvi) the manner of making an application, documents and other evidence to accompany such  application under sub-section (1) and the manner in which notice is to be issued under sub-section (3)  of section 49; 

(xvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of issuing a notice  under sub-section (2) and the procedure for cancelling a registration under sub-section (3) of  section 50; 

(xviii) the manner of making applications under sub-sections (1) and (2), the manner of giving  notice under sub-section (4) and the manner of service of notice of rectification under sub-section (5)  of section 57; 

(xix) the manner of making an application under section 58; 

(xx) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of advertising an  application, time and manner of notice by which application may be opposed under sub-sections (2)  and (3) of section 59; 

(xxi) the manner of advertisement under sub-section (2) of section 60; 

(xxii) the other matters to be specified in the regulations under sub-section (2) of section 63; (xxiii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) of section 71; 

(xxiv) the manner of advertising an application under section 73; 

(xxv) the manner of making an application under section 77; 

1* * * * * 

(xxix) the salaries and allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, the  2[Chairperson], 3[Vice-Chairperson] and other Members under sub-section (1) of section 88; 

(xxx) the procedure for investigation of misbehavior or incapacity of the 1[Chairperson],  2[Vice-Chairperson] and other Members under sub-section (3) of section 89; 

4* * * * * 

(xxxiii) the form in which and the particulars to be included in the application to the 5[High Court] under sub-section (1) of section 97; 

(xxxiv) the manner of making an application for review under clause (c) of section 127; 

(xxxv) the time within which an application is to be made to the Registrar for exercising his  discretionary power under section 128; 

(xxxvi) the manner of making an application and the fee payable therefor under sub-section (1) of  section 131; 

  

  1. Cls. (xxvi), (xxvii) and (xxviii) omitted by Act 40 of 2010, s. 9 (w.e.f. 8-7-2013). 
  2. Subs. by Act 7 of 2017, s. 161, for “Chairman” (w.e.f. 26-5-2017). 
  3. Subs. by s. 161, ibid., for “Vice-Chairman” (w.e.f. 26-5-2017). 
  4. Clauses (xxxi) and (xxxii) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 21 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  5. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

50 

(xxxvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) and the period for withdrawal  of such application under sub-section (2) of section 133; 

(xxxviii) the manner of authorising any person to act and the manner of registration as a trade  mark agent under section 145; 

(xxxix) the conditions for inspection of documents under sub-section (1) and the fee payable for  obtaining a certified copy of any entry in the register under sub-section (2) of section 148; 

(xl) the fees and surcharge payable for making applications and registration and other matters  under section 150; 

(xli) any other matter which is required to be or may be prescribed. 

(3) The power to make rules conferred by this section shall include the power to give retrospective  effect in respect of the matters referred to in clauses (xxix) and (xxxi) of sub-section (2) from a date not  earlier than the date of commencement of this Act, but no retrospective effect shall be given to any such  rule so as to prejudicially affect the interests of any person to whom sub-rule may be applicable. 

(4) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it  is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may  be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session  immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any  modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter  have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such  modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under  that rule. 

  1. Amendments.The enactment specified in the Schedule shall be amended in the manner  specified therein. 
  2. Repeal and savings.(1) The Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) is hereby  repealed. 

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1987), with  respect to repeals, any notification, rule, order, requirement, registration, certificate, notice, decision,  determination, direction, approval, authorisation, consent, application, request or thing made, issued,  given or done under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) shall, if in force at the  commencement of this Act, continue to be in force and have effect as if made, issued, given or done under  the corresponding provisions of this Act. 

(3) The provisions of this Act shall apply to any application for registration of a trade mark pending at  the commencement of this Act and to any proceedings consequent thereon and to any registration granted in pursuance thereof. 

(4) Subject to the provisions of section 100 and notwithstanding anything contained in any other  provision of this Act, any legal proceeding pending in any court at the commencement of this Act may be  continued in that court as if this Act had not been passed. 

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, where a particular use of a registered trade mark  is not an infringement of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act, then, the  continued use of that mark shall not be an infringement under this Act. 

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the date of expiration of registration of a  trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act shall be the date immediately after the period  of seven years for which it was registered or renewed: 

Provided that the registration of a defensive trade mark referred to in section 47 of the Trade and  Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) shall cease to have effect on the date immediately after the  expiry of five years of such commencement or after the expiry of the period for which it was registered or renewed, whichever is earlier.

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THE SCHEDULE 

(See section 158) 

AMENDMENTS 

Act No.  Short title 
The Companies  

Act, 1956

Year Amendment 

1956 (1) In Section 20, for sub-section (2), the following  sub-sections shall be substituted, namely:— 

“(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing  

power, a name which is identical with, or too nearly  

resembles,— 

(i) the name by which a company in existence has  

been previously registered, or 

(ii) a registered trade mark, or a trade mark which is  

subject of an application for registration, of any  

other person under the Trade Marks Act, 1999,  

may be deemed to be undesirable by the Central  

Government within the meaning of sub-section (1). 

(3) The Central Government may, before deeming a name  

as undesirable under clause (ii) of sub-section (2),  

consult the Registrar of Trade Marks.”. 

(II) In section 22, in sub-section (1),— 

(i) for the portion beginning with “if, through” and  

ending with “the first-mentioned company–” the  

following shall be substituted, namely:— 

“If, through inadvertence or otherwise, a company on  

its first registration or on its registration by a new  

name, is registered by a name which,— 

(i) in the opinion of the Central Government, is  

identical with, or too nearly resembles, the name  

by which a company in existence has been  

previously registered, whether under this Act or  

any previous companies law, the first mentioned  

company, or 

(ii) on an application by a registered proprietor of a  

trade mark, is in the opinion of the Central  

Government identical with, or too nearly  

resembles, a registered trade mark of such  

proprietor under the Trade Marks Act, 1999,  

such company,”; 

(ii) the following proviso shall be added, namely:— 

“Provided that no application under clause (ii)  

made by a registered proprietor of a trade mark  

after five years of coming to notice of  

registration of the company shall be considered  

by the Central Government.”.

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