Bare Act

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 

_________ 

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS 

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CHAPTER I 

PRELIMINARY 

SECTIONS 

  1. Short title, extent and commencement. 
  2. Definitions and interpretation. 

CHAPTER II 

INVENTIONS NOT PATENTABLE 

  1. What are not inventions. 
  2. Inventions relating to atomic energy not patentable. 
  3. [Omitted.] 

CHAPTER III 

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS 

  1. Persons entitled to apply for patents. 
  2. Form of application. 
  3. Information and undertaking regarding foreign applications. 
  4. Provisional and complete specifications. 
  5. Contents of specifications. 
  6. Priority dates of claims of a complete specification. 

CHAPTER IV 

PUBLICATION AND EXAMINATION OF APPLICATIONS 

11A. Publication of applications. 

11B. Request for examination. 

  1. Examination of application. 
  2. Search for anticipation by previous publication and by prior claim. 14. Consideration of report of examiner by Controller. 
  3. Power of Controller to refuse or require amended applications, etc., in certain cases. 16. Power of Controller to make orders respecting division of application. 17. Power of Controller to make orders respecting dating of application. 18. Powers of Controller in cases of anticipation. 
  4. Powers of Controller in case of potential infringement. 
  5. Powers of Controller to make orders regarding substitution of applicants etc. 21. Time for putting application in order for grant. 
  6. [Omitted.] 
  7. [Omitted.] 
  8. [Omitted.]

CHAPTER V 

OPPOSITION PROCEEDINGS TO GRANT OF PATENTS 

SECTIONS 

  1. Opposition to patent. 
  2. In cases of “obtaining” Controller may treat the patent as the patent of opponent. 27. [Omitted.] 
  3. Mention of inventor as such in patent. 

CHAPTER VI 

ANTICIPATION 

  1. Anticipation by previous publication. 
  2. Anticipation by previous communication to Government. 
  3. Anticipation by public display, etc. 
  4. Anticipation by public working. 
  5. Anticipation by use and publication after provisional specification. 
  6. No anticipation if circumstances are only as described in sections 29, 30, 31 and 32. CHAPTER VII 

PROVISIONS FOR SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS 

  1. Secrecy directions relating to inventions relevant for defence purposes. 
  2. Secrecy directions to be periodically reviewed. 
  3. Consequences of secrecy directions. 
  4. Revocation of secrecy directions and extension of time. 
  5. Residents not to apply for patents outside India without prior permission. 
  6. Liability for contravention of section 35 or section 39. 
  7. Finality of orders of Controller and Central Government. 
  8. Savings respecting disclosure to Government. 

CHAPTER VIII 

GRANT OF PATENTS AND RIGHTS CONFERRED THEREBY 

  1. Grant of patents. 
  2. Amendment of patent granted to deceased applicant. 
  3. Date of patent. 
  4. Form, extent and effect of patent. 
  5. Grant of patents to be subject to certain conditions. 
  6. Rights of patentees. 
  7. Patent rights not infringed when used on foreign vessels, etc., temporarily or accidentally in India. 50. Rights of co-owners of patents. 
  8. Power of Controller to give directions to co-owners. 
  9. Grant of patent to true and first inventions where it has been obtained by another in fraud of him. 53. Term of patent.

CHAPTER IX 

PATENTS OF ADDITION 

SECTIONS 

  1. Patents of addition. 
  2. Term of patents of addition. 
  3. Validity of patents of addition. 

CHAPTER X 

AMENDMENT OF APPLICATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

  1. Amendment of application and specification before Controller. 
  2. Amendment of specification before Appellate Board or High Court. 
  3. Supplementary provisions as to amendment of application or specification. 

CHAPTER XI 

RESTORATION OF LAPSED PATENTS 

  1. Applications for restoration of lapsed patents. 
  2. Procedure for disposal of applications for restoration of lapsed patents. 
  3. Rights of patentees of lapsed patents which have been restored. 

CHAPTER XII 

SURRENDER AND REVOCATION OF PATENTS 

  1. Surrender of patents. 
  2. Revocation of Power patents. 
  3. Revocation of patent or amendment of complete specification on directions from Government in  cases relating to atomic energy. 
  4. Revocation of patent in public interest. 

CHAPTER XIII 

REGISTER OF PATENTS 

  1. Register of patents and particulars to be entered therein. 
  2. Assignments, etc., not to be valid unless in writing and duly executed. 
  3. Registration of assignments, transmissions, etc. 
  4. Power of registered grantee or proprietor to deal with patent. 
  5. Rectification of register by High Court. 
  6. Register to be open for inspection. 

CHAPTER XIV 

PATENT OFFICE AND ITS ESTABLISHMENT 

  1. Controller and other officers. 
  2. Patent office and its branches. 
  3. Restriction on employees of patent office as to right or interest in patents. 
  4. Officers and employees not to furnish information, etc. 

CHAPTER XV 

POWERS OF CONTROLLER GENERALLY 

  1. Controller to have certain powers of a civil court. 
  2. Power of Controller to correct clerical errors, etc.

SECTIONS 

  1. Evidence how to be given and powers of Controller in respect thereof. 
  2. Exercise of discretionary powers by Controller. 
  3. Disposal by Controller of applications for extension of time. 

CHAPTER XVI 

WORKING OF PATENTS, COMPULSORY LICENCES AND REVOCATION 

  1. Definition of “patented articles” and “patentee”. 
  2. General principles applicable to working of patented inventions. 
  3. Compulsory licences. 
  4. Revocation of patents by the Controller for non-working. 
  5. Power of Controller to adjourn applications for compulsory licences, etc., in certain cases. 87. Procedure for dealing with applications under sections 84 and 85. 
  6. Powers of Controller in granting compulsory licences. 
  7. General purposes for granting compulsory licences. 
  8. Terms and conditions of compulsory licences. 
  9. Licensing of related patents. 
  10. Special provision for compulsory licences on notifications by Central Government. 

92A. Compulsory licence for export of patented pharmaceutical products in certain exceptional  circumstances. 

  1. Order for licence to operate as a deed between parties concerned. 
  2. Termination of compulsory licence. 

CHAPTER XVII 

USE OF INVENTIONS FOR PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT AND ACQUISITION OF INVENTIONS BY CENTRAL GOVERNMENT 

  1. Meaning of use of invention for purposes of Government. 
  2. Power of Central Government to use inventions for purposes of Government. 101. Rights of third parties in respect of use of invention for purposes of Government. 102. Acquisition of inventions and patents by the Central Government. 
  3. Reference to High Court of disputes as to use for purposes of Government. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

SUITS CONCERNING INFRINGEMENT OF PATENTS 

  1. Jurisdiction. 

104A. Burden of proof in case of suits concerning infringement. 

  1. Power of court to make declaration as to non-infringement. 
  2. Power of court to grant relief in cases of groundless threats of infringement proceedings. 107. Defences, etc., in suit for infringement. 

107A. Certain acts not to be considered as infringement. 

  1. Reliefs in suits for infringement. 
  2. Right of exclusive licensee to take proceedings against infringement. 
  3. Right of licensee under section 84 to take proceedings against infringement. 111. Restriction on power of court to grant damages or account of profits for infringement.

SECTIONS 

  1. [Omitted.] 
  2. Certificate of validity of specification and costs of subsequent suits for infringement thereof.  114.Relief for infringement of partially valid specification. 
  3. Scientific advisers. 

CHAPTER XIX 

APPEALS  

  1. [Omitted.] 
  2. [Omitted.

117A. Appeals to High Court. 

117B. [Omitted.] 

117C. [Omitted.] 

117D. [Omitted.] 

117E. Appearance of Controller in legal proceedings. 

117F. [Omitted.] 

117G. [Omitted.] 

117H. [Omitted.] 

CHAPTER XX 

PENALTIES 

  1. Contravention of Secrecy provisions relating to certain inventions. 
  2. Falsification of entries in register, etc. 
  3. Unauthorised claim of patent rights. 
  4. Wrongful use of words “patent office”. 
  5. Refusal or failure to supply information. 
  6. Practice by non-registered patent agents. 
  7. Offences by companies. 

CHAPTER XXI 

PATENT AGENTS 

  1. Register of patent agents. 
  2. Qualifications for registration as patent agents. 
  3. Rights of patent agents. 
  4. Subscription and verification of certain documents by patent agents. 
  5. Restrictions on practice as patent agents. 
  6. Removal from register of patent agents and restoration. 
  7. Power of Controller to refuse to deal with certain agents. 
  8. Savings in respect of other persons authorised to act as agents. 

CHAPTER XXII 

INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 

  1. Convention countries. 
  2. Notification as to countries not providing for reciprocity. 
  3. Convention applications.

SECTIONS 

  1. Special provisions relating to convention applications. 137. Multiple priorities. 
  2. Supplementary provisions as to convention applications. 139. Other provisions of Act to apply to convention applications. CHAPTER XXIII 

MISCELLANEOUS 

  1. Avoidance of certain restrictive conditions. 
  2. Determination of certain contracts. 
  3. Fees. 
  4. Restrictions upon publication of specification. 
  5. Reports of Examiners to be confidential. 
  6. Publication of official journal. 
  7. Power of Controller to call for information from patentees. 147. Evidence of entries, documents, etc. 
  8. Declaration by infant, lunatic, etc. 
  9. Service of notices, etc., by post. 
  10. Security for costs. 
  11. Transmission of orders of courts to Controller. 
  12. [Omitted.] 
  13. Information relating to Patents. 
  14. Loss or destruction of Patents. 
  15. Reports of Controller to be placed before Parliament. 156. Patent to bind Government. 
  16. Right of Government to sell or use forfeited articles. 

157A. Protection of security of India. 

  1. Power of High Courts to make rules. 
  2. Power of Central Government to make rules. 
  3. Rules to be placed before Parliament. 
  4. [Omitted.] 
  5. Repeal of Act 2 of 1911 in so far as it relates to patents and savings. 163. [Omitted.] 

THE SCHEDULE.

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 

ACT NO. 39 OF 1970 

[19th September, 1970.] 

An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to patents. 

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I 

PRELIMINARY 

  1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Patents Act, 1970. (2) It extends to the whole of India. 

(3) It shall come into force on such date1as the Central Government may, by notification in the  Official Gazette, appoint: 

Provided that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference  in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming  into force of that provision. 

  1. Definitions and interpretation.—(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— 2* * * *; 

(ab) “assignee” includes an assignee of the assignee and the legal representative of a deceased  assignee and references to the assignee of any person include references to the assignee of the legal  representative or assignee of that person; 

3[(aba) “Budapest Treaty” means the Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the  Deposit of Micro-organisms for the purposes of Patent Procedure done at Budapest on 28th day of  April, 1977, as amended and modified from time to time;] 

(ac) “capable of industrial application”, in relation to an invention, means that the invention is  capable of being made or used in an industry;] 

(b) “Controller” means the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks referred to in  section 73; 

(c) “convention application” means an application for a patent made by virtue of section 135; 

4[(d) “convention country” means a country or a country which is member of a group of countries  or a union of countries or an Inter-governmental organisation 5[referred to as a convention country in  section 133;] 

(e) “district court” has the meaning assigned to that expression by the Code of Civil Procedure,  1908 (5 of 1908); 

(f) “exclusive licence” means a licence from a patentee which confers on the licensee, or on the  licensee and persons authorised by him, to the exclusion of all other persons (including the patentee),  any right in respect of the patented invention, and “exclusive licensee” shall be construed  accordingly; 

6* * * * * 

  

  1. 1-4-1978, vide notification No. S.O. 799, dated 10-3-1978, in respect of the provisions of sub-section (2) of s. 12 and  sub-section (2) of s. 13, s. 28, s. 68, and ss. 125 to 132 see Gazette of India, Part II, sec. 3 (ii). 

 20-4-1972 vide notification No. S.O. 300 dated 20-4-1972, in respect of the provisions [except sub-section (2) of s. 12 and  sub-section (2) of s. 13, s. 28, s. 68 and ss. 125 to 132] see Gazette of India, Part II, sec. 3 (ii). 

  1. Clause (a) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f.4-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  3. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 3, for clause (d) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  4. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 2, for “notified as such under sub-section (1) of section 133” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 6. Clause (g) omitted by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

(h) “Government undertaking” means any industrial undertaking carried on— (i) by a department of the Government, or 

(ii) by a corporation established by a Central, Provincial or State Act, which is owned or  controlled by the Government, or 

(iii) by a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of  1956), 1[or] 

1[(iv) by an institution wholly or substantially financed by the Government;] 

2* * * * * 

3[(i) “High Court”, in relation to a State or Union territory, means the High Court having  territorial jurisdiction in that State or Union territory, as the case may be;] 

4[(ia) “international application” means an application for patent made in accordance with the  Patent Cooperation Treaty;] 

5[(j) “invention” means a new product or process involving an inventive step and capable of  industrial application; 

6[(ja) “inventive step” means a feature of an invention that involves technical advance as  compared to the existing knowledge or having economic significance or both and that makes the  invention not obvious to a person skilled in the art;]] 

(k) “legal representative” means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person; 

7[(l) “new invention” means any invention or technology which has not been anticipated by  publication in any document or used in the country or elsewhere in the world before the date of filing  of patent application with complete specification, i.e., the subject matter has not fallen in public  domain or that it does not form part of the state of the art; 

(la) “Opposition Board” means an Opposition Board constituted under sub-section (3) of  section 25; 

(m) “patent” means a patent for any invention granted under this Act;] 

(n) “patent agent” means a person for the time being registered under this Act as a patent agent; 

(o) “patented article” and “patented process” mean respectively an article or process in respect of  which a patent is in force; 

4[(oa) “Patent Cooperation Treaty” means the Patent Cooperation Treaty done at Washington on  the 19th day of June, 1970 as amended and modified from time to time;] 

(p) “patentee” means the person for the time being entered on the register as the grantee or  proprietor of the patent; 

(q) “patent of addition” means a patent granted in accordance with section 54; (r) “patent office” means the patent office referred to in section 74; 

(s) “person” includes the Government; 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. The words “and includes the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and any other institution which is financed  wholly or for the major part by the said Council” omitted by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005) 
  3. Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for clause (i) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  4. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 3 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 

5.Subs. by s. 3, ibid., for clause (j) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 2, for clause (ja) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for clauses (l) and (m) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

(t) “person interested” includes a person engaged in, or in promoting, research in the same field  as that to which the invention relates; 

1[(ta) “pharmaceutical substance” means any new entity involving one or more inventive steps;] 2[(u) “prescribed” means,— 

(A) in relation to proceedings before a High Court, prescribed by rules made by the High  Court; 

3* * * * * (C) in other cases, prescribed by rules made under this Act;] 

(v) “prescribed manner” includes the payment of the prescribed fee; 

(w) “priority date” has the meaning assigned to it by section 11; 

(x) “register” means the register of patents referred to in section 67; 

(y) “true and first inventor” does not include either the first importer of an invention into India, or  a person to whom an invention is first communicated from outside India. 

(2) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference— 

(a) to the Controller shall be construed as including a reference to any officer discharging the  functions of the Controller in pursuance of section 73; 

(b) to the patent office shall be construed as including a reference to any branch office of the  patent office. 

CHAPTER II 

INVENTIONS NOT PATENTABLE 

  1. What are not inventions.—The following are not inventions within the meaning of this  Act,— 

(a) an invention which is frivolous or which claims anything obviously contrary to well  established natural laws; 

4[(b) an invention the primary or intended use or commercial exploitation of which would be  contrary to public order or morality or which causes serious prejudice to human, animal or plant life  or health or to the environment;] 

(c) the mere discovery of a scientific principle or the formulation of an abstract theory 5[or  discovery of any living thing or non-living substance occurring in nature]; 

6[(d) the mere discovery of a new form of a known substance which does not result in the  enhancement of the known efficacy of that substance or the mere discovery of any new property or  new use for a known substance or of the mere use of a known process, machine or apparatus unless  such known process results in a new product or employs at least one new reactant. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, salts, esters, ethers, polymorphs, metabolites, pure  form, particle size, isomers, mixtures of isomers, complexes, combinations and other derivatives of  known substance shall be considered to be the same substance, unless they differ significantly in  properties with regard to efficacy;] 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 3, for clause (u) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Sub-clause (B) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  4. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 4, for clause (b) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  5. Ins. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  6. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 3, for clause (d) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

(e) a substance obtained by a mere admixture resulting only in the aggregation of the properties  of the components thereof or a process for producing such substance; 

(f) the mere arrangement or re-arrangement or duplication of known devices each functioning  independently of one another in a known way; 

1* * * * * (h) a method of agriculture or horticulture; 

(i) any process for the medicinal, surgical, curative, prophylactic 2[diagnostic, therapeutic] or  other treatment of human beings or any process for a similar treatment of animals 3*** to render them  free of disease or to increase their economic value or that of their products. 

2[(j) plants and animals in whole or any part thereof other than micro-organisms but including  seeds, varieties and species and essentially biological processes for production or propagation of  plants and animals; 

(k) a mathematical or business method or a computer programme per se or algorithms; 

(l) a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work or any other aesthetic creation whatsoever  including cinematographic works and television productions; 

(m) a mere scheme or rule or method of performing mental act or method of playing game; (n) a presentation of information; 

(o) topography of integrated circuits; 

(p) an invention which, in effect, is traditional knowledge or which is an aggregation or  duplication of known properties of traditionally known component or components.] 

  1. Inventions relating to atomic energy not patentable.—No patent shall be granted in respect of  an invention relating to atomic energy falling within sub-section (1) of section 20 of the Atomic Energy  Act, 1962 (33 of 1962). 
  2. [Inventions where only methods or processes of manufacture patentable.] Omitted by the  Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 (15 of 2005), s. 4 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

CHAPTER III 

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS 

  1. Persons entitled to apply for patents.—(1) Subject to the provisions contained in section 134, an  application for a patent for an invention may be made by any of the following persons, that is to say,— 

(a) by any person claiming to be the true and first inventor of the invention; 

(b) by any person being the assignee of the person claiming to be the true and first inventor in  respect of the right to make such an application; 

(c) by the legal representative of any deceased person who immediately before his death was  entitled to make such an application. 

(2) An application under sub-section (1) may be made by any of the persons referred to therein either  alone or jointly with any other person. 

  1. Form of application.—(1) Every application for a patent shall be for one invention only and shall  be made in the prescribed form and filed in the patent office. 

  

  1. Clause (g) omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 4 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Ins. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. The words “or plants” omitted by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

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1[(1A) Every international application under the Patent Cooperation Treaty for a patent, as may be  filed designating India, shall be deemed to be an application under this Act, if a corresponding application  has also been filed before the Controller in India.] 

2[(1B) The filing date of an application referred to in sub-section (1A) and its complete specification  processed by the patent office as designated office or elected office shall be the international filing date  accorded under the Patent Cooperation Treaty.] 

(2) Where the application is made by virtue of an assignment of the right to apply for a patent for the  invention, there shall be furnished with the application, or within such period as may be prescribed after  the filling of the application, proof of the right to make the application. 

(3) Every application under this section shall state that the applicant is in possession of the invention  and shall name the 3[person] claiming to be the true and first inventor; and where the person so claiming  is not the applicant or one of the applicants, the application shall contain a declaration that the applicant  believes the person so named to be the true and first inventor. 

4[(4) Every such application (not being a convention application or an application filed under the  Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India) shall be accompanied by a provisional or a complete  specification.] 

  1. Information and undertaking regarding foreign applications.—(1) Where an applicant for a  patent under this Act is prosecuting either alone or jointly with any other person an application for a  patent in any country outside India in respect of the same or substantially the same invention, or where to  his knowledge such an application is being prosecuted by some person through whom he claims or by  some person deriving title from him, he shall file along with his application 5[or subsequently 6[within the  prescribed period as the Controller may allow]]— 

7[(a) a statement setting out detailed particulars of such application; and] 

(b) an undertaking that, 8[up to the date of grant of patent in India], he would keep the Controller  informed in writing, from time to time, of 9[detailed particulars as required under] clause (a) in  respect of every other application relating to the same or substantially the same invention, if any, filed  in any country outside India subsequently to the filing of the statement referred to in the aforesaid  clause within the prescribed time. 

10[(2) At any time after an application for patent is filed in India and till the grant of a patent or refusal  to grant of a patent made thereon, the Controller may also require the applicant to furnish details, as may  be prescribed, relating to the processing of the application in a country outside India, and in that event the  applicant shall furnish to the Controller information available to him within such period as may be  prescribed.] 

  1. Provisional and complete specifications.—11[(1) Where an application for a patent (not being a  convention application or an application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India) is  accompanied by a provisional specification, a complete specification shall be filed within twelve months  from the date of filing of the application, and if the complete specification is not so filed, the application 

shall be deemed to be abandoned.] 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 6 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 5 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  3. Subs. by s. 5, ibid., for “owner” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  4. Subs. by s. 5, ibid., for sub-section (4) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  5. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 7 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  6. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 6, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  7. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 7, for clause (a) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  8. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 6, for “up to the date of the acceptance of his complete specification filed in India (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 9. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 7, for “details of the nature referred to in” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  9. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 6, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  10. Subs. by s. 7, ibid., for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

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(2) Where two or more applications in the name of the same applicant are accompanied by  provisional specifications in respect of inventions which are cognate or of which one is a modification of  another and the Controller is of opinion that the whole of such inventions are such as to constitute a single  invention and may properly be included in one patent, he may allow one complete specification to be  filed in respect of all such provisional specifications: 

1[Provided that the period of time specified under sub-section (1) shall be reckoned from the date of  filing of the earliest provisional specification.] 

2[(3) Where an application for a patent (not being a convention application or an application filed  under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India) is accompanied by a specification purporting to be  a complete specification, the Controller may, if the applicant so requests at any time within twelve  months from the date of filing of the application, direct that such specification shall be treated, for the  purposes of this Act, as a provisional specification and proceed with the application accordingly.] 

(4) Where a complete specification has been filed in pursuance of an application for a patent  accompanied by a provisional specification or by a specification treated by virtue of a direction under  sub-section (3) as a provisional specification, the Controller may, if the applicant so requests at any time  before 3[grant of patent], cancel the provisional specification and post-date the application to the date of  filing of the complete specification. 

  1. Contents of specifications.—(1) Every specification, whether provisional or complete, shall  describe the invention and shall begin with a title sufficiently indicating the subject-matter to which the  invention relates. 

(2) Subject to any rules that may be made in this behalf under this Act, drawings may, and shall, if the  Controller so requires, be supplied for the purposes of any specification, whether complete or provisional;  and any drawings so supplied shall, unless the Controller otherwise directs, be deemed to form part of the  specification, and references in this Act to a specification shall be construed accordingly. 

(3) If, in any particular case, the Controller considers that an application should be further  supplemented by a model or sample of anything illustrating the invention or alleged to constitute an  invention, such model or sample as he may require shall be furnished 4[before the application is found in  order for grant of a patent], but such model or sample shall not be deemed to form part of the  specification. 

(4) Every complete specification shall— 

(a) fully and particularly describe the invention and its operation or use and the method by which  it is to be performed; 

(b) disclose the best method of performing the invention which is known to the applicant and for  which he is entitled to claim protection; and 

(c) end with a claim or claims defining the scope of the invention for which protection is claimed. 5[(d) be accompanied by an abstract to provide technical information on the invention: Provided that— 

(i) the Controller may amend the abstract for providing better information to third parties; and 

  

  1. The proviso ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 7, ibid., for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 7, ibid., for “the acceptance of the complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Subs. by s. 8, ibid., for “before the acceptance of the application” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  5. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 8 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

12 

(ii) if the applicant mentions a biological material in the specification which may not be  described in such a way as to satisfy clauses (a) and (b), and if such material is not available to  the public, the application shall be completed by depositing 1[the material to an international  depository authority under the Budapest Treaty] and by fulfilling the following conditions,  namely:— 

2[(A) the deposit of the material shall be made not later than the date of filing the patent  application in India and a reference thereof shall be made in the specification within the  prescribed period]; 

(B) all the available characteristics of the material required for it to be correctly identified  or indicated are included in the specification including the name, address of the depository  institution and the date and number of the deposit of the material at the institution; 

(C) access to the material is available in the depository institution only after the date of  the application for patent in India or if priority is claimed after the date of the priority; 

(D) disclose the source and geographical origin of the biological material in the  specification, when used in an invention.] 

3[(4A) In case of an international application designating India, the title, description, drawings,  abstract and claims filed with the application shall be taken as the complete specification for the purposes  of this Act.] 

4[(5) The claim or claims of a complete specification shall relate to a single invention, or to a group of  inventions linked so as to form a single inventive concept, shall be clear and succinct and shall be fairly  based on the matter disclosed in the specification.] 

(6) A declaration as to the inventorship of the invention shall, in such cases as may be prescribed, be  furnished in the prescribed form with the complete specification or within such period as may be  prescribed after the filing of that specification. 

(7) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this section, a complete specification filed after a  provisional specification may include claims in respect of developments of, or additions to, the invention  which was described in the provisional specification, being developments or additions in respect of which  the applicant would be entitled under the provisions of section 6 to make a separate application for a  patent. 

  1. Priority dates of claims of a complete specification.—(1) There shall be a priority date for each  claim of a complete specification. 

(2) Where a complete specification is filed in pursuance of a single application accompanied by(a) a provisional specification; or 

(b) a specification which is treated by virtue of a direction under sub-section (3) of section 9 as a  provisional specification, 

and the claim is fairly based on the matter disclosed in the specification referred to in clause (a) or  clause (b), the priority date of that claim shall be the date of the filing of the relevant specification. 

(3) Where the complete specification is filed or proceeded with in pursuance of two or more  applications accompanied by such specifications as are mentioned in sub-section (2) and the claim is  fairly based on the matter disclosed— 

(a) in one of those specifications, the priority date of that claim shall be the date of the filing of  the application accompanied by that specification; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 8, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by s. 8, ibid., for sub-clause (A) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  3. Subs. by s. 8, ibid., for sub-section (4A) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  4. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 8, for sub-section (5) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

13 

(b) partly in one and partly in another, the priority date of that claim shall be the date of the filing  of the application accompanied by the specification of the later date. 

1[(3A) Where a complete specification based on a previously filed application in India has been filed  within twelve months from the date of that application and the claim is fairly based on the matter  disclosed in the previously filed application, the priority date of that claim shall be the date of the  previously filed application in which the matter was first disclosed.] 

(4) Where the complete specification has been filed in pursuance of a further application made by  virtue of sub-section (1) of section 16 and the claim is fairly based on the matter disclosed in any of the  earlier specifications, provisional or complete, as the case may be, the priority date of that claim shall be  the date of the filing of that specification in which the matter was first disclosed. 

(5) Where, under the foregoing provisions of this section, any claim of a complete specification  would, but for the provisions of this sub-section, have two or more priority dates, the priority date of that  claim shall be the earlier or earliest of those dates. 

(6) In any case to which sub-sections (2), (3), 1[(3A)], (4) and (5) do not apply, the priority date of a  claim shall, subject to the provisions of section 137, be the date of filing of the complete specification. 

(7) The reference to the date of the filing of the application or of the complete specification in this  section shall, in cases where there has been a post-dating under section 9 or section 17 or, as the case may  be, ante-dating under section 16, be a reference to the date as so post-dated or ante-dated. 

(8) A claim in a complete specification of a patent shall not be invalid by reason only of— 

(a) the publication or use of the invention so far as claimed in that claim on or after the priority  date of such claim; or 

(b) the grant of another patent which claims the invention, so far as claimed in the first mentioned  claim, in a claim of the same or a later priority date. 

CHAPTER IV 

2[PUBLICATION AND EXAMINATION OF APPLICATIONS

3[11A. Publication of applications.—4[(1) Save as otherwise provided, no application for patent  shall ordinarily be opened to the public for such period as may be prescribed. 

(2) The applicant may, in the prescribed manner, request the Controller to publish his application at  any time before the expiry of the period prescribed under sub-section (1) and subject to the provisions of  sub-section (3), the Controller shall publish such application as soon as possible. 

(3) Every application for a patent shall, on the expiry of the period specified under sub-section (1), be  published, except in cases where the application— 

(a) in which secrecy direction is imposed under section 35; or 

(b) has been abandoned under sub-section (1) of section 9; or 

(c) has been withdrawn three months prior to the period specified under sub-section (1)]. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 9 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 9, for the Chapter heading “EXAMINATION OF APPLICATION” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 3. Ins. by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 10, for sub-sections (1) to (3) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

14 

(4) In case a secrecy direction has been given in respect of an application under section 35, then,  it shall be published after the expiry of the period 1[prescribed under sub-section (1)] or when the secrecy  direction has ceased to operate, whichever is later. 

(5) The publication of every application under this section shall include the particulars of the date of  application, number of application, name and address of the applicant identifying the application and an  abstract. 

(6) Upon publication of an application for a patent under this section— 

(a) the depository institution shall make the biological material mentioned in the specification  available to the public; 

(b) the patent office may, on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, make the specification  and drawings, if any, of such application available to the public. 

2[(7) On and from the date of publication of the application for patent and until the date of grant of a  patent in respect of such application, the applicant shall have the like privileges and rights as if a patent  for the invention had been granted on the date of publication of the application: 

Provided that the applicant shall not be entitled to institute any proceedings for infringement until the  patent has been granted: 

Provided further that the rights of a patentee in respect of applications made under sub-section (2) of  section 5 before the 1st day of January, 2005 shall accrue from the date of grant of the patent: 

Provided also that after a patent is granted in respect of applications made under sub-section (2) of  section 5, the patent-holder shall only be entitled to receive reasonable royalty from such enterprises  which have made significant investment and were producing and marketing the concerned product prior  to the 1st day of January, 2005 and which continue to manufacture the product covered by the patent on  the date of grant of the patent and no infringement proceedings shall be instituted against such  enterprises.] 

11B. Request for examination.—3[(1) No application for a patent shall be examined unless the  applicant or any other interested person makes a request in the prescribed manner for such examination  within the prescribed period.] 

4* * * * * 

5[(3) In case of an application in respect of a claim for a patent filed under sub-section (2) of section 5  before the 1st day of January, 2005 a request for its examination shall be made in the prescribed manner  and within the prescribed period by the applicant or any other interested person.] 

(4) In case the applicant or any other interested person does not make a request for examination of the  application for a patent within the period as specified under sub-section (1)6*** or sub-section (3), the  application shall be treated as withdrawn by the applicant: 

7[Provided that— 

(i) the applicant may, at any time after filing the application but before the grant of a patent, withdraw the application by making a request in the prescribed manner; and 

(ii) in a case where secrecy direction has been issued under section 35, the request for  examination may be made within the prescribed period from the date of revocation of the secrecy  direction.] 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 10, for “of eighteen months” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Ins. by s. 10, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 11, ibid., for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Sub-section (2) omitted by s. 11, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  5. Subs. by s. 11, ibid., for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  6. The words, brackets and figure “or sub-section (2)” omitted by s. 11, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  7. Subs. by s. 11, ibid., for the proviso (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

15 

  1. Examination of application.—1[(1) When a request for examination has been made in respect  of an application for a patent in the prescribed manner 2[under sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) of  section 11B, the application and specification and other documents related thereto shall be referred at the  earliest by the Controller] to an examiner for making a report to him in respect of the following matters,  namely:— 

(a) whether the application and the 3[specification and other documents relating thereto] are in  accordance with the requirements of this Act and of any rules made thereunder; 

(b) whether there is any lawful ground of objection to the grant of the patent under this Act in  pursuance of the application; 

(c) the result of investigations made under section 13; and 

(d) any other matter which may be prescribed. 

(2) The examiner to whom the application and the 3[specification and other documents relating  thereto] are referred under sub-section (1) shall ordinarily make the report to the Controller within 4[such  period as may be prescribed]. 

  1. Search for anticipation by previous publication and by prior claim.—(1) The examiner to  whom an application for a patent is referred under section 12 shall make investigation for the purpose of  ascertaining whether the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification— 

(a) has been anticipated by publication before the date of filing of the applicant’s complete  specification in any specification filed in pursuance of an application for a patent made in India and  dated on or after the 1st day of January, 1912; 

(b) is claimed in any claim of any other complete specification published on or after the date of  filing of the applicant’s complete specification, being a specification filed in pursuance of an  application for a patent made in India and dated before or claiming the priority date earlier than that  date. 

(2) The examiner shall, in addition, make such investigation 5*** for the purpose of ascertaining  whether the invention, so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification, has been anticipated  by publication in India or elsewhere in any document other than those mentioned in sub-section (1) before  the date of filing of the applicant’s complete specification. 

(3) Where a complete specification is amended under the provisions of this Act before 6[the grant of a  patent], the amended specification shall be examined and investigated in like manner as the original  specification. 

(4) The examination and investigations required under section 12 and this section shall not be deemed  in any way to warrant the validity of any patent, and no liability shall be incurred by the Central  Government or any officer thereof by reason of, or in connection with, any such examination or  investigation or any report or other proceedings consequent thereon. 

7[14. Consideration of report of examiner by Controller.—Where, in respect of an application for  a patent, the report of the examiner received by the Controller is adverse to the applicant or requires any  amendment of the application, the specification or other documents to ensure compliance with the  provisions of this Act or of the rules made thereunder, the Controller, before proceeding to dispose of the  application in accordance with the provisions hereinafter appearing, shall communicate as expeditiously  as possible the gist of the objections to the applicant and shall, if so required by the applicant within the  prescribed period, give him an opportunity of being heard. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 10, for certain words (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 12, for certain words, brackets, figures and letter (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  3. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 10, for “specification relating thereto” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  4. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 12, for “a period of eighteen months from the date of such reference” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  5. The words “as the Controller may direct” omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 11 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  5. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 13, for “it has been accepted” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  6. Subs. by s. 14, ibid., for sections 14 and 15 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

16 

  1. Power of Controller to refuse or require amended applications, etc., in certain  cases.—Where the Controller is satisfied that the application or any specification or any other document  filed in pursuance thereof does not comply with the requirements of this Act or of any rules made  thereunder, the Controller may refuse the application or may require the application, specification or the  other documents, as the case may be, to be amended to his satisfaction before he proceeds with the  application and refuse the application on failure to do so.] 
  2. Power of Controller to make orders respecting division of application.—(1) A person who  has made an application for a patent under this Act may, at any time 1[before the grant of the patent], if he  so desires, or with a view to remedy the objection raised by the Controller on the ground that the claims  of the complete specification relate to more than one invention, file a further application in respect of an  invention disclosed in the provisional or complete specification already filed in respect of the first  mentioned application. 

(2) The further application under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by a complete specification,  but such complete specification shall not include any matter not in substance disclosed in the complete  specification filed in pursuance of the first mentioned application. 

(3) The Controller may require such amendment of the complete specification filed in pursuance of  either the original or the further application as may be necessary to ensure that neither of the said  complete specifications includes a claim for any matter claimed in the other. 

2[Explanation.For the purposes of this Act, the further application and the complete specification  accompanying it shall be deemed to have been filed on the date on which the first mentioned application  had been filed, and the further application shall be proceeded with as a substantive application and be  examined when the request for examination is filed within the prescribed period.] 

  1. Power of Controller to make orders respecting dating of application.—(1) Subject to the  provisions of section 9, at any time after the filing of an application and 3[before the grant of the patent] under this Act, the Controller may, at the request of the applicant made in the prescribed manner, direct  that the application shall be post-dated to such date as may be specified in the request, and proceed with  the application accordingly: 

Provided that no application shall be post-dated under this sub-section to a date later than six months  from the date on which it was actually made or would, but for the provisions of this sub-section, be deemed to have been made. 

4[(2) Where an application or specification (including drawings) or any other documents is required to  be amended under section 15, the application or specification or other document shall, if the Controller so  directs, be deemed to have been made on the date on which the requirement is complied with or where the  application or specification or other document is returned to the applicant, on the date on which it is  refiled after complying with the requirement.] 

  1. Power of Controller in cases of anticipation.—(1) Where it appears to the Controller that the  invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification has been anticipated in the manner  referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 13, he may refuse to 5[the  application] unless the applicant— 

(a) shows to the satisfaction of the Controller that the priority date of the claim of his complete  specification is not later than the date on which the relevant document was published; or 

(b) amends his complete specification to the satisfaction of the Controller. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 15, for “before the acceptance of the complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 2. Subs. by s. 15, ibid., for the Explanation (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by s. 16, ibid., for “before the acceptance of the complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 4. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 13, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  3. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 17, for “to accept the complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

17 

(2) If it appears to the Controller that the invention is claimed in a claim of any other complete  specification referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 13, he may, subject to the provisions  hereinafter contained, direct that a reference to that other specification shall be inserted by way of notice  to the public in the applicant’s complete specification unless within such time as may be prescribed,— 

(a) the applicant shows to the satisfaction of the Controller that the priority date of his claim is  not later than the priority date of the claim of the said other specification; or 

(b) the complete specification is amended to the satisfaction of the Controller. 

(3) If it appears to the Controller, as a result of an investigation under section 13 or otherwise,— 

(a) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the applicant’s complete specification  has been claimed in any other complete specification referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of  section 13; and 

(b) that such other complete specification was published on or after the priority date of the  applicant’s claim, 

then, unless it is shown to the satisfaction of the Controller that the priority date of the applicant’s claim is  not later than the priority date of the claim of that specification, the provisions of sub-section (2) shall  apply thereto in the same manner as they apply to a specification published on or after the date of filing of  the applicant’s complete specification. 

1* * * * * 

  1. Powers of Controller in case of potential infringement.—(1) If, in consequence of the  investigations required 2[under this Act], it appears to the Controller that an invention in respect of which  an application for a patent has been made cannot be performed without substantial risk of infringement of  a claim of any other patent, he may direct that a reference to that other patent shall be inserted in the  applicant’s complete specification by way of notice to the public, unless within such time as may be  prescribed— 

(a) the applicant shows to the satisfaction of the Controller that there are reasonable grounds for  contesting the validity of the said claim of the other patent; or 

(b) the complete specification is amended to the satisfaction of the Controller. 

(2) Where, after a reference to another patent has been inserted in a complete specification in  pursuance of a direction under sub-section (1)— 

(a) that other patent is revoked or otherwise ceases to be in force; or 

(b) the specification of that other patent is amended by the deletion of the relevant claim; or 

(c) it is found, in proceedings before the court or the Controller, that the relevant claim of that  other patent is invalid or is not infringed by any working of the applicant’s invention, the Controller  may, on the application of the applicant, delete the reference to that other patent. 

  1. Powers of Controller to make orders regarding substitution of applicants, etc.—(1) If the  Controller is satisfied, on a claim made in the prescribed manner at any time before a patent has been  granted, that by virtue of any assignment or agreement in writing made by the applicant or one of the  applicants for the patent or by operation of law, the claimant would, if the patent were then granted be  entitled thereto or to the interest of the applicant therein, or to an undivided share of the patent or of that  interest, the Controller may, subject to the provisions of this section, direct that the application shall  proceed in the name of the claimant or in the names of the claimants and the applicant or the other joint  applicant or applicants, accordingly as the case may require. 

(2) No such direction as aforesaid shall be given by virtue of any assignment or agreement made by  one of two or more joint applicants for a patent except with the consent of the other joint applicant or  applicants. 

  

  1. Sub-section (4) omitted by Act 15 of 2005, s. 17 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 18, ibid., for “by the foregoing provisions of this Act or of proceedings under section 25” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

18 

(3) No such direction as aforesaid shall be given by virtue of any assignment or agreement for the  assignment of the benefit of an invention unless— 

(a) the invention is identified therein by reference to the number of the application for the  patent; or 

(b) there is produced to the Controller an acknowledgment by the person by whom the  assignment or agreement was made that the assignment or agreement relates to the invention in  respect of which that application is made; or 

(c) the rights of the claimant in respect of the invention have been finally established by the  decision of a court; or 

(d) the Controller gives directions for enabling the application to proceed or for regulating the  manner in which it should be proceeded with under sub-section (5). 

(4) Where one of two or more joint applicants for a patent dies at any time before the patent has been  granted, the Controller may, upon a request in that behalf made by the survivor or survivors, and with the  consent of the legal representative of the deceased, direct that the application shall proceed in the name of  the survivor or survivors alone. 

(5) If any dispute arises between joint applicants for a patent whether or in what manner the  application should be proceeded with, the Controller may, upon application made to him in the prescribed  manner by any of the parties, and after giving to all parties concerned an opportunity to be heard, give  such directions as he thinks fit for enabling the application to proceed in the name of one or more of the  parties alone or for regulating the manner in which it should be proceeded with, or for both those  purposes, as the case may require. 

1[21. Time for putting application in order for grant.—(1) An application for a patent shall be  deemed to have been abandoned unless, within such period as may be prescribed, the applicant has  complied with all the requirements imposed on him by or under this Act, whether in connection with the  complete specification or otherwise in relation to the application from the date on which the first  statement of objections to the application or complete specification or other documents related thereto is  forwarded to the applicant by the Controller. 

Explanation.Where the application for a patent or any specification or, in the case of a convention  application or an application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India any document  filed as part of the application has been returned to the applicant by the Controller in the course of the  proceedings, the applicant shall not be deemed to have complied with such requirements unless and until  he has refiled it or the applicant proves to the satisfaction of the Controller that for the reasons beyond his  control such document could not be refiled. 

(2) If at the expiration of the period as prescribed under sub-section (1),— 

(a) an appeal to the High Court is pending in respect of the application for the patent for the main  invention; or 

(b) in the case of an application for a patent of addition, an appeal to the High Court is pending in  respect of either that application or the application for the main invention, the time within which the  requirements of the Controller shall be complied with shall, on an application made by the applicant  before the expiration of the period as prescribed under sub-section (1), be extended until such date as  the High Court may determine. 

(3) If the time within which the appeal mentioned in sub-section (2) may be instituted has not expired,  the Controller may extend the period as prescribed under sub-section (1), to such further period as he may  determine: 

Provided that if an appeal has been filed during the said further period, and the High Court has  granted any extension of time for complying with the requirements of the Controller, then the  requirements may be complied with within the time granted by the Court.] 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 19, for section 21 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

19 

  1. [Acceptance of complete specification.]—Omitted by Act The Patents (Amendment)  Act, 2005 (15 of 2005), s. 20 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. [Advertisement of acceptance of complete specification.]—Omitted by s. 20, ibid.  (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  3. [Effect of acceptance of complete specification.]—Omitted by s. 20, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 1* * * * * CHAPTER V 

2[OPPOSITION PROCEEDINGS TO GRANT OF PATENTS

3[25. Opposition to the patent.—(1) Where an application for a patent has been published but a  patent has not been granted, any person may, in writing, represent by way of opposition to the Controller  against the grant of patent on the ground— 

(a) that the applicant for the patent or the person under or through whom he claims, wrongfully  obtained the invention or any part thereof from him or from a person under or through whom he  claims; 

(b) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification has been  published before the priority date of the claim— 

(i) in any specification filed in pursuance of an application for a patent made in India on or  after the 1st day of January, 1912; or 

(ii) in India or elsewhere, in any other document: 

Provided that the ground specified in sub-clause (ii) shall not be available where such  publication does not constitute an anticipation of the invention by virtue of sub-section (2) or  sub-section (3) of section 29; 

(c) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is claimed in a  claim of a complete specification published on or after the priority date of the applicant’s claim and  filed in pursuance of an application for a patent in India, being a claim of which the priority date is  earlier than that of the applicant’s claim; 

(d) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification was publicly  known or publicly used in India before the priority date of that claim. 

Explanation.For the purposes of this clause, an invention relating to a process for which a  patent is claimed shall be deemed to have been publicly known or publicly used in India before the  priority date of the claim if a product made by that process had already been imported into India  before that date except where such importation has been for the purpose of reasonable trial or  experiment only; 

(e) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is obvious and  clearly does not involve any inventive step, having regard to the matter published as mentioned in  clause (b) or having regard to what was used in India before the priority date of the applicant’s claim; 

(f) that the subject of any claim of the complete specification is not an invention within the  meaning of this Act, or is not patentable under this Act; 

(g) that the complete specification does not sufficiently and clearly describe the invention or the  method by which it is to be performed; 

(h) that the applicant has failed to disclose to the Controller the information required by section 8  or has furnished the information which in any material particular was false to his knowledge; 

(i) that in the case of a convention application, the application was not made within twelve months from the date of the first application for protection for the invention made in a convention  country by the applicant or a person from whom he derives title; 

  

  1. Chapter IVA omitted by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 22, ibid., for Chapter Heading (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 23, ibid., for sections 25 and 26 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

20 

(j) that the complete specification does not disclose or wrongly mentions the source or  geographical origin of biological material used for the invention; 

(k) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is anticipated  having regard to the knowledge, oral or otherwise, available within any local or indigenous  community in India or elsewhere, 

but on no other ground and the Controller shall, if requested by such person for being heard, hear him and  dispose of such representation in such manner and within such period as may be prescribed. 

(2) At any time after the grant of patent but before the expiry of a period of one year from the date of  publication of grant of a patent, any person interested may give notice of opposition to the Controller in  the prescribed manner on any of the following grounds, namely:— 

(a) that the patentee or the person under or through whom he claims, wrongfully obtained the  invention or any part thereof from him or from a person under or through whom he claims; 

(b) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification has been  published before the priority date of the claim— 

(i) in any specification filed in pursuance of an application for a patent made in India on or  after the 1st day of January, 1912; or 

(ii) in India or elsewhere, in any other document: 

Provided that the ground specified in sub-clause (ii) shall not be available where such  publication does not constitute an anticipation of the invention by virtue of sub-section (2) or  sub-section (3) of section 29; 

(c) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is claimed in a  claim of a complete specification published on or after the priority date of the claim of the patentee  and filed in pursuance of an application for a patent in India, being a claim of which the priority date  is earlier than that of the claim of the patentee; 

(d) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification was publicly  known or publicly used in India before the priority date of that claim. 

Explanation.For the purposes of this clause, an invention relating to a process for which a  patent is granted shall be deemed to have been publicly known or publicly used in India before the  priority date of the claim if a product made by that process had already been imported into India  before that date except where such importation has been for the purpose of reasonable trial or  experiment only; 

(e) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is obvious and  clearly does not involve any inventive step, having regard to the matter published as mentioned in  clause (b) or having regard to what was used in India before the priority date of the claim; 

(f) that the subject of any claim of the complete specification is not an invention within the  meaning of this Act, or is not patentable under this Act; 

(g) that the complete specification does not sufficiently and clearly describe the invention or the  method by which it is to be performed; 

(h) that the patentee has failed to disclose to the Controller the information required by section 8  or has furnished the information which in any material particular was false to his knowledge; 

(i) that in the case of a patent granted on convention application, the application for patent was  not made within twelve months from the date of the first application for protection for the invention  made in a convention country or in India by the patentee or a person from whom he derives title; 

(j) that the complete specification does not disclose or wrongly mentions the source and  geographical origin of biological material used for the invention;

21 

(k) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification was anticipated  having regard to the knowledge, oral or otherwise, available within any local or indigenous  community in India or elsewhere, 

but on no other ground. 

(3) (a) Where any such notice of opposition is duly given under sub-section (2), the Controller shall  notify the patentee. 

(b) On receipt of such notice of opposition, the Controller shall, by order in writing, constitute a  Board to be known as the Opposition Board consisting of such officers as he may determine and refer  such notice of opposition along with the documents to that Board for examination and submission of its  recommendations to the Controller. 

(c) Every Opposition Board constituted under clause (b) shall conduct the examination in accordance  with such procedure as may be prescribed. 

(4) On receipt of the recommendation of the Opposition Board and after giving the patentee and the  opponent an opportunity of being heard, the Controller shall order either to maintain or to amend or to  revoke the patent. 

(5) While passing an order under sub-section (4) in respect of the ground mentioned in clause (d) or  clause (e) of sub-section (2), the Controller shall not take into account any personal document or secret  trial or secret use. 

(6) In case the Controller issues an order under sub-section (4) that the patent shall be maintained  subject to amendment of the specification or any other document, the patent shall stand amended  accordingly. 

  1. In cases of “obtaining” Controller may treat the patent as the patent of  opponent.—(1) Where in any opposition proceeding under this Act the Controller finds that— 

(a) the invention, so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification, was obtained from  the opponent in the manner set out in clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 25 and revokes the  patent on that ground, he may, on request by such opponent made in the prescribed manner, direct  that the patent shall stand amended in the name of the opponent; 

(b) a part of an invention described in the complete specification was so obtained from the  opponent, he may pass an order requiring that the specification be amended by the exclusion of that  part of the invention. 

(2) Where an opponent has, before the date of the order of the Controller requiring the amendment of  a complete specification referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1), filed an application for a patent for an  invention which included the whole or a part of the invention held to have been obtained from him and  such application is pending, the Controller may treat such application and specification in so far as they  relate to the invention held to have been obtained from him, as having been filed, for the purposes of this  Act relating to the priority dates of claims of the complete specification, on the date on which the  corresponding document was or was deemed to have been filed by the patentee in the earlier application  but for all other purposes the application of the opponent shall be proceeded with as an application for a  patent under this Act.] 

  1. [Refusal of patent without opposition.]—Omitted by Act the Patents (Amendment)  Act, 2005 (15 of 2005), s. 20 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Mention of inventor as such in patent.—(1) If the Controller is satisfied, upon a request or  claim made in accordance with the provisions of this section,— 

(a) that the person in respect of or by whom the request or claim is made is the inventor of an  invention in respect of which application for a patent has been made, or of a substantial part of that  invention; and 

(b) that the application for the patent is a direct consequence of his being the inventor,

22 

the Controller shall, subject to the provisions of this section, cause him to be mentioned as inventor in any  patent granted in pursuance of the application in the complete specification and in the register of Patents: 

Provided that the mention of any person as inventor under this section shall not confer or derogate  from any rights under the patent. 

(2) A request that any person shall be mentioned as aforesaid may be made in the prescribed manner  by the applicant for the patent or (where the person alleged to be the inventor is not the applicant or one  of the applicants) by the applicant and that person. 

(3) If any person [other than a person in respect of whom a request in relation to the application in  question has been made under sub-section (2)] desires to be mentioned as aforesaid, he may make a claim  in the prescribed manner in that behalf. 

1[(4) A request or claim under the foregoing provisions of this section shall be made before the grant  of patent.] 

2* * * * * 

(6) 3[Where] a claim is made under sub-section (3), the Controller shall give notice of the claim to  every applicant for the patent (not being the claimant) and to any other person whom the Controller may  consider to be interested; and before deciding upon any request or claim made under sub-section (2) or  sub-section (3), the Controller shall, if required, hear the person in respect of or by whom the request or  claim is made, and, in the case of a claim under sub-section (3), any person to whom notice of the claim  has been given as aforesaid. 

(7) Where any person has been mentioned as inventor in pursuance of this section any other person  who alleges that he ought not to have been so mentioned may at any time apply to the Controller for a  certificate to that effect, and the Controller may, after hearing, if required, any person whom he may  consider to be interested, issue such a certificate, and if he does so, he shall rectify the specification and  the register accordingly. 

CHAPTER VI 

ANTICIPATION 

  1. Anticipation by previous publication.—(1) An invention claimed in a complete specification  shall not be deemed to have been anticipated by reason only that the invention was published in a  specification filed in pursuance of an application for a patent made in India and dated before the 1st day  of January, 1912. 

(2) Subject as hereinafter provided, an invention claimed in a complete specification shall not be  deemed to have been anticipated by reason only that the invention was published before the priority date  of the relevant claim of the specification, if the patentee or the applicant for the patent proves— 

(a) that the matter published was obtained from him, or (where he is not himself the true and first  inventor) from any person from whom he derives title, and was published without his consent or the  consent of any such person; and 

(b) where the patentee or the applicant for the patent or any person from whom he derives title  learned of the publication before the date of the application for the patent, or, in the case of a  convention application, before the date of the application for protection in a convention country, that  the application or the application in the convention country, as the case may be, was made as soon as  reasonably practicable thereafter: 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 25, for sub-section (4) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Sub-section (5) omitted by s. 25, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 25, ibid., for “Subject to the provisions of sub-section (5), where” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

23 

Provided that this sub-section shall not apply if the invention was before the priority date of the claim  commercially worked in India, otherwise than for the purpose of reasonable trial, either by the patentee or  the applicant for the patent or any person from whom he derives title or by any other person with the  consent of the patentee or the applicant for the patent or any person from whom he derives title. 

(3) Where a complete specification is filed in pursuance of an application for a patent made by a  person being the true and first inventor or deriving title from him, an invention claimed in that  specification shall not be deemed to have been anticipated by reason only of any other application for a  patent in respect of the same invention made in contravention of the rights of that person, or by reason  only that after the date of filing of that other application the invention was used or published, without the  consent of that person, by the applicant in respect of that other application or by any other person in  consequence of any disclosure of any invention by that applicant. 

  1. Anticipation by previous communication to Government.—An invention claimed in a  complete specification shall not be deemed to have been anticipated by reason only of the communication  of the invention to the Government or to any person authorised by the Government to investigate the  invention or its merits, or of anything done, in consequence of such a communication, for the purpose of  the investigation. 
  2. Anticipation by public display, etc.—An invention claimed in a complete specification shall not  be deemed to have been anticipated by reason only of— 

(a) the display of the invention with the consent of the true and first inventor or a person deriving  title from him at an industrial or other exhibition to which the provisions of this section have been  extended by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette, or the use thereof with  his consent for the purpose of such an exhibition in the place where it is held; or 

(b) the publication of any description of the invention in consequence of the display or use of the  invention at any such exhibition as aforesaid; or 

(c) the use of the invention, after it has been displayed or used at any such exhibition as aforesaid  and during the period of the exhibition, by any person without the consent of the true and first  inventor or a person deriving title from him; or 

(d) the description of the invention in a paper read by the true and first inventor before a learned  society or published with his consent in the transactions of such a society, 

if the application for the patent is made by the true and first inventor or a person deriving title from him  1[not later than twelve months] after the opening of the exhibition or the reading or publication of the  paper, as the case may be. 

  1. Anticipation by public working.—An invention claimed in a complete specification shall not be  deemed to have been anticipated by reason only that at any time within one year before the priority date  of the relevant claim of the specification, the invention was publicly worked in India— 

(a) by the patentee or applicant for the patent or any person from whom he derives title; or 

(b) by any other person with the consent of the patentee or applicant for the patent or any person  from whom he derives title, 

if the working was effected for the purpose of reasonable trial only and if it was reasonably necessary,  having regard to the nature of the invention, that the working for that purpose should be effected in  public. 

  1. Anticipation by use and publication after provisional specification.—(1) Where a complete  specification is filed or proceeded with in pursuance of an application which was accompanied by a  provisional specification or where a complete specification filed along with an application is treated by  virtue of a direction under sub-section (3) of section 9 as a provisional specification, then,  notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the Controller shall not refuse to grant the patent, and the  patent shall not be revoked or invalidated, by reason only that any matter described in the provisional  specification or in the specification treated as aforesaid as a provisional specification was used in India or  published in India or elsewhere at any time after the date of the filing of that specification. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 26, for “not later than six months” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

24 

(2) Where a complete specification is filed in pursuance of a convention application, then,  notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the Controller shall not refuse to grant the patent, and the  patent shall not be revoked or invalidated, by reason only that any matter disclosed in any application for  protection in a convention country upon which the convention application is founded was used in India or  published in India or elsewhere at any time after the date of that application for protection. 

  1. No anticipation if circumstances are only as described in sections 29, 30, 31  and 32.—Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the Controller shall not refuse 1*** to grant a  patent, and a patent shall not be revoked or invalidated by reason only of any circumstances which, by  virtue of section 29 or section 30 or section 31 or section 32, do not constitute an anticipation of the  invention claimed in the specification. 

CHAPTER VII 

PROVISIONS FOR SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS 

  1. Secrecy directions relating to inventions relevant for defence purposes.—(1) Where, in  respect of an application made before or after the commencement of this Act for a patent, it appears to the  Controller that the invention is one of a class notified to him by the Central Government as relevant for  defence purposes, or, where otherwise the invention appears to him to be so relevant, he may give  directions for prohibiting or restricting the publication of information with respect to the invention or the  communication of such information 2***. 

(2) Where the Controller gives any such directions as are referred to in sub-section (1), he shall give  notice of the application and of the directions to the Central Government, and the Central Government  shall, upon receipt of such notice, consider whether the publication of the invention would be prejudicial  to the defence of India, and if upon such consideration, it appears to it that the publication of the invention  would not so prejudice, give notice to the Controller to that effect, who shall thereupon revoke the  directions and notify the applicant accordingly. 

(3) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in sub-section (1), where the Central Government  is of opinion that an invention in respect of which the Controller has not given any directions under  sub-section (1), is relevant for defence purposes, it may at any time before 3[grant of patent] notify the  Controller to that effect, and thereupon the provisions of that sub-section shall apply as if the invention  were one of the class notified by the Central Government, and accordingly the Controller shall give notice  to the Central Government of the directions issued by him. 

  1. Secrecy directions to be periodically reviewed.—4[(1) The question whether an invention in  respect of which directions have been given under section 35 continues to be relevant for defence  purposes shall be reconsidered by the Central Government at intervals of 5[six months] or on a request  made by the applicant which is found to be reasonable by the Controller and if, on such reconsideration it  appears to the Central Government that the publication of the invention would no longer be prejudicial to  the defence of India or in case of an application filed by a foreign applicant it is found that the invention  is published outside India it shall forthwith give notice to the Controller to revoke the direction and the  Controllers shall thereupon revoke the directions previously given by him.] 

(2) The result of every re-consideration under sub-section (1), shall be communicated to the applicant  within such time and in such manner as may be prescribed. 

  1. Consequences of secrecy directions.—(1) So long as any directions under section 35 are in force  in respect of an application— 

(a) the Controller shall not pass an order refusing 6[to grant] the same; and 

  

  1. The words “to accept complete specification for a patent or” omitted by Act 15 of 2005, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  2. The words “to any person or class of persons specified in the directions” omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 19 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  3. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 28, for “acceptance of complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 20, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  

5 Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 29, for “twelve months” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

  1. Subs. by s. 30, ibid., for “to accept” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

25 

(b) notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, no appeal shall lie from any order of the  Controller passed in respect thereof: 

1[Provided that the application may, subject to the directions, proceed up to the stage of grant of the  patent, but the application and the specification found to be in order for grant of the patent shall not be  published, and no patent shall be granted in pursuance of that application.] 

(2) Where a complete specification filed in pursuance of an application for a patent for an invention  in respect of which directions have been given under section 35 2[is found to be in order for grant of the  patent] during the continuance in force of the directions, then— 

(a) if, during the continuance in force of the directions, any use of the invention is made by or on  behalf of, or to the order of the Government, the provisions of sections 100, 101 and 103 shall apply  in relation to that use as if the patent had been granted for the invention ; and 

(b) if it appears to the Central Government that the applicant for the patent has suffered hardship  by reason of the continuance in force of the directions, the Central Government may make to him  such payment (if any) by way of solatium as appears to the Central Government to be reasonable  having regard to the novelty and utility of the invention and the purpose for which it is designed, and  to any other relevant circumstances. 

(3) Where a patent is granted in pursuance of an application in respect of which directions have been  given under section 35, no renewal fee shall be payable in respect of any period during which those  directions were in force. 

  1. Revocation of secrecy directions and extension of time.—When any direction given under  section 35 is revoked by the Controller, then, notwithstanding any provision of this Act specifying the  time within which any step should be taken or any act done in connection with an application for the  patent, the Controller may, subject to such conditions, if any, as he thinks fit to impose, extend the time  for doing anything required or authorised to be done by or under this Act in connection with the  application, whether or not that time has previously expired. 

3[39. Residents not to apply for patents outside India without prior permission.—(1) No person  resident in India shall, except under the authority of a written permit sought in the manner prescribed and  granted by or on behalf of the Controller, make or cause to be made any application outside India for the  grant of a patent for an invention unless— 

(a) an application for a patent for the same invention has been made in India, not less than six  weeks before the application outside India; and 

(b) either no direction has been given under sub-section (1) of section 35 in relation to the  application in India, or all such directions have been revoked. 

(2) The Controller shall dispose of every such application within such period as may be prescribed: 

Provided that if the invention is relevant for defence purpose or atomic energy, the Controller shall  not grant permit without the prior consent of the Central Government. 

(3) This section shall not apply in relation to an invention for which an application for protection has  first been filed in a country outside India by a person resident outside India.] 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 30, for the proviso (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 30, ibid., for “is accepted” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs by s. 31, ibid., for section 39 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

26 

  1. Liability for contravention of section 35 or section 39.—Without prejudice to the provisions  contained in Chapter XX, if in respect of an application for a patent any person contravenes any direction  as to secrecy given by the Controller under section 35 1[or makes or causes to be made an application for  grant of a patent outside India in contravention of section 39], or the application for patent under this Act  shall be deemed to have been abandoned and the patent granted, if any, shall be liable to be revoked under  section 64. 
  2. Finality of orders of Controller and Central Government.—All orders of the Controller  giving directions as to secrecy as well as all orders of the Central Government under this Chapter shall be  final and shall not be called in question in any court on any ground whatsoever. 
  3. Savings respecting disclosure to Government.—Nothing in this Act shall be held to prevent  the disclosure by the Controller of information concerning an application for a patent or a specification  filed in pursuance thereof to the Central Government for the purpose of the application or specification  being examined for considering whether an order under this Chapter should be made or whether an order  so made should be revoked. 

CHAPTER VIII 

2[GRANT OF PATENTS AND RIGHTS CONFERRED THEREBY] 

3[43. Grant of patents.—(1) Where an application for a patent has been found to be in order for grant  of the patent and either— 

(a) the application has not been refused by the Controller by virtue of any power vested in him by  this Act; or 

(b) the application has not been found to be in contravention of any of the provisions of this Act, 

the patent shall be granted as expeditiously as possible to the applicant or, in the case of a joint  application, to the applicants jointly, with the seal of the patent office and the date on which the patent is  granted shall be entered in the register. 

(2) On the grant of patent, the Controller shall publish the fact that the patent has been granted and  thereupon the application, specification and other documents related thereto shall be open for public  inspection.] 

  1. Amendment of patent granted to deceased applicant.—Where, at any time after a patent has  been 4[granted] in pursuance of an application under this Act, the Controller is satisfied that the person to  whom the patent was granted had died, or, in the case of a body corporate, had ceased to exist, before the  patent was 4[granted], the Controller may amend the patent by substituting for the name of that person the  name of the person to whom the patent ought to have been granted, and the patent shall have effect, and  shall be deemed always to have had effect, accordingly. 
  2. Date of patent.—5[(1) Subject to the other provisions contained in this Act, every patent shall be  dated as of the date on which the application for patent was filed.] 

(2) The date of every patent shall be entered in the register. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, no suit or other proceeding shall be  commenced or prosecuted in respect of an infringement committed before 6[the date of publication of the  application]. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 22 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 32, for Chapter Heading (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 33, ibid., for section 43 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Subs. by s. 34, ibid., for “sealed” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  5. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 24, for sub-section (1) (we.f. 20-5-2003).  
  6. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 35, for certain words (we.f. 1-1-2005).

27 

  1. Form, extent and effect of patent.—(1) Every patent shall be in the prescribed form and shall  have effect throughout India. 

(2) A patent shall be granted for one invention only: 

Provided that it shall not be competent for any person in a suit or other proceeding to take any  objection to a patent on the ground that it has been granted for more than one invention. 

  1. Grant of patents to be subject to certain conditions.—The grant of a patent under this Act shall  be subject to the condition that— 

(1) any machine, apparatus or other article in respect of which the patent is granted or any article  made by using a process in respect of which the patent is granted, may be imported or made by or on  behalf of the Government for the purpose merely of its own use; 

(2) any process in respect of which the patent is granted may be used by or on behalf of the  Government for the purpose merely of its own use; 

(3) any machine, apparatus or other article in respect of which the patent is granted or any article  made by the use of the process in respect of which the patent is granted, may be made or used, and any  process in respect of which the patent is granted may be used, by any person, for the purpose merely of  experiment or research including the imparting of instructions to pupils; and 

(4) in the case of a patent in respect of any medicine or drug, the medicine or drug may be imported  by the Government for the purpose merely of its own use or for distribution in any dispensary, hospital or  other medical institution maintained by or on behalf of the Government or any other dispensary, hospital  or other medical institution which the Central Government may, having regard to the public service that  such dispensary, hospital or medical institution renders, specify in this behalf by notification in the  Official Gazette. 

1[48. Rights of patentees.—Subject to the other provisions contained in this Act and the conditions  specified in section 47, a patent granted under this Act shall confer upon the patentee— 

(a) where the subject matter of the patent is a product, the exclusive right to prevent third parties,  who do not have his consent, from the act of making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing for  those purposes that product in India; 

(b) where the subject matter of the patent is a process, the exclusive right to prevent third parties,  who do not have his consent, from the act of using that process, and from the act of using, offering for  sale, selling or importing for those purposes the product obtained directly by that process in India. 

2* * * * *] 

  1. Patent rights not infringed when used on foreign vessels, etc., temporarily or accidentally in  India.—(1) Where a vessel or aircraft registered in a foreign country or a land vehicle owned by a person  ordinarily resident in such country comes into India (including the territorial waters thereof) temporarily  or accidentally only, the rights conferred by a patent for an invention shall not be deemed to be infringed  by the use of the invention— 

(a) in the body of the vessel or in the machinery, tackle, apparatus or other accessories thereof, so  far as the invention is used on board the vessel and for its actual needs only; or 

(b) in the construction or working of the aircraft or land vehicle or of the accessories thereof, as  the case may be. 

(2) This section shall not extend to vessels, aircraft or land vehicles owned by persons ordinarily  resident in a foreign country the laws of which do not confer corresponding rights with respect to the use  of inventions in vessels, aircraft or land vehicles owned by persons ordinarily resident in India while in  the ports or within the territorial waters of that foreign country or otherwise within the jurisdiction of its  courts. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 25, for section 48 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. The proviso omitted by Act 15 of 2005, s. 36 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

28 

  1. Rights of co-owners of patents.—(1) Where a patent is granted to two or more persons, each of  those persons shall, unless an agreement to the contrary is in force, be entitled to an equal undivided share  in the patent. 

(2) Subject to the provisions contained in this section and in section 51, where two or more persons  are registered as grantee or proprietor of a patent, then, unless an agreement to the contrary is in force,  each of those persons shall be entitled, by himself or his agents, to 1[the rights conferred by section 48] for his own benefit without accounting to the other person or persons. 

(3) Subject to the provisions contained in this section and in section 51 and to any agreement for the  time being in force, where two or more persons are registered as grantee or proprietor of a patent, then, a  licence under the patent shall not be granted and a share in the patent shall not be assigned by one of such  persons except with the consent of the other person or persons. 

(4) Where a patented article is sold by one of two or more persons registered as grantee or proprietor  of a patent, the purchaser and any person claiming through him shall be entitled to deal with the article in  the same manner as if the article had been sold by a sole patentee. 

(5) Subject to the provisions contained in this section, the rules of law applicable to the ownership  and devolution of movable property generally shall apply in relation to patents; and nothing contained in  sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall affect the mutual rights or obligations of trustees or of the legal  representatives of a deceased person or their rights or obligations as such. 

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the rights of the assignees of a partial interest in a patent  created before the commencement of this Act. 

  1. Power of Controller to give directions to co-owners.—(1) Where two or more persons are  registered as grantee or proprietor of a patent, the Controller may, upon application made to him in the  prescribed manner by any of those persons, give such directions in accordance with the application as to  the sale or lease of the patent or any interest therein, the grant of licences under the patent, or the exercise  of any right under section 50 in relation thereto, as he thinks fit. 

(2) If any person registered as grantee or proprietor of a patent fails to execute any instrument or to do  any other thing required for the carrying out of any direction given under this section within fourteen days  after being requested in writing so to do by any of the other persons so registered, the Controller may,  upon application made to him in the prescribed manner by any such other person, give directions  empowering any person to execute that instrument or to do that thing in the name and on behalf of the  person in default. 

(3) Before giving any directions in pursuance of an application under this section, the Controller shall  give an opportunity to be heard— 

(a) in the case of an application under sub-section (1), to the other person or persons registered as  grantee or proprietor of the patent; 

(b) in the case of an application under sub-section (2), to the person in default. 

(4) No direction shall be given under this section so as to affect the mutual rights or obligation of  trustees or of the legal representatives of a deceased person or of their rights or obligations as such, or  which is inconsistent with the terms of any agreement between persons registered as grantee or proprietor  of the patent. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 26, for “make, use, exercise and sell the patented invention” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 

29 

  1. Grant of patent to true and first inventor where it has been obtained by another in fraud of  him.—(1) 1[Where the patent has been revoked under section 64] on the ground that the patent was  obtained wrongfully and in contravention of the rights of the petitioner or any person under or through  whom he claims, or, where in a petition for revocation, the 2[3*** court], instead of revoking the patent,  directs the complete specification to be amended by the exclusion of a claim or claims in consequence of  a finding that the invention covered by such claim or claims had been obtained from the petitioner, the 2[ 3*** court] may, by order passed in the same proceeding, permit the grant to the petitioner of the whole or  such part of the invention which the 2[3*** court] finds has been wrongfully obtained by the patentee, in  lieu of the patent so revoked or is excluded by amendment. 

(2) Where any such order is passed, the Controller shall, on request by the petitioner made in the  prescribed manner grant to him:— 

(i) in cases where the 2[3*** court] permits the whole of the patent to be granted, a new patent  bearing the same date and number as the patent revoked; 

(ii) in cases where the 2[3*** court] permits a part only of the patent to be granted, a new patent  for such part bearing the same date as the patent revoked and numbered in such manner as may be  prescribed: 

Provided that the Controller may, as a condition of such grant, require the petitioner to file a new and  complete specification to the satisfaction of the Controller describing and claiming that part of the  invention for which the patent is to be granted. 

(3) No suit shall be brought for any infringement of a patent granted under this section committed  before the actual date on which such patent was granted. 

  1. Term of patent.—4[(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the term of every patent granted,  after the commencement of the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002, and the term of every patent which has  not expired and has not ceased to have effect, on the date of such commencement, under this Act, shall be  twenty years from the date of filing of the application for the patent.] 

5[Explanation.For the purposes of this sub-section, the term of patent in case of International  applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India, shall be twenty years from the  international filing date accorded under the Patent Cooperation Treaty.] 

(2) A patent shall cease to have effect notwithstanding anything therein or in this Act on the  expiration of the period prescribed for the payment of any renewal fee, if that fee is not paid within the  prescribed period 6[or within such extended period as may be prescribed]. 

7* * * * * 

8[(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, on cessation of  the patent right due to non-payment of renewal fee or on the expiry of the term of patent, the subject  matter covered by the said patent shall not be entitled to any protection.] 

CHAPTER IX 

PATENTS OF ADDITION 

  1. Patents of addition.—(1) Subject to the provisions contained in this section, where an  application is made for a patent in respect of any improvement in or modification of an invention  described or disclosed in the complete specification filed therefor (in this Act referred to as the “main  invention”) and the applicant also applies or has applied for a patent for that invention or is the patentee in  respect thereof, the Controller may, if the applicant so requests, grant the patent for the improvement or  modification as a patent of addition. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 37, for “Where a patent has been revoked” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 37, ibid., for “court” (w.e.f. 2-4-2007).  
  3. The word “Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  4. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 27, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  5. The Explanation ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 38 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  6. Subs. by s. 38, ibid., for “or within that period as extended under this section” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  7. Sub-section (3) omitted by s. 38, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  7. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 27 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

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(2) Subject to the provisions contained in this section, where an invention, being an improvement in  or modification of another invention, is the subject of an independent patent and the patentee in respect of  that patent is also the patentee in respect of the patent for the main invention, the Controller may, if the  patentee so requests, by order, revoke the patent for the improvement or modification and grant to the  patentee a patent of addition in respect thereof, bearing the same date as the date of the patent so revoked. 

(3) A patent shall not be granted as a patent of addition unless the date of filing of the 1[application] was the same as or later than the date of filing of the 1[application] in respect of the main invention. 

2[(4) A patent of addition shall not be granted before grant of the patent for the main invention]. 

  1. Term of patents of addition.—(1) A patent of addition shall be granted for a term equal to that  of the patent for the main invention, or so much thereof as has not expired, and shall remain in force  during that term or until the previous cesser of the patent for the main invention and no longer: 

Provided that if the patent for the main invention is revoked under this Act, the court, or, as the case  may be, the Controller, on request made to him by the patentee in the prescribed manner, may order that  the patent of addition shall become an independent patent for the remainder of the term for the patent for  the main invention and thereupon the patent shall continue in force as an independent patent accordingly. 

(2) No renewal fees shall be payable in respect of a patent of addition, but, if any such patent  becomes an independent patent under sub-section (1), the same fees shall thereafter be payable, upon the  same dates, as if the patent had been originally granted as an independent patent. 

  1. Validity of patents of addition.—(1) The grant of a patent of addition shall not be refused, and a  patent granted as a patent of addition shall not be revoked or invalidated, on the ground only that the  invention claimed in the complete specification does not involve any inventive step having regard to any  publication or use of— 

(a) the main invention described in the complete specification relating thereto; or 

(b) any improvement in or modification of the main invention described in the complete  specification of a patent of addition to the patent for the main invention or of an application for such a  patent of addition, 

and the validity of a patent of addition shall not be questioned on the ground that the invention ought to  have been the subject of an independent patent. 

(2) For the removal of doubts it is hereby declared that in determining the novelty of the invention  claimed in the complete specification filed in pursuance of an application for a patent of addition regard  shall be had also to the complete specification in which the main invention is described. CHAPTER X 

AMENDMENT OF APPLICATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

  1. Amendment of application and specification before Controller.—(1) Subject to the provisions  of section 59, the Controller may, upon application made under this section in the prescribed manner by  an applicant for a patent or by a patentee, allow the application for the patent or the complete  specification 3[or any document relating thereto] to be amended subject to such conditions, if any, as the  Controller thinks fit: 

Provided that the Controller shall not pass any order allowing or refusing an application to amend an  application for a patent or a specification 3[or any document relating thereto] under this section while any  suit before a court for the infringement of the patent or any proceeding before the High Court for the  revocation of the patent is pending, whether the suit or proceeding commenced before or after the filing  of the application to amend. 

(2) Every application for leave to amend an application for a patent 4[or a complete specification or  any document relating thereto] under this section shall state the nature of the proposed amendment, and  shall give full particulars of the reasons for which the application is made. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 39, for “complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 39, ibid., for sub-section (4) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 28 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  4. Subs. by s. 28, ibid., for “or a specification” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

31 

1[(3) Any application for leave to amend an application for a patent or a complete specification or a  document related thereto under this section made after the grant of patent and the nature of the proposed  amendment may be published.] 

(4) Where an application is 2[published] under sub-section (3), any person interested may, within the  prescribed period after the 3[publication] thereof, give notice to the Controller of opposition thereto; and  where such a notice is given within the period aforesaid, the Controller shall notify the person by whom  the application under this section is made and shall give to that person and to the opponent an opportunity  to be heard before he decides the case. 

(5) An amendment under this section of a complete specification may be, or include, an amendment  of the priority date of a claim. 

4[(6) The provisions of this section shall be without prejudice to the right of an applicant for a patent  to amend his specification or any other document related thereto to comply with the directions of the  Controller issued before the grant of a patent.] 

5[58. Amendment of specification before Appellate Board or High Court.—(1) In any proceeding  before the 6*** the High Court for the revocation of a patent, the 6*** the High Court, 7***, may, subject  to the provisions contained in section 59, allow the patentee to amend his complete specification in such  manner and subject to such terms as to costs, advertisement or otherwise, as the 6*** the High Court may  think fit, and if in any proceedings for revocation the 6*** the High Court decides that the patent is  invalid, it may allow the specification to be amended under this section instead of revoking the patent. 

(2) Where an application for an order under this section is made to the 6*** the High Court, the  applicant shall give notice of the application to the Controller, and the Controller shall be entitled to  appear and be heard, and shall appear if so directed by the 6*** the High Court. 

(3) Copies of all orders of the 6*** the High Court allowing the patentee to amend the specification  shall be transmitted by the 6*** the High Court to the Controller who shall, on receipt thereof, cause an  entry thereof and reference thereto to be made in the register.] 

  1. Supplementary provisions as to amendment of application or specification.—8[(1) No  amendment of an application for a patent or a complete specification or any document relating thereto  shall be made except by way of disclaimer, correction or explanation, and no amendment thereof shall be  allowed, except for the purpose of incorporation of actual fact, and no amendment of a complete  specification shall be allowed, the effect of which would be that the specification as amended would  claim or describe matter not in substance disclosed or shown in the specification before the amendment,  or that any claim of the specification as amended would not fall wholly within the scope of a claim of the  specification before the amendment.] 

9[(2) Where after the date of grant of patent any amendment of the specification or any other  documents related thereto is allowed by the Controller or by 10*** the High Court, as the case may be,— 

(a) the amendment shall for all purposes be deemed to form part of the specification along with  other documents related thereto; 

(b) the fact that the specification or any other documents related thereto has been amended shall  be published as expeditiously as possible; and 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 40, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by s. 40, ibid., for “advertised” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 40, ibid., for “advertisement” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  4. Subs. by s. 40, ibid., for sub-section (6) (w.e.f 1-1-2005). 
  5. Subs. by s. 41, ibid., for section 58 (w.e.f. 2-4-2007).  
  6. The word “the Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  7. The words “as the case may be” omitted by s. 13, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  8. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 29, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  9. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 42, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 2-4-2007). 
  10. The words “the Appellate Board or” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

32 

(c) the right of the applicant or patentee to make amendment shall not be called in question except  on the ground of fraud]. 

(3) In construing the specification as amended, reference may be made to the specification as  originally accepted. 

CHAPTER XI 

RESTORATION OF LAPSED PATENTS 

  1. Applications for restoration of lapsed patents.—(1) Where a patent has ceased to have effect  by reason of failure to pay any renewal fee within the 1[period prescribed under section 53 or within such  period as may be allowed under sub-section (4) of section 142], the patentee or his legal representative,  and where the patent was held by two or more persons jointly, then, with the leave of the Controller, one  or more of them without joining the others, may, within 2[eighteen months] from the date on which the  patent ceased to have effect, make an application for the restoration of the patent. 

3* * * * * 

(3) An application under this section shall contain a statement, verified in the prescribed manner,  fully setting out the circumstances which led to the failure to pay the prescribed fee, and the Controller  may require from the applicant such further evidence as he may think necessary. 

  1. Procedure for disposal of applications for restoration of lapsed patents.—(1) If, after hearing  the applicant in cases where the applicant so desires or the Controller thinks fit, the Controller is prima  facie satisfied that the failure to pay the renewal fee was unintentional and that there has been no undue  delay in the making of the application, he shall 4[publish the application] in the prescribed manner; and  within the prescribed period any person interested may give notice to the Controller of opposition thereto  on either or both of the following grounds, that is to say,— 

(a) that the failure to pay the renewal fee was not unintentional; or 

(b) that there has been undue delay in the making of the application. 

(2) If notice of opposition is given within the period aforesaid, the Controller shall notify the  applicant, and shall give to him and to the opponent an opportunity to be heard before he decides the case. 

(3) If no notice of opposition is given within the period aforesaid or if in the case of opposition, the  decision of the Controller is in favour of the applicant, the Controller shall, upon payment of any unpaid  renewal fee and such additional fee as may be prescribed, restore the patent and any patent of addition  specified in the application which has ceased to have effect on the cesser of that patent. 

(4) The Controller may, if he thinks fit as a condition of restoring the patent, require that an entry  shall be made in the register of any document or matter which, under the provisions of this Act, has to be  entered in the register but which has not been so entered. 

  1. Rights of patentees of lapsed patents which have been restored.—(1) Where a patent is  restored, the rights of the patentee shall be subject to such provisions as may be prescribed and to such  other provisions as the Controller thinks fit to impose for the protection or compensation of persons who  may have begun to avail themselves of, or have taken definite steps by contract or otherwise to avail  themselves of, the patented invention between the date when the patent ceased to have effect and the date  of the 5[publication] of the application for restoration of the patent under this Chapter. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 43, for “prescribed period or within that period as extended under sub-section (3) of  section 53” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 30, for “one year” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Sub-section (2) omitted by s. 30, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  4. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 44, for “advertise the application” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  5. Subs. by s. 45, ibid., for “advertisement” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

33 

(2) No suit or other proceeding shall be commenced or prosecuted in respect of an infringement of a  patent committed between the date on which the patent ceased to have effect and the 1[date of  publication] of the application for restoration of the patent. 

CHAPTER XII 

SURRENDER AND REVOCATION OF PATENTS 

  1. Surrender of patents.—(1) A patentee may, at any time by giving notice in the prescribed  manner to the Controller, offer to surrender his patent. 

(2) Where such an offer is made, the Controller shall 2[publish] the offer in the prescribed manner,  and also notify every person other than the patentee whose name appears in the register as having an  interest in the patent. 

(3) Any person interested may, within the prescribed period after 3[such publication] give notice to  the Controller of opposition to the surrender, and where any such notice is given the Controller shall  notify the patentee. 

(4) If the Controller is satisfied after hearing the patentee and any opponent, if desirous of being  heard, that the patent may properly be surrendered, he may accept the offer and, by order revoke the  patent. 

  1. Revocation of Power patents.—(1) Subject to the provisions contained in this Act, a patent whether granted before or after the commencement of this Act, may,4[be revoked on a petition of any  person interested or of the Central Government 5*** or on a counter-claim in a suit for infringement of  the patent by the High Court] on any of the following grounds, that is to say— 

(a) that the invention, so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification, was claimed in  a valid claim of earlier priority date contained in the complete specification of another patent granted  in India; 

(b) that the patent was granted on the application of a person not entitled under the provisions  of this Act to apply therefor: 

6* * * * * 

(c) that the patent was obtained wrongfully in contravention of the rights of the petitioner or any  person under or through whom he claims; 

(d) that the subject of any claim of the complete specification is not an invention within the  meaning of this Act; 

(e) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is not new,  having regard to what was publicly known or publicly used in India before the priority date of the  claim or to what was published in India or elsewhere in any of the documents referred to in section  13: 

4* * * * * 

(f) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification is obvious or  does not involve any inventive step, having regard to what was publicly known or publicly used in  India or what was published in India or elsewhere before the priority date of the claim: 

4* * * * * (g) that the invention, so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification, is not useful; 

  

  1. Subs. by s. 45, ibid., for “date of the advertisement” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 46, for “advertise” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 46, ibid., for “such advertisement” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Subs. by s. 47, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 2-4-2007).  
  5. The words “by the Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  6. The proviso omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 31 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

34 

(h) that the complete specification does not sufficiently and fairly describe the invention and the  method by which it is to be performed, that is to say, that the description of the method or the  instructions for the working of the invention as contained in the complete specification are not by  themselves sufficient to enable a person in India possessing average skill in, and average knowledge  of, the art to which the invention relates, to work the invention, or that it does not disclose the best  method of performing it which was known to the applicant for the patent and for which he was  entitled to claim, protection; 

(i) that the scope of any claim of the complete specification is not sufficiently and clearly defined  or that any claim of the complete specification is not fairly based on the matter disclosed in the  specification; 

(j) that the patent was obtained on a false suggestion or representation; 

(k) that the subject of any claim of the complete specification is not patentable under this Act; 

(l) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification was secretly  used in India, otherwise than as mentioned in sub-section (3), before the priority date of the claim; 

(m) that the applicant for the patent has failed to disclose to the Controller the information  required by section 8 or has furnished information which in any material particular was false to his  knowledge; 

(n) that the applicant contravened any direction for secrecy passed under section 35 1[or made  or caused to be made an application for the grant of a patent outside India in contravention of  section 39]; 

(o) that leave to amend the complete specification under section 57 or section 58 was obtained by  fraud; 

1[(p) that the complete specification does not disclose or wrongly mentions the source or  geographical origin of biological material used for the invention; 

(q) that the invention so far as claimed in any claim of the complete specification was anticipated  having regard to the knowledge, oral or otherwise, available within any local or indigenous  community in India or elsewhere.] 

(2) For the purposes of clauses (e) and (f) of sub-section (1),— 

(a) no account shall be taken of 2[personal document or secret trial or secret use]; and 

(b) where the patent is for a process or for a product as made by a process described or claimed the importation into India of the product made abroad by that process shall constitute knowledge or  use in India of the invention on the date of the importation, except where such importation has been  for the purpose of reasonable trial or experiment only. 

(3) For the purpose of clause (l) of sub-section (1), no account shall be taken of any use of the  invention— 

(a) for the purpose of reasonable trial or experiment only; or 

(b) by the Government or by any person authorised by the Government or by a Government  undertaking, in consequence of the applicant for the patent or any person from whom he derives title  having communicated or disclosed the invention directly or indirectly to the Government or person  authorised as aforesaid or to the Government undertaking; or 

(c) by any other person, in consequence of the applicant for the patent or any person from whom  he derives title having communicated or disclosed the invention, and without the consent or  acquiescence of the applicant or of any person from whom he derives title. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 31 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  2. Subs. by s. 31, ibid., for “secret use” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

35 

(4) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in sub-section (1), a patent may be revoked by the  High Court on the petition of the Central Government, if the High Court is satisfied that the patentee has  without reasonable cause failed to comply with the request of the Central Government to make, use or  exercise the patented invention for the purposes of Government within the meaning of section 99 upon  reasonable terms. 

(5) A notice of any petition for revocation of a patent under this section shall be served on all persons  appearing from the register to be proprietors of that patent or to have shares or interests therein and it  shall not be necessary to serve a notice on any other person. 

1[65. Revocation of patent or amendment of complete specification on directions from  Government in cases relating to atomic energy.—(1) Where at any time after grant of a patent, the  Central Government is satisfied that a patent is for an invention relating to atomic energy for which no  patent can be granted under sub-section (1) of section 20 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962), it  may direct the Controller to revoke the patent, and thereupon the Controller, after giving notice, to the  patentee and every other person whose name has been entered in the register as having an interest in the  patent, and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, may revoke the patent. 

(2) In any proceedings under sub-section (1), the Controller may allow the patentee to amend the  complete specification in such manner as he considers necessary instead of revoking the patent.] 

  1. Revocation of patent in public interest.—Where the Central Government is of opinion that a  patent or the mode in which it is exercised is mischievous to the State or generally prejudicial to the  public, it may, after giving the patentee an opportunity to be heard, make a declaration to that effect in the  Official Gazette and thereupon the patent shall be deemed to be revoked. 

CHAPTER XIII 

REGISTER OF PATENTS 

  1. Register of patents and particulars to be entered therein.—(1) There shall be kept at the patent  office a register of patents, wherein shall be entered— 

(a) the names and addresses of grantees of patents; 

(b) notifications of assignments and of transmissions of patents, of licences under patents, and of  amendments, extensions, an revocations of patents; and 

(c) particulars of such other matters affecting the validity or proprietorship of patents as may be  prescribed. 

(2) No notice of any trust, whether express, implied or constructive, shall be entered in the register,  and the Controller shall not be affected by any such notice. 

(3) Subject to the superintendence and direction of the Central Government, the register shall be kept  under the control and management of the Controller. 

2[(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Controller to  keep the register of patents or any part thereof in computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form subject to such safeguards as may be prescribed. 

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), a copy of, or  extracts from, the register of patents, certified to be a true copy under the hand of the Controller or any officer duly authorised by the Controller in this behalf shall, in all legal proceedings, be admissible in  evidence. 

(6) In the event the register is kept wholly or partly in computer floppies, diskettes or any other  electronic form,— 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 48, for section 65 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 32, for sub-section (4) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

36 

(a) reference in this Act to an entry in the register shall be deemed to include reference to a record  of particulars kept in computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form and comprising the  register or part of the register; 

(b) references in this Act to particulars being registered or entered in the register shall be deemed  to include references to the keeping of record of those particulars comprising the register or part of  the register in computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form; and 

(c) references in this Act to the rectification of the register are to be read as including references  to the rectification of the record of particulars kept in computer floppies, diskettes or any other  electronic form and comprising the register or part of the register.] 

1[68. Assignments, etc., not to be valid unless in writing and duly executed.—An assignment of a  patent or of a share in a patent, a mortgage, licence or the creation of any other interest in a patent shall  not be valid unless the same were in writing and the agreement between the parties concerned is reduced  to the form of a document embodying all the terms and conditions governing their rights and obligations  and duly executed.] 

  1. Registration of assignments, transmissions, etc.—(1) Where any person becomes entitled by  assignment, transmission or operation of law to a patent or to a share in a patent or becomes entitled as a  mortgagee, licensee or otherwise to any other interest in a patent, he shall apply in writing in the  prescribed manner to the Controller for the registration of his title or, as the case may be, of notice of his  interest in the register. 

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), an application for the registration of the  title of any person becoming entitled by assignment to a patent or a share in a patent or becoming entitled  by virtue of a mortgage, licence or other instrument to any other interest in a patent may be made in the  prescribed manner by the assignor, mortgagor, licensor or other party to that instrument, as the case may  be. 

(3) Where an application is made under this section for the registration of the title of any person the  Controller shall, upon proof of title to his satisfaction,— 

(a) where that person is entitled to a patent or a share in a patent, register him in the register as  proprietor or co-proprietor of the patent, and enter in the register particulars of the instrument or  event by which he derives title; or 

(b) where that person is entitled to any other interest in the patent, enter in the register notice of  his interest, with particulars of the instrument, if any, creating it: 

Provided that if there is any dispute between the parties whether the assignment, mortgage, licence,  transmission, operation of law or any other such transaction has validly vested in such person a title to the  patent or any share or interest therein, the Controller may refuse to take any action under clause (a) or, as  the case may be, under clause (b), until the rights of the parties have been determined by a competent  court. 

(4) There shall be supplied to the Controller in the prescribed manner for being filed in the patent  office copies of all agreements, licences and other documents affecting the title to any patent or any  licence thereunder authenticated in the prescribed manner and also such other documents as may be  prescribed relevant to the subject-matter: 

Provided that in the case of a licence granted under a patent, the Controller shall, if so requested by  the patentee or licensee, take steps for securing that the terms of the licence are not disclosed to any  person except under the order of a court. 

(5) Except for the purposes of an application under sub-section (1) or of an application to rectify the  register, a document in respect of which no entry has been made in the register under sub-section (3) shall  not be admitted by the Controller or by any court as evidence of the title of any person to a patent or to a  share or interest therein unless the Controller or the court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, otherwise  directs. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 49, for section 68 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

37 

  1. Power of registered grantee or proprietor to deal with patent.—Subject to the provisions  contained in this Act relating to co-ownership of patents and subject also to any rights vested in any other  person of which notice is entered in the register, the person or persons registered as grantee or proprietor  of a patent shall have power to assign, grant licences under, or otherwise deal with, the patent and to give  effectual receipts for any consideration for any such assignment, licence or dealing: 

Provided that any equities in respect of the patent may be enforced in like manner as in respect of any  other movable property. 

  1. Rectification of register by 1[High Court].—(1) The 1[High Court] may, on the application of  any person aggrieved— 

(a) by the absence or omission from the register of any entry; or 

(b) by any entry made in the register without sufficient cause; or 

(c) by any entry wrongly remaining on the register; or 

(d) by any error or defect in any entry in the register, 

make such order for the making, variation or deletion, of any entry therein as it may think fit. 

(2) In any proceeding under this section the 1[High Court] may decide any question that may be  necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register. 

(3) Notice of any application to the 1[High Court] under this section shall be given in the prescribed  manner to the Controller who shall be entitled to appear and be heard on the application, and shall appear  if so directed by the 2[High Court]. 

(4) Any order of the 1[High Court] under this section rectifying the register shall direct that notice of  the rectification shall be served upon the Controller in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of  such notice rectify the register accordingly. 

  1. Register to be open for inspection.—(1) Subject to the provisions contained in this Act and any  rules made thereunder, the register shall at all convenient times be open to inspection by the public; and  certified copies, sealed with the seal of the patent office, of any entry in the register shall be given to any  person requiring them on payment of the prescribed fee. 

(2) The register shall be prima facie evidence of any matters required or authorised by or under this  Act to be entered therein. 

3[(3) If the record of particulars is kept in computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic  form, sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be deemed to have been complied with if the public is given access to  such computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form or printouts of such record of particulars  for inspection.] 

CHAPTER XIV 

PATENT OFFICE AND ITS ESTABLISHMENT 

  1. Controller and other officers.—(1) The Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks  appointed under sub-section (1) of 4[section 3 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 (47 of 1999)], shall be the  Controller of Patents for the purposes of this Act. 

(2) For the purposes of this Act, the Central Government may appoint as many examiners and other  officers and with such designations as it thinks fit. 

(3) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the officers appointed under sub-section (2) shall discharge  under the superintendence and directions of the Controller such functions of the Controller under this Act  as he may, from time to time by general or special order in writing, authorise them to discharge. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2021, s. 13, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Subs. by s. 13, ibid., for “Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  3. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 34 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  4. Subs. by s. 35, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

38 

(4) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (3), the Controller may, by  order in writing and for reasons to be recorded therein withdraw any matter pending before an officer  appointed under sub-section (2) and deal with such matter himself either de novo or from the stage it was  so withdrawn or transfer the same to another officer appointed under sub-section (2) who may, subject to  special directions in the order of transfer, proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was  so transferred. 

  1. Patent office and its branches.—(1) For the purposes of this Act, there shall be an office which  shall be known as the patent office. 

1[(2) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify the name of the  Patent Office.] 

(3) The head office of the patent office shall be at such place as the Central Government may specify,  and for the purpose of facilitating, the registration of patents there may be established, at such other  places as the Central Government may think fit, branch offices of the patent office. 

(4) There shall be a seal of the patent office. 

  1. Restriction on employees of patent office as to right or interest in patents.—All officers and  employees of the patents office shall be incapable, during the period for which they hold their  appointments, to acquire or take, directly or indirectly, except by inheritance or bequest, any right or  interest in any patent issued by that office. 
  2. Officers and employees not to furnish information, etc.—An officer or employee in the patent  office shall not, except when required or authorised by this Act or under a direction in writing of the  2[Central Government 3***] or the Controller or by order of a court,— 

(a) furnish information on a matter which is being, or has been, or dealt with under this Act 4***; 

(b) prepare or assist in the preparation of a document required or permitted by or under this Act  4*** to be lodged in the patent office; or 

(c) conduct a search in the records of the patent office. 

CHAPTER XV 

POWERS OF CONTROLLER GENERALLY 

  1. Controller to have certain powers of a civil court.—(1) Subject to any rules made in this  behalf, the Controller in any proceedings before him under this Act shall have the powers of a civil court  while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), in respect of the following  matters, namely:— 

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; 

(c) receiving evidence on affidavits; 

(d) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents; 

(e) awarding costs; 

(f) reviewing his own decision on application made within the prescribed time and in the  prescribed manner; 

(g) setting aside an order passed ex parte on application made within the prescribed time and in  the prescribed manner; 

(h) any other matter which may be prescribed. 

(2) Any order for costs awarded by the Controller in exercise of the powers conferred upon him under  sub-section (1) shall be executable as a decree of a civil court. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 50, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 36, for “Central Government” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  3. The words “or Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  4. The words and figures “or under the Indian Patents or Designs Act, 1911 (2 of 1911)” omitted by s. 36, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

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  1. Powers of Controller to correct clerical errors, etc.—(1) Without prejudice to the provisions  contained in sections 57 and 59 as regards amendment of applications for patents or complete  specifications 1[or other documents relating thereto] and subject to the provisions of section 44, the  Controller may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, correct any clerical error in any patent  or in any specification or other document filed in pursuance of such application or in any application for a  patent or any clerical error in any matter which is entered in the register. 

(2) A correction may be made in pursuance of this section either upon a request in writing made by  any person interested and accompanied by the prescribed fee, or without such a request. 

(3) Where the Controller proposes to make any such correction as aforesaid otherwise than in  pursuance of a request made under this section, he shall give notice of the proposal to the patentee or the  applicant for the patent, as the case may be, and to any other person who appears to him to be concerned,  and shall give them an opportunity to be heard before making the correction. 

(4) Where a request is made under this section for the correction of any error in a patent or  application for a patent or any document filed in pursuance of such an application, and it appears to the  Controller that the correction would materially alter the meaning or scope of the document to which the  request relates and ought not to be made without notice to persons affected thereby, he shall require  notice of the nature of the proposed correction to be 2[published] in the prescribed manner. 

(5) Within the prescribed time after any 3[such publication] as aforesaid any person interested may  give notice to the Controller of opposition to the request, and, where such notice of opposition is given,  the Controller shall give notice thereof to the person by whom the request was made, and shall give to  him and to the opponent an opportunity to be heard before he decides the case. 

  1. Evidence how to be given and powers of Controller in respect thereof.—Subject to any rules  made in this behalf, in any proceeding under this Act before the Controller, evidence shall be given by  affidavit in the absence of directions by the Controller to the contrary, but in any case in which the  Controller thinks it right so to do, he may take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, evidence by  affidavit, or may allow any party to be cross-examined on the contents of his affidavit. 
  2. Exercise of discretionary powers by Controller.—Without prejudice to any provision contained  in this Act requiring the Controller to hear any party to the proceedings thereunder or to give any such  party an opportunity to be heard, the Controller shall give to any applicant for a patent, or for amendment  of a specification (if within the prescribed time the applicant so requires) an opportunity to be heard  before exercising adversely to the applicant any discretion vested in the Controller by or under this Act: 

4[Provided that the party desiring a hearing makes the request for such hearing to the Controller at  least ten days in advance of the expiry of the time-limit specified in respect of the proceeding.] 

  1. Disposal by Controller of applications for extension of time.—Where under the provisions of  this Act or the rules made thereunder the Controller may extend the time for doing any act, nothing in this  Act shall be deemed to require him to give notice to or hear the party interested in opposing the extension,  nor shall any appeal lie from any order of the Controller granting such extension. 

5[CHAPTER XVI 

WORKING OF PATENTS, COMPULSORY LICENCES AND REVOCATION 

  1. Definition of “patented articles” and “patentee”.—In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise  requires,— 

(a) “patented article” includes any article made by a patented process; and 

(b) “patentee” includes an exclusive licensee. 

  

  1. Ins. by s. 37, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 51, for “advertised” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  3. Subs. by s. 51, ibid., for “such advertisement” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  4. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 38 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  5. Subs. by s. 39, ibid., for Chapter XVI (sections 82 to 98) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

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  1. General principles applicable to working of patented inventions.—Without prejudice to the  other provisions contained in this Act, in exercising the powers conferred by this Chapter, regard shall be  had to the following general considerations, namely:— 

(a) that patents are granted to encourage inventions and to secure that the inventions are worked  in India on a commercial scale and to the fullest extent that is reasonably practicable without undue  delay; 

(b) that they are not granted merely to enable patentees to enjoy a monopoly for the importation  of the patented article; 

(c) that the protection and enforcement of patent rights contribute to the promotion of  technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage  of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic  welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations; 

(d) that patents granted do not impede protection of public health and nutrition and should act as  instrument to promote public interest specially in sectors of vital importance for socio-economic and  technological development of India; 

(e) that patents granted do not in any way prohibit Central Government in taking measures to  protect public health; 

(f) that the patent right is not abused by the patentee or person deriving title or interest on patent  from the patentee, and the patentee or a person deriving title or interest on patent from the patentee  does not resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international  transfer of technology; and 

(g) that patents are granted to make the benefit of the patented invention available at reasonably  affordable prices to the public. 

  1. Compulsory licences.—(1) At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the 1[grant] of patent, any person interested may make an application to the Controller for grant of  compulsory licence on patent on any of the following grounds, namely:— 

(a) that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not  been satisfied, or 

(b) that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price, or (c) that the patented invention is not worked in the territory of India. 

(2) An application under this section may be made by any person notwithstanding that he is already  the holder of a licence under the patent and no person shall be estopped from alleging that the reasonable  requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention are not satisfied or that the patented  invention is not worked in the territory of India or that the patented invention is not available to the public  at a reasonably affordable price by reason of any admission made by him, whether in such a licence or  otherwise or by reason of his having accepted such a licence. 

(3) Every application under sub-section (1) shall contain a statement setting out the nature of the  applicant’s interest together with such particulars as may be prescribed and the facts upon which the  application is based. 

(4) The Controller, if satisfied that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the  patented invention have not been satisfied or that the patented invention is not worked in the territory of  India or that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price, may  grant a licence upon such terms as he may deem fit. 

(5) Where the Controller directs the patentee to grant a licence he may, as incidental thereto, exercise  the powers set out in section 88. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 52, for “sealing” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

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(6) In considering the application filed under this section, the Controller shall take into account,— 

(i) the nature of the invention, the time which has elapsed since the sealing of the patent and the  measures already taken by the patentee or any licensee to make full use of the invention; 

(ii) the ability of the applicant to work the invention to the public advantage; 

(iii) the capacity of the applicant to undertake the risk in providing capital and working the  invention, if the application were granted; 

(iv) as to whether the applicant has made efforts to obtain a licence from the patentee on  reasonable terms and conditions and such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period  as the Controller may deem fit: 

Provided that this clause shall not be applicable in case of national emergency or other  circumstances of extreme urgency or in case of public non-commercial use or on establishment of a  ground of anti-competitive practices adopted by the patentee, 

but shall not be required to take into account matters subsequent to the making of the application. 

1[Explanation.For the purposes of clause (iv), “reasonable period” shall be construed as a period  not ordinarily exceeding a period of six months.] 

(7) For the purposes of this Chapter, the reasonable requirements of the public shall be deemed not to  have been satisfied— 

(a) if, by reason of the refusal of the patentee to grant a licence or licences on reasonable  terms,— 

(i) an existing trade or industry or the development thereof or the establishment of any new  trade or industry in India or the trade or industry of any person or class of persons trading or  manufacturing in India is prejudiced; or 

(ii) the demand for the patented article has not been met to an adequate extent or on  reasonable terms; or 

(iii) a market for export of the patented article manufactured in India is not being supplied or  developed; or 

(iv) the establishment or development of commercial activities in India is prejudiced; or 

(b) if, by reason of conditions imposed by the patentee upon the grant of licences under the patent  or upon the purchase, hire or use of the patented article or process, the manufacture, use or sale of  materials not protected by the patent, or the establishment or development of any trade or industry in  India, is prejudiced; or 

(c) if the patentee imposes a condition upon the grant of licences under the patent to provide  exclusive grant back, prevention to challenges to the validity of patent or coercive package licensing,  or 

(d) if the patented invention is not being worked in the territory of India on a commercial scale to  an adequate extent or is not being so worked to the fullest extent that is reasonably practicable, or 

(e) if the working of the patented invention in the territory of India on a commercial scale is being  prevented or hindered by the importation from abroad of the patented article by— 

(i) the patentee or persons claiming under him; or 

(ii) persons directly or indirectly purchasing from him; or 

(iii) other persons against whom the patentee is not taking or has not taken proceedings for  infringement. 

  

  1. The Explanation ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 52 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

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  1. Revocation of patents by the Controller for non-working.—(1) Where, in respect of a patent, a  compulsory licence has been granted, the Central Government or any person interested may, after the  expiration of two years from the date of the order granting the first compulsory licence, apply to the  Controller for an order revoking the patent on the ground that the patented invention has not been worked  in the territory of India or that reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented  invention has not been satisfied or that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably  affordable price. 

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall contain such particulars as may be prescribed, the  facts upon which the application is based, and, in the case of an application other than by the Central  Government, shall also set out the nature of the applicant’s interest. 

(3) The Controller, if satisfied that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the  patented invention have not been satisfied or that patented invention have not been worked in the territory  of India or that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price, may  make an order revoking the patent. 

(4) Every application under sub-section (1) shall ordinarily be decided within one year of its being  presented to the Controller. 

  1. Power of Controller to adjourn applications for compulsory licences, etc., in certain cases.—(1) Where an application under section 84 or section 85, as the case may be, is made on the  grounds that the patented invention has not been worked in the territory of India or on the ground  mentioned in clause (d) of sub-section (7) of section 84 and the Controller is satisfied that the time which  has elapsed since the sealing of the patent has for any reason been insufficient to enable the invention to  be worked on a commercial scale to an adequate extent or to enable the invention to be so worked to the  fullest extent that is reasonably practicable, he may, by order, adjourn the further hearing of the  application for such period not exceeding twelve months in the aggregate as appears to him to be  sufficient for the invention to be so worked: 

Provided that in any case where the patentee establishes that the reason why a patented invention  could not be worked as aforesaid before the date of the application was due to any State or Central Act or  any rule or regulation made thereunder or any order of the Government imposed otherwise than by way of  a condition for the working of the invention in the territory of India or for the disposal of the patented  articles or of the articles made by the process or by the use of the patented plant, machinery, or apparatus,  then, the period of adjournment ordered under this sub-section shall be reckoned from the date on which  the period during which the working of the invention was prevented by such Act, rule or regulation or  order of Government as computed from the date of the application, expires. 

(2) No adjournment under sub-section (1) shall be ordered unless the Controller is satisfied that the  patentee has taken with promptitude adequate or reasonable steps to start the working of the invention in  the territory of India on a commercial scale and to an adequate extent. 

  1. Procedure for dealing with applications under sections 84 and 85.(1) Where the Controller  is satisfied, upon consideration of an application under section 84, or section 85, that a prima facie case  has been made out for the making of an order, he shall direct the applicant to serve copies of the  application upon the patentee and any other person appearing from the register to be interested in the  patent in respect of which the application is made, and 1[shall publish the application in the official  journal]. 

(2) The patentee or any other person desiring to oppose the application may within such time as may  be prescribed or within such further time as the Controller may on application (made either before or after  the expiration of the prescribed time) allow, give to the Controller notice of opposition. 

(3) Any such notice of opposition shall contain a statement setting out the grounds on which the  application is opposed. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 53, for “shall advertise the application in the Official Gazette” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

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(4) Where any such notice of opposition is duly given, the Controller shall notify the applicant, and  shall give to the applicant and the opponent an opportunity to be heard before deciding the case. 

  1. Powers of Controller in granting compulsory licences.(1) Where the Controller is satisfied on an application made under section 84 that the manufacture, use or sale of materials not protected by  the patent is prejudiced by reason of conditions imposed by the patentee upon the grant of licences under  the patent, or upon the purchase, hire or use of the patented article or process, he may, subject to the  provisions of that section, order the grant of licences under the patent to such customers of the applicant  as he thinks fit as well as to the applicant. 

(2) Where an application under section 84 is made by a person being the holder of a licence under the  patent, the Controller may, if he makes an order for the grant of a licence to the applicant, order the  existing licence to be cancelled, or may, if he thinks fit, instead of making an order for the grant of a  licence to the applicant, order the existing licence to be amended. 

(3) Where two or more patents are held by the same patentee and an applicant for a compulsory  licence establishes that the reasonable requirements of the public have not been satisfied with respect to  some only of the said patents, then, if the Controller is satisfied that the applicant cannot efficiently or  satisfactorily work the licence granted to him under those patents without infringing the other patents held  by the patentee and if those patents involve important technical advancement or considerable economic  significance in relation to the other patents, he may, by order, direct the grant of a licence in respect of the  other patents also to enable the licensee to work the patent or patents in regard to which a licence is  granted under section 84. 

(4) Where the terms and conditions of a licence have been settled by the Controller, the licensee may,  at any time after he has worked the invention on a commercial scale for a period of not less than twelve  months, make an application to the Controller for the revision of the terms and conditions on the ground  that the terms and conditions settled have proved to be more onerous than originally expected and that in  consequence thereof the licensee is unable to work the invention except at a loss: 

Provided that no such application shall be entertained a second time. 

  1. General purposes for granting compulsory licences.The powers of the Controller upon an  application made under section 84 shall be exercised with a view to securing the following general  purposes, that is to say,— 

(a) that patented inventions are worked on a commercial scale in the territory of India without  undue delay and to the fullest extent that is reasonably practicable; 

(b) that the interests of any person for the time being working or developing an invention in the  territory of India under the protection of a patent are not unfairly prejudiced. 

  1. Terms and conditions of compulsory licences.(1) In settling the terms and conditions of a  licence under section 84, the Controller shall endeavour to secure— 

(i) that the royalty and other remuneration, if any, reserved to the patentee or other person  beneficially entitled to the patent, is reasonable, having regard to the nature of the invention, the  expenditure incurred by the patentee in making the invention or in developing it and obtaining a  patent and keeping it in force and other relevant factors; 

(ii) that the patented invention is worked to the fullest extent by the person to whom the licence is  granted and with reasonable profit to him; 

(iii) that the patented articles are made available to the public at reasonably affordable prices; (iv) that the licence granted is a non-exclusive licence; 

(v) that the right of the licensee is non-assignable; 

(vi) that the licence is for the balance term of the patent unless a shorter term is consistent with  public interest;

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1[(vii) that the licence is granted with a predominant purpose of supply in the Indian market and  that the licensee may also export the patented product, if need be in accordance with the provisions of  sub-clause (iii) of clause (a) of sub-section (7) of section 84; 

(viii) that in the case of semi-conductor technology, the licence granted is to work the invention  for public non-commercial use; 

(ix) that in case the licence is granted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or  administrative process to be anti-competitive, the licensee shall be permitted to export the patented  product, if need be.] 

(2) No licence granted by the Controller shall authorise the licensee to import the patented article or  an article or substance made by a patented process from abroad where such importation would, but for  such authorisation, constitute an infringement of the rights of the patentee. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Central Government may, if in its  opinion it is necessary so to do, in the public interest, direct the Controller at any time to authorise any  licensee in respect of a patent to import the patented article or an article or substance made by a patented  process from abroad (subject to such conditions as it considers necessary to impose relating among other  matters to the royalty and other remuneration, if any, payable to the patentee, the quantum of import, the  sale price of the imported article and the period of importation), and thereupon the Controller shall give  effect to the directions. 

  1. Licensing of related patents.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the other provisions of  this Chapter, at any time after the sealing of a patent, any person who has the right to work any other  patented invention either as patentee or as licensee thereof, exclusive or otherwise, may apply to the  Controller for the grant of a licence of the first-mentioned patent on the ground that he is prevented or  hindered without such licence from working the other invention efficiently or to the best advantage  possible. 

(2) No order under sub-section (1) shall be made unless the Controller is satisfied— 

(i) that the applicant is able and willing to grant, or procure the grant to the patentee and his  licensees if they so desire, of a licence in respect of the other invention on reasonable terms; and 

(ii) that the other invention has made a substantial contribution to the establishment or  development of commercial or industrial activities in the territory of India. 

(3) When the Controller is satisfied that the conditions mentioned in sub-section (1) have been  established by the applicant, he may make an order on such terms as he thinks fit granting a licence under  the first-mentioned patent and a similar order under the other patent if so requested by the proprietor of  the first-mentioned patent or his licensee: 

Provided that the licence granted by the Controller shall be non-assignable except with the  assignment of the respective patents. 

(4) The provisions of sections 87, 88, 89 and 90 shall apply to licences granted under this section as  they apply to licences granted under section 84. 

  1. Special provision for compulsory licences on notifications by Central Government.—(1) If  the Central Government is satisfied, in respect of any patent in force in circumstances of national  emergency or in circumstances of extreme urgency or in case of public non-commercial use, that it is  necessary that compulsory licences should be granted at any time after the sealing thereof to work the  invention, it may make a declaration to that effect, by notification in the Official Gazette, and thereupon  the following provisions shall have effect, that is to say,— 

(i) the Controller shall, on application made at any time after the notification by any person  interested, grant to the applicant a licence under the patent on such terms and conditions as he thinks  fit; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 54, for clause (vii) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

45 

(ii) in settling the terms and conditions of a licence granted under this section, the Controller shall  endeavour to secure that the articles manufactured under the patent shall be available to the public at  the lowest prices consistent with the patentees deriving a reasonable advantage from their patent  rights. 

(2) The provisions of sections 83, 87, 88, 89 and 90 shall apply in relation to the grant of licences  under this section as they apply in relation to the grant of licences under section 84. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), where the Controller is satisfied on  consideration of the application referred to in clause (i) of sub-section (1) that it is necessary in— 

(i) a circumstance of national emergency; or 

(ii) a circumstance of extreme urgency; or 

(iii) a case of public non-commercial use, 

which may arise or is required, as the case may be, including public health crises, relating to Acquired  Immuno Deficiency Syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, malaria or other epidemics,  he shall not apply any procedure specified in section 87 in relation to that application for grant of licence  under this section: 

Provided that the Controller shall, as soon as may be practicable, inform the patentee of the patent  relating to the application for such non-application of section 87. 

1[92A. Compulsory licence for export of patented pharmaceutical products in certain  exceptional circumstances.—(1) Compulsory licence shall be available for manufacture and export of  patented pharmaceutical products to any country having insufficient or no manufacturing capacity in the  pharmaceutical sector for the concerned product to address public health problems, provided compulsory 

licence has been granted by such country or such country has, by notification or otherwise, allowed  importation of the patented pharmaceutical products from India. 

(2) The Controller shall, on receipt of an application in the prescribed manner, grant a compulsory  licence solely for manufacture and export of the concerned pharmaceutical product to such country under  such terms and conditions as may be specified and published by him. 

(3) The provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be without prejudice to the extent to which  pharmaceutical products produced under a compulsory licence can be exported under any other provision  of this Act. 

Explanation.For the purposes of this section, “pharmaceutical products” means any patented  product, or product manufactured through a patented process, of the pharmaceutical sector needed to  address public health problems and shall be inclusive of ingredients necessary for their manufacture and  diagnostic kits required for their use.] 

  1. Order for licence to operate as a deed between parties concerned.—Any order for the grant of  a licence under this Chapter shall operate as if it were a deed granting a licence executed by the patentee  and all other necessary parties embodying the terms and conditions, if any, settled by the Controller. 
  2. Termination of compulsory licence.—(1) On an application made by the patentee or any other  person deriving title or interest in the patent, a compulsory licence granted under section 84 may be  terminated by the Controller, if and when the circumstances that gave rise to the grant thereof no longer  exist and such circumstances are unlikely to recur: 

Provided that the holder of the compulsory licence shall have the right to object to such termination. 

(2) While considering an application under sub-section (1), the Controller shall take into account that  the interest of the person who had previously been granted the licence is not unduly prejudiced.]. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 55 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

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CHAPTER XVII 

USE OF INVENTIONS FOR PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT AND ACQUISITION OF INVENTIONS BY CENTRAL GOVERNMENT 

  1. Meaning of use of invention for purposes of Government.—(1) For the purposes of this  Chapter, an invention is said to be used for the purposes of Government if it is made, used, exercised or  vended for the purposes of the Central Government, a State Government or a Government undertaking. 

1* * * * * 

(3) Nothing contained in this Chapter shall apply in respect of any such importation making or using  of any machine, apparatus or other article or of any such using of any process or of any such importation,  using or distribution of any medicine or drug, as may be made by virtue of one or more of the conditions  specified in section 47. 

  1. Power of Central Government to use inventions for purposes of  Government.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, at any time after an application for a  patent has been filed at the patent office or a patent has been granted, the Central Government and any  person authorised in writing by it, may use the invention for the purposes of Government in accordance  with the provisions of this Chapter. 

(2) Where an invention has, before the priority date of the relevant claim of the complete  specification, been duly recorded in a document, or tested or tried, by or on behalf of the Government or a  Government undertaking, otherwise than in consequence of the communication of the invention directly  or indirectly by the patentee or by a person from whom he derives title, any use of the invention by the  Central Government or any person authorised in writing by it for the purposes of Government may be  made free of any royalty or other remuneration to the patentee. 

(3) If and so far as the invention has not been so recorded or tried or tested as aforesaid, any use of the  invention made by the Central Government or any person authorised by it under sub-section (1), at any  time after 2[grant of the patent] or in consequence of any such communication as aforesaid, shall be made  upon terms as may be agreed upon either before or after the use, between the Central Government or any  person authorised under sub-section (1) and the patentee, or, as may in default of agreement be  determined by the High Court on a reference under section 103: 

3[Provided that in case of any such use of any patent, the patentee shall be paid not more than  adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic value of the  use of the patent.] 

(4) The authorisation by the Central Government in respect of an invention may be given under this  section, either before or after the patent is granted and either before or after the acts in respect of which  such authorisation is given or done, and may be given to any person, whether or not he is authorised  directly or indirectly by the applicant or the patentee to make, use, exercise or vend the invention or  import the machine, apparatus or other article or medicine or drug covered by such patent. 

(5) Where an invention has been used by or with the authority of the Central Government for the  purposes of Government under this section, then, 4[except in case of national emergency or other  circumstances of extreme urgency or for non-commercial use], the Government shall notify the patentee  as soon as practicable of the fact and furnish him with such information as to the extent of the use of the  invention as he may, from time to time, reasonable require; and where the invention has been used for the  purposes of a Government undertaking, the Central Government may call for such information as may be  necessary for this purpose from such undertaking. 

  

  1. Sub-section (2) omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 40 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 56, for “the acceptance of the complete specification in respect of the patent” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 3. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 41, for the proviso (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Subs. by s. 41, ibid., for certain words (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

47 

(6) The right to make, use, exercise and vend an invention for the purposes of Government under  sub-section (1) shall include the 1[right to sell, on non-commercial basis, the goods] which have been  made in exercise of that right, and a purchaser of goods so sold, and a person claiming through him, shall  have the power to deal with the goods as if the Central Government or the person authorised under  sub-section (1) were the patentee of the invention. 

(7) Where in respect of a patent which has been the subject of an authorisation under this section,  there is an exclusive licensee as is referred to in sub-section (3) of section 101, or where such patent has  been assigned to the patentee in consideration of royalties or other benefits determined by reference to the  use of the invention (including payments by way of minimum royalty), the notice directed to be given  under sub-section (5) shall also be given to such exclusive licensee or assignor as the case may be, and the  reference to the patentee in sub-section (3) shall be deemed to include a reference to such assignor or  exclusive licensee. 

  1. Rights of third parties in respect of use of invention for purposes of Government.—(1) In  relation to any use of a patented invention, or an invention in respect of which an application for a patent  is pending, made for the purposes of Government— 

(a) by the Central Government or any person authorised by the Central Government under  section 100; or 

(b) by the patentee or applicant for the patent to the order made by the Central Government,  

the provisions of any licence, assignment or agreement granted or made,2*** between the patentee or  applicant for the patent (or any person who derives title from him or from whom he derives title) and any  person other than the Central Government shall be of no effect so far as those provisions— 

(i) restrict or regulate the use for the purposes of Government of the invention, or of any model, document or information relating thereto, or 

(ii) provide for the making of payments in respect of any use of the invention or of the model, document or information relating thereto for the purposes of Government 3***, 

and the reproduction or publication of any model or document in connection with the said use for the  purposes of Government shall not be deemed to be an infringement of any copyright subsisting in the  model or document. 

(2) Where the patent, or the right to apply for or obtain the patent, has been assigned to the patentee in  consideration of royalties or other benefits determined by reference to the use of the invention 2***, then,  in relation to any use of the invention made for the purposes of Government by the patentee to the order  of the Central Government, sub-section (3) of section 100 shall have effect as if that use were made by  the virtue of an authority given under that section; and any rise of the invention for the purposes of  Government by virtue of sub-section (3) of that section shall have effect as if the reference to the patentee  included a reference to the assignor of the patent, and any sum payable by virtue of that sub-section shall  be divided between the patentee and the assignor in such proportion as may be agreed upon between them  or as may in default of agreement be determined by the High Court on a reference under section 103. 

(3) Where by virtue of sub-section (3) of section 100, payments are required to be made by the  Central Government or persons authorised under sub-section (2) of that section in respect of the use of an  invention for the purposes of Government and where in respect of such patent there is an exclusive  licensee authorised under his licence to use the invention for the purposes of Government, such sum shall  be shared by the patentee and such licensee in such proportions, if any, as may be agreed upon between  them or as may in default of agreement be determined by the High Court on a reference under section 103  to be just, having regard to any expenditure incurred by the licensee— 

  

  1. Subs. by s. 41, ibid., for “right to sell the goods” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. The words “, whether before or after the commencement of this Act,” omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 42 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 3. The brackets and words “(including payments by way of minimum royalty)” omitted by s. 42, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

48 

(a) in developing the said invention; or 

(b) in making payments to the patentees other than royalties or other benefits determined by  reference to the use of the invention 1*** in consideration of the licence. 

  1. Acquisition of inventions and patents by the Central Government.—(1) The Central  Government may, if satisfied that it is necessary that an invention which is the subject of an application  for a patent or a patent should be acquired from the applicant or the patentee for a public purpose, publish  a notification to that effect in the Official Gazette, and thereupon the invention or patent and all rights in  respect of the invention or patent shall, by force of this section, stand transferred to and be vested in the  Central Government. 

(2) Notice of the acquisition shall be given to the applicant, and, where a patent has been granted, to  the patentee and other persons, if any, appearing in the register as having an interest in the patent. 

(3) The Central Government shall pay to the applicant, or, as the case may be, the patentee and other  persons appearing on the register as having an interest in the patent such compensation as may be agreed  upon between the Central Government and the applicant, or the patentee and other persons; or, as may, in  default of agreement, be determined by the High Court on a reference under section 103 to be just having  regard to the expenditure incurred in connection with the invention and, in the case of a patent, the term  thereof, the period during which and the manner in which it has already been worked (including the  profits made during such period by the patentee or by his licensee whether exclusive or otherwise) and  other relevant factors. 

  1. Reference to High Court of disputes as to use for purposes of Government.—(1) Any  dispute as to the exercise by the Central Government or a person authorised by it of the powers conferred  by section 100, or as to terms for the use of an invention for the purposes of Government thereunder or as  to the right of any person to receive any part of a payment made in pursuance of sub-section (3) of that  section or as to the amount of compensation payable for the acquisition of an invention or a patent under  section 102, may be referred to the High Court by either party to the dispute in such manner as may be  prescribed by the rules of the High Court. 

(2) In any proceeding under this section to which the Central Government is a party, the  Central Government may,— 

(a) if the patentee is a party to the proceedings, petition by way of counter-claim for revocation of  the patent on any ground upon which a patent may be revoked under section 64; and 

(b) whether a patentee is or is not a party to the proceedings, put in issue the validity of the patent  without petitioning for its revocation. 

(3) If in such proceedings as aforesaid any question arises whether an invention has been recorded,  tested or tried as is mentioned in section 100, and the disclosure of any document regarding the invention,  or of any evidence of the test or trial thereof, would, in the opinion of the Central Government, be  prejudicial to the public interest, the disclosure may be made confidentially to the advocate of the other  party or to an independent expert mutually agreed upon. 

(4) In determining under this section any dispute between the Central Government and any person as  to terms for the use of an invention for the purposes of Government, the High Court shall have regard to  any benefit or compensation which that person or any person from whom he derive title, may have  received, or may be entitled to receive, directly or indirectly in respect of the use of the invention in  question for the purposes of Government. 

(5) In any proceedings under this section, the High Court may at any time order the whole  proceedings or any question or issue of fact arising therein to be referred to an official referee,  commissioner or an arbitrator on such terms as the High Court may direct, and references to the High  Court in the foregoing provisions of this section shall be construed accordingly. 

(6) Where the invention claimed in a patent was made by a person who at the time it was made was in  the service of the Central Government or of a State Government or was an employee of a Government  

  

  1. The words “including payments by way of minimum royalty” omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 42 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

49 

undertaking and the subject-matter of the invention is certified by the relevant Government or the  principal officer of the Government undertaking to be connected with the work done in the course of the  normal duties of the Government servant or employee of the Government undertaking, then,  notwithstanding anything contained in this section, any dispute of the nature referred to in sub-section (1)  relating to the invention shall be disposed of by the Central Government conformably to the provisions of  this section so far as may be applicable, but before doing so the Central Government shall give an  opportunity to the patentee and such other parties as it considers have an interest in the matter to be heard. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

SUITS CONCERNING INFRINGEMENT OF PATENTS 

  1. Jurisdiction.—No suit for a declaration under section 105 or for any relief under section 106 or  for infringement of a patent shall be instituted in any court inferior to a district court having jurisdiction to  try the suit: 

Provided that where a counter-claim for revocation of the patent is made by the defendant, the suit,  along with the counter-claim, shall be transferred to the High Court for decision. 

1[104A. Burden of proof in case of suits concerning infringement.—(1) In any suit for  infringement of a patent, where the subject matter of patent is a process for obtaining a product, the court  may direct the defendant to prove that the process used by him to obtain the product, identical to the  product of the patented process, is different from the patented process if,— 

(a) the subject matter of the patent is a process for obtaining a new product; or 

(b) there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product is made by the process, and the  patentee or a person deriving title or interest in the patent from him, has been unable through  reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used: 

Provided that the patentee or a person deriving title or interest in the patent from him, first proves that  the product is identical to the product directly obtained by the patented process. 

(2) In considering whether a party has discharged the burden imposed upon him by sub-section (1),  the court shall not require him to disclose any manufacturing or commercial secrets, if it appears to the  court that it would be unreasonable to do so.] 

  1. Power of court to make declaration as to non-infringement.—(1) Notwithstanding anything  contained in section 34 of the Specific Relief Act, 1963 (47 of 1963), any person may institute a suit for a  declaration that the use by him of any process, or the making, use or sale of any article by him does not,  or would not, constitute an infringement of a claim of a patent against the patentee or the holder of an  exclusive licence under the patent, notwithstanding that no assertion to the contrary has been made by the  patentee or the licensee, if it is shown— 

(a) that the plaintiff has applied in writing to the patentee or exclusive licensee for a written  acknowledgment to the effect of the declaration claimed and has furnished him with full particulars in  writing of the process or article in question; and 

(b) that the patentee or licensee has refused or neglected to give such an acknowledgment. 

(2) The costs of all parties in a suit for a declaration brought by virtue of this section shall, unless for  special reasons the court thinks fit to order otherwise, be paid by the plaintiff. 

(3) The validity of a claim of the specification of a patent shall not be called in question in a suit for a  declaration brought by virtue of this section, and accordingly the making or refusal of such a declaration  in the case of a patent shall not be deemed to imply that the patent is valid or invalid. 

(4) A suit for a declaration may be brought by virtue of this section at any time 2[after the publication  of grant of a patent], and references in this section to the patentee shall be construed accordingly. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 43 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 57, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

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  1. Power of court to grant relief in cases of groundless threats of infringement proceedings.— (1) Where any person (whether entitled to or interested in a patent or an application for a patent or not)  threatens any other person by circulars or advertisements or by communications, oral or in writing  addressed to that or any other person, with proceedings for infringement of a patent, any person aggrieved  thereby may bring a suit against him praying for the following reliefs, that is to say— 

(a) a declaration to the effect that the threats are unjustifiable; 

(b) an injunction against the continuance of the threats; and 

(c) such damages, if any, as he has sustained thereby. 

(2) Unless in such suit the defendant proves that the acts in respect of which the proceedings were  threatened constitute or, if done, would constitute, an infringement of a patent or of rights arising from the  publication of a complete specification in respect of a claim of the specification not shown by the plaintiff  to be invalid, the court may grant to the plaintiff all or any of the reliefs prayed for. 

Explanation.A mere notification of the 1[existence] of a patent does not constitute a threat of  proceeding within the meaning of this section. 

  1. Defences, etc., in suit for infringement.—(1) In any suit for infringement of a patent, every  ground on which it may be revoked under section 64 shall be available as a ground for defence. 

(2) In any suit for infringement of a patent by the making, using or importation of any machine,  apparatus or other article or by the using of any process or by the importation, use or distribution of any  medicine or drug, it shall be a ground for defence that such making, using, importation or distribution is  in accordance with any one or more of the conditions specified in section 47. 

2[107A. Certain acts not to be considered as infringement.For the purposes of this Act,— 

(a) any act of making, constructing, 3[using, selling or importing] a patented invention solely for  uses reasonably related to the development and submission of information required under any law for  the time being in force, in India, or in a country other than India, that regulates the manufacture,  construction, 4[use, sale or import] of any product; 

(b) importation of patented products by any person from a person 5[who is duly authorised under  the law to produce and sell or distribute the product], 

shall not be considered as an infringement of patent rights.] 

  1. Reliefs in suits for infringement.—6[(1)] The reliefs which a court may grant in any suit for  infringement include an injunction (subject to such terms, if any, as the court thinks fit) and, at the option  of the plaintiff, either damages or an account of profits. 

7[(2) The court may also order that the goods which are found to be infringing and materials and  implement, the predominant use of which is in the creation of infringing goods shall be seized, forfeited  or destroyed, as the court deems fit under the circumstances of the case without payment of any  compensation.] 

  1. Right of exclusive licensee to take proceedings against infringement.—(1) The holder of an  exclusive licence shall have the like right as the patentee to institute a suit in respect of any infringement  of the patent committed after the date of the licence, and in awarding damages or an account of profits or  granting any other relief in any such suit the court shall take into consideration any loss suffered or likely  to be suffered by the exclusive licensee as such or, as the case may be, the profits earned by means of the  infringement so far as it constitutes an infringement of the rights of the exclusive licensee as such. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 56 of 1974, s. 3 and the Second Schedule, for “existing” (w.e.f. 20-12-1974). 
  2. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 44 (w.e.f 20-5-2003).  
  3. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 58, for “using or selling” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Subs. by s. 58, ibid., for “use or sale” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  5. Subs. by s. 58, ibid., for “who is duly authorised by the patentee to sell or distribute the product” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 6. Section 108 renumbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 38 of 2002, s. 45 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  6. Ins. by s. 45, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

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(2) In any suit for infringement of a patent by the holder of an exclusive licence under sub-section (1),  the patentee shall, unless he has joined as a plaintiff in the suit, be added as a defendant, but a patentee so  added as defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the  proceedings. 

  1. Right of licensee under section 84 to take proceedings against infringement.—Any person to  whom a licence has been granted under section 84 shall be entitled to call upon the patentee to take  proceedings to prevent any infringement of the patent, and, if the patentee refuses or neglects to do so  within two months after being so called upon, the licensee may institute proceedings for the infringement  in his own name as though he were the patentee, making the patentee a defendant; but a patentee so added  as defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the  proceedings. 
  2. Restriction on power of court to grant damages or account of profits for  infringement.—(1) In a suit for infringement of a patent, damages or an account of profits shall not be  granted against the defendant who proves that at the date of the infringement he was not aware and had no  reasonable grounds for believing that the patent existed. 

Explanation.A person shall not be deemed to have been aware or to have had reasonable grounds  for believing that a patent exists by reason only of the application to an article of the word “patent”,  “patented” or any word or words expressing or implying that a patent has been obtained for the article,  unless the number of the patent accompanies the word or words in question. 

(2) In any suit for infringement of a patent the court may, if it thinks fit, refuse to grant any damages  or an account of profits in respect of any infringement committed after a failure to pay any renewal fee  within the prescribed period and before any extension of that period. 

(3) Where an amendment of a specification by way of disclaimer, correction or explanation has been  allowed under this Act after the publication of the specification, no damages or account of profits shall be  granted in any proceedings in respect of the use of the invention before the date of the decision allowing  the amendment, unless the court is satisfied that the specification as originally published was framed in  good faith and with reasonable skill and knowledge. 

(4) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of the court to grant an injunction in any suit for  infringement of a patent. 

  1. [Restriction on power of court to grant injunction in certain cases.]—Omitted by The Patents  (Amendment) Act, 2002 (38 of 2002), s. 46 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Certificate of validity of specification and costs of subsequent suits for infringement  thereof.—1[(1) If in any proceedings before 2*** a High Court for the revocation of a patent under  section 64 and section 104, 3***, the validity of any claim of a specification is contested and that claim is  found by 2*** the High Court to be valid, 2*** the High Court may certify that the validity of that claim  was contested in those proceedings and was upheld]. 

(2) Where any such certificate has been granted, then, if in any subsequent suit before a court for  infringement of that claim of the patent or in any subsequent proceeding for revocation of the patent in so  far as it relates to that claim, the patentee or other person relying on the validity of the claim obtains a  final order or judgment in his favour, he shall be entitled to an order for the payment of his full costs,  charges and expenses of an incidental to any such suit or proceeding properly incurred so far as they  concern the claim in respect of which the certificate was granted, unless the court trying the suit or  proceeding otherwise directs: 

Provided that the costs as specified in this sub-section shall not be ordered when the party disputing  the validity of the claim satisfies the court that he was not aware of the grant of the certificate when he  raised the dispute and withdrew forthwith such defence when he became aware of such a certificate. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 59, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 2-4-2007).  
  2. The words “the Appellate Board or” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  3. The words “as the case may be” omitted by s. 13, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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1[(3) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as authorising the courts 2*** hearing  appeals from decrees or orders in suits for infringement or petitions for revocation, as the case may be, to  pass orders for costs on the scale referred to therein]. 

  1. Relief for infringement of partially valid specification.—(1) If in proceedings for  infringement of a patent it is found that any claim of the specification, being a claim in respect of which  infringement is alleged, is valid, but that any other claim is invalid, the court may grant relief in respect of  any valid claim which is infringed: 

Provided that the court shall not grant relief except by way of injunction save in the circumstances  mentioned in sub-section (2). 

(2) Where the plaintiff proves that the invalid claim was framed in good faith and with reasonable  skill and knowledge, the court shall grant relief in respect of any valid claim which is infringed subject to  the discretion of the court as to costs and as to the date from which damages or an account of profits  should be reckoned, and in exercising such discretion the court may take into consideration the conduct of  the parties in inserting such invalid claims in the specification or permitting them to remain there. 

  1. Scientific advisers.—(1) In any suit for infringement or in any proceeding before a court under  this Act, the court may at any time, and whether or not an application has been made by any party for that  purpose, appoint an independent scientific adviser to assist the court or to inquire and report upon any  such question of fact or of opinion (not involving a question of interpretation of law) as it may formulate  for the purpose. 

(2) The remuneration of the scientific adviser shall be fixed by the court and shall include the costs of  making a report and a proper daily fee for any day on which the scientific adviser may be required to  attend before the court, and such remuneration shall be defrayed out of moneys provided by Parliament  by law for the purpose. 

3[CHAPTER XIX 

4[APPEALS

  1. [Appellate Board.] Omitted by the Tribunals Reforms Act, 2021 (33 of 201), s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4- 2021). 
  2. [Staff of Appellate Board.]Omitted by s. 13, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

117A. Appeals to 5[High Court].—(1) Save as otherwise expressly provided in sub-section (2), no  appeal shall lie from any decision, order or direction made or issued under this Act by the  Central Government, or from any act or order of the Controller for the purpose of giving effect to any  such decision, order or direction. 

(2) An appeal shall lie to the 3[High Court] from any decision, order or direction of the Controller of  Central Government under section 15, section 16, section 17, section 18, section 19, 6[section 20,  sub-section (4) of section 25, section 28], section 51, section 54, section 57, section 60, section 61,  section 63, section 66, sub-section (3) of section 69, section 78, sub-sections (1) to (5) of section 84,  section 85, section 88, section 91, section 92 and section 94. 

(3) Every appeal under this section shall be in the prescribed form and shall be verified in such  manner as may be prescribed and shall be accompanied by a copy of the decision, order or direction  appealed against and by such fees as may be prescribed. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 59, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 2-4-2007). 
  2. The words “or the Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  3. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 47, for Chapter XIX (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  4. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13, for heading “APPEALS TO THE APPELLATE BOARD” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 5. Subs. by s. 13, ibid., for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  5. Subs. by s. 61, ibid., for “section 20, section 25, section 27, section 28” (w.e.f. 2-4-2007).

53 

(4) Every appeal shall be made within three months from the date of the decision, order or direction,  as the case may be, of the Controller or the Central Government or within such further time as the 3[High  Court] may, in accordance with the rules made by it, allow. 

117B. [Procedure and powers of Appellate Board.] Omitted by the Tribunals Reforms Act, 2021  (33 of 201), s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

117C. [Bar of jurisdiction of courts, etc.] Omitted by s. 13, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

117D. [Procedure for application for rectification, etc., before Appellate Board.] Omitted by the  Tribunals Reforms Act, 2021 (33 of 201), s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

117E. Appearance of Controller in legal proceedings.—(1) The Controller shall have the right to  appear and be heard— 

(a) in any legal proceedings before the 1[High Court] in which the relief sought includes  alteration or rectification of the register or in which any question relating to the practice of the patent  office is raised; 

(b) in any appeal to the 1[High Court] from an order of the Controller on an application for grant  of a patent— 

(i) which is not opposed, and the application is either refused by the Controller or is accepted  by him subject to any amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, or 

(ii) which has been opposed and the Controller considers that his appearance is necessary in  the public interest, 

and the Controller shall appear in any case if so directed by the 1[High Court]. 

(2) Unless the 1[High Court] otherwise directs, the Controller may, in lieu of appearing, submit a  statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before  him relating to the matter in issue or of the grounds of any decision given by him or of the practice of the  patent office in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his knowledge as the  Controller may deem it necessary, and such statement shall be evidence in the proceeding. 

117F. [Costs of Controller in proceedings before Appellate Board.] Omitted by the Tribunals Reforms Act, 2021 (33 of 201), s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 

117G. [Transfer of pending proceedings to Appellate Board.] Omitted by s. 13, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4- 2021). 

117H. [Power of Appellate Board to make rules.] Omitted by s. 13, ibid. (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). CHAPTER XX 

PENALTIES 

  1. Contravention of Secrecy provisions relating to certain inventions.—If any person fails to  comply with any direction given under section 35 2[or makes or causes to be made an application for the  grant of a patent in contravention of section 39], he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term  which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. 
  2. Falsification of entries in register, etc.—If any person makes, or causes to be made, a false  entry in any register kept under this Act, or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in such a  register, or produces or tenders, or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing  knowing the entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may  extend to two years, or with fine or with both. 
  3. Unauthorised claim of patent rights.—If any person falsely represents that any article sold by  him is patented in India or is the subject of an application for a patent in India, he shall be punishable with  fine which may extend to 3[one lakh rupees]. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13, for “Appellate Board” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 48 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  3. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 64, for “ten thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

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Explanation l.For the purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to represent— 

(a) that an article is patented in India if there is stamped, engraved or impressed on, or otherwise  applied to, the article the word “patent” or “patented” or some other word expressing or implying that  a patent for the article has been obtained in India; 

(b) that an article is the subject of an application for a patent in India, if there are stamped,  engraved or impressed on, or otherwise applied to, the article the words “patent applied for”, “patent  pending”, or some other words implying that an application for a patent for the article has been made  in India. 

Explanation 2.The use of words “patent”, “patented”, “patent applied for”, “patent pending” or  other words expressing or implying that an article is patented or that a patent has been applied for shall be  deemed to refer to a patent in force in India, or to a pending application for a patent in India, as the case  may be unless there is an accompanying indication that the patent has been obtained or applied for in any  country outside India. 

  1. Wrongful use of words “patent office”.—If any person uses on his place of business or any  document issued by him or otherwise the words “patent office” or any other words which would  reasonably lead to the belief that his place of business is, or is officially connected with, the patent office,  he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or  with both. 
  2. Refusal or failure to supply information.—(1) If any person refuses or fails to furnish:— 

(a) to the Central Government any information which he is required to furnish under  sub-section (5) of section 100; 

(b) to the Controller any information or statement which he is required to furnish by or under  section 146, 

he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 1[ten lakh rupees]. 

(2) If any person, being required to furnish any such information as is referred to in sub-section (1),  furnishes information or statement which is false, and which he either knows or has reason to believe to  be false or does not believe to be true, he shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six  months, or with fine, or with both. 

  1. Practice by non-registered patent agents.—If any person contravenes the provisions of  section 129, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 2[one lakh rupees in the case of a first  offence and five lakh rupees] in the case of a second or subsequent offence. 
  2. Offences by companies.—(1) If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company,  the company as well as every person in charge of, and responsible to, the company for the conduct of its  business at the time of the commission of the offence shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall  be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: 

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any  punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all  due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been  committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or  connivance of, or that the commission of the offence is attributable to any neglect on the part of any  director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other  officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and  punished accordingly. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 65, for “twenty thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Subs. by s. 66, ibid., for “ten thousand rupees in the case of a first offence and forty thousand rupees” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).

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Explanation.For the purposes of this section,— 

(a) “company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals;  and 

(b) “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm. 

CHAPTER XXI 

PATENT AGENTS 

1[125. Register of patent agents.—(1) The Controller shall maintain a register to be called the  register of patent agents in which shall be entered the names, addresses and other relevant particulars, as  may be prescribed, of all persons qualified to have their names so entered under section 126. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Controller to keep  the register of patent agents in computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form subject to such  safeguards as may be prescribed.] 

  1. Qualifications for registration as patent agents.—(1) A person shall be qualified to have his  name entered in the register of patent agents if he fulfils the following conditions, namely:— 

(a) he is a citizen of India; 

(b) he has completed the age of 21 years; 

(c) he has obtained a 2[degree in science, engineering or technology from any University  established under law for the time being in force] in the territory of India or possesses such other  equivalent qualifications as the Central Government may specify in this behalf, and, in addition,— 

3* * * * * (ii) has passed the qualifying examination prescribed for the purpose; 4[or] 

5[(iii) has, for a total period of not less than ten years, functioned either as an examiner or  discharged the functions of the Controller under section 73 or both, but ceased to hold any such  capacity at the time of making the application for registration;] 

(d) he has paid such fee as may be prescribed. 

5[(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a person who has been registered as a  patent agent before the commencement of 6[the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 (15 of 2005)] shall be  entitled to continue to be, or when required to be re-registered, as a patent agent, on payment of the fee as  may be prescribed.] 

  1. Rights of patent agents.—Subject to the provisions contained in this Act and in any rules made  thereunder, every patent agent whose name is entered in the register shall be entitled:— 

(a) to practice before the Controller; and 

(b) to prepare all documents, transact all business and discharge such other functions as may be  prescribed in connection with any proceeding before the Controller under this Act. 

  1. Subscription and verification of certain documents by patent agents.—(1) 7*** all  applications and communications to the Controller under this Act may be signed by a patent agent  authorised in writing in this behalf by the person concerned. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 52, for section 125 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  2. Subs. by s. 53, ibid., for “degree from any University” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Sub-clause (i) omitted by Act 15 of 2005, s. 67 ( w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 53 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  5. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 53, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  6. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 67, for “the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002 (38 of 2002)” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 7. The words, brackets and figure “Subject to the provisions contained in sub-section (2) and to any rules made under this  Act,” omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 54 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

56 

1* * * * * 

  1. Restrictions on practice as patent agents.—(1) No person, either alone or in partnerships with  any other person, shall practise, describe or hold himself out as a patent agent, or permit himself to be so  described or held out, unless he is registered as a patent agent or, as the case may be, unless he and all his  partners are so registered. 

(2) No company or other body corporate shall practise, describe itself or hold itself out as patent  agents or permit itself to be so described or held out. 

Explanation.For the purposes of this section, practise as a patent agent includes any of the  following acts, namely:— 

(a) applying for or obtaining patents in India or elsewhere; 

(b) preparing specifications or other documents for the purposes of this Act or of the patent law of  any other country; 

(c) giving advice other than of a scientific or technical nature as to the validity of patents or their  infringement. 

  1. Removal from register of patent agents and restoration.—(1) The 2[Controller] may remove  the name of any person from the register when 3[he] is satisfied, after giving that person a reasonable  opportunity of being heard and after such further inquiry, if any, as 6[he] thinks fit to make— 

(i) that his name has been entered in the register by error or on account of misrepresentation or  suppression of material fact; 

(ii) that he has been convicted of any offence and sentenced to a term of imprisonment or has  been guilty of misconduct in his professional capacity which in the opinion of the 5[Controller] renders him unfit to be kept in the register. 

(2) The 5[Controller] may, on application and on sufficient cause being shown, restore to the register  the name of any person removed therefrom. 

  1. Power of Controller to refuse to deal with certain agents.—(1) Subject to any rules made in  this behalf, the Controller may refuse to recognise as agent in respect of any business under this Act— 

(a) any individual whose name has been removed from, and not restored to, the register; (b) any person who has been convicted of an offence under section 123; 

(c) any person, not being registered as a patent agent, who in the opinion of the Controller is  engaged wholly or mainly in acting as agent in applying for patents in India or elsewhere in the name  or for the benefit of the person by whom he is employed; 

(d) any company or firm, if any person whom the Controller could refuse to recognise as agent in  respect of any business under this Act, is acting as a director or manager of the company or is a  partner in the firm. 

(2) The Controller shall refuse to recognise as agent in respect of any business under this Act any  person who neither resides nor has a place of business in India. 

  1. Savings in respect of other persons authorised to act as agents.—Nothing in this Chapter  shall be deemed to prohibit— 

(a) the applicant for a patent 4*** from drafting any specification or appearing or acting before  the Controller; or 

  

  1. Sub-section (2) omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 54 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  2. Subs. by s. 55, ibid., for “Central Government” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Subs. by s. 55, ibid., for “it” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  4. The words “or any person, not being a patent agent, who is duly authorised by the applicant” omitted by s. 56, ibid.  (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 

57 

(b) an advocate, not being a patent agent, from taking part in any 1[hearing before the Controller  on behalf of a party who is taking part in any proceedings under this Act]. 

CHAPTER XXII 

INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 

2[133. Convention countries.—Any country, which is a signatory or party or a group of countries,  union of countries or inter-governmental organisations which are signatories or parties to an international,  regional or bi-lateral treaty, convention or arrangement to which India is also a signatory or party and  which affords to the applicants for patents in India or to citizens of India similar privileges as are granted  to their own citizens or citizens to their member countries in respect of the grant of patents and protection  of patent rights shall be a convention country or convention countries for the purposes of this Act.] 

  1. Notification as to countries not providing for reciprocity.—Where any country specified by  the Central Government in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of  India the same rights in respect of the grant of patents and the protection of patent rights as it accords to  its own nationals, no national of such country shall be entitled, either solely or jointly with any other  person,— 

(a) to apply for the grant of a patent or be registered as the proprietor of a patent; (b) to be registered as the assignee of the proprietor of a patent; or 

(c) to apply for a licence or hold any licence under a patent granted under this Act. 

  1. Convention applications.—(1) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in section 6,  where a person has made an application for a patent in respect of an invention in a convention country  (hereinafter referred to as the “basic application”), and that person or the legal representative or assignee  of that person makes an application under this Act for a patent within twelve months after the date on  which the basic application was made, the priority date of a claim of the complete specification, being a  claim based on matter disclosed in the basic application, is the date of making of the basic application. 

Explanation.Where applications have been made for similar protection in respect of an invention in  two or more convention countries, the period of twelve months referred to in this sub-section shall be  reckoned from the date on which the earlier or earliest of the said applications was made. 

(2) Where applications for protection have been made in one or more convention countries in respect  of two or more inventions which are cognate or of which one is a modification of another, a single  convention application may, subject to the provisions contained in section 10, be made in respect of those  inventions at any time within twelve months from the date of the earliest of the said applications for  protection: 

Provided that the fee payable on the making of any such application shall be the same as if separate  applications have been made in respect of each of the said inventions, and the requirements of clause (b)  of sub-section (1) of section 136 shall, in the case of any such application, apply separately to the  applications for protection in respect of each of the said inventions. 

3[(3) In case of an application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India and  claiming priority from a previously filed application in India, the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2)  shall apply as if the previously filed application were the basic application: 

Provided that a request for examination under section 11B shall be made only for one of the  applications filed in India.] 

  1. Special provisions relating to convention applications.—(1) Every convention application  shall— 

(a) be accompanied by a complete specification; and 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 56, for certain words (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 68, for section 133 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  3. Ins. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 69 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

58 

(b) specify the date on which and the convention country in which the application for protection,  or as the case may be, the first of such applications was made; and 

(c) state that no application for protection in respect of the invention had been made in a  convention country before that date by the applicant or by any person from whom he derives title. 

(2) Subject to the provisions contained in section 10, a complete specification filed with a convention  application may include claims in respect of developments of, or additions to, the invention in respect of  which the application for protection was made in a convention country, being developments or additions  in respect of which the applicant would be entitled under the provisions of section 6 to make a separate  application for a patent. 

(3) A convention application shall not be post-dated under sub-section (1) of section 17 to a date later  than the date on which under the provisions of this Act the application could have been made. 

  1. Multiple priorities.—(1) Where two or more applications for patents in respect of inventions  have been made in one or more convention countries and those inventions are so related as to constitute  one invention, one application may be made by any or all of the persons referred to in sub-section (1) of  section 135 within twelve months from the date on which the earlier or earliest of those applications was  made, in respect of the inventions disclosed in the specifications which accompanied the basic  applications. 

(2) The priority date of a claim of the complete specification, being a claim based on matters  disclosed in one or more of the basic applications, is the date on which that matter was first so disclosed. 

(3) For the purposes of this Act, a matter shall be deemed to have been disclosed in a basic  application for protection in a convention country if it was claimed or disclosed (otherwise than by way of  disclaimer or acknowledgment of a prior art) in that application, or any documents submitted by the  applicant for protection in support of and at the same time as that application, but no account shall be  taken of any disclosure effected by any such document unless a copy of the document is filed at the patent  office with the convention application or within such period as may be prescribed after the filing of that  application. 

  1. Supplementary provisions as to convention applications.—1[(1) Where a convention  application is made in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, the applicant shall furnish, when  required by the Controller, in addition to the complete specification, copies of the specifications or  corresponding documents filed or deposited by the applicant in the patent office of the convention country  as referred to in section 133 verified to the satisfaction of the Controller, within the prescribed period  from the date of communication by the Controller.] 

(2) If any such specification or other document is in a foreign language, a translation into English of  the specification or document, verified by affidavit or otherwise to the satisfaction of the Controller, shall  be 2[furnished when required by the controller]. 

(3) For the purposes of this Act, the date on which an application was made in a convention country is  such date as the Controller is satisfied by certificate of the official chief or head of the patent office of the  convention country or otherwise, is the date on which the application was made in that convention  country. 

3[(4) An international application filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty designating India shall  have effect of filing an application for patent under section 7, section 54 and section 135, as the case may  be, and the title, description, claim and abstract and drawings, if any, filed in the international application  shall be taken as complete specification for the purposes of this Act. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 70, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 58, for “annexed to the specification or document” (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  3. Ins. by s. 58, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 

59 

(5) The filing date of an application for patent and its complete specification processed by the patent  office as designated office shall be the international filing date accorded under the Patent Cooperation  Treaty. 

(6) Amendment, if any, proposed by the applicant for an international application designating India or  designating and electing India before international searching authority or preliminary made examination  authority shall, if the applicant so desires, be taken as an amendment made before the patent office.] 

  1. Other provisions of Act to apply to convention applications.—Save as otherwise provided in  this Chapter, all the provisions of this Act shall apply in relation to a convention application and a patent  granted in pursuance thereof as they apply in relation to an ordinary application and a patent granted in  pursuance thereof. 

CHAPTER XXIII 

MISCELLANEOUS 

  1. Avoidance of certain restrictive conditions.—(1) It shall not be lawful to insert— 

(i) in any contract for or in relation to the sale or lease of a patented article or an article made by a  patented process; or 

(ii) in a licence to manufacture or use a patented article; or 

(iii) in a licence to work any process protected by a patent, a condition the effect of which may  be— 

(a) to require the purchaser, lessee, or licensee to acquire from the vendor, lessor, or licensor,  or his nominees, or to prohibit him from acquiring or to restrict in any manner or to any extent his  right to acquire from any person or to prohibit him from acquiring except from the vendor, lessor,  or licensor or his nominees, any article other than the patented article or an article other than that  made by the patented process; or 

(b) to prohibit the purchaser, lessee or licensee from using, or to restrict in any manner or to  any extent the right of the purchaser, lessee or licensee, to use an article other than the patented  article or an article other than that made by the patented process, which is not supplied by the  vendor, lessor or licensor or his nominee; or 

(c) to prohibit the purchaser, lessee or licensee from using or to restrict in any manner or to  any extent the right of the purchaser, lessee or licensee to use any process other than the patented  process; or 

1[(d) to provide exclusive grant back, prevention to challenges to validity of patent and  coercive package licensing,] 

and any such condition shall be void. 

(2) A condition of the nature referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c) of sub-section (1)  shall not cease to be a condition falling within that sub-section merely by reason of the fact that the  agreement containing it has been entered into separately, whether before or after the contract relating  to the sale, lease or licence of the patented article or process. 

(3) In proceedings against any person for the infringement of a patent, it shall be a defence to prove  that at the time of the infringement there was in force a contract relating to the patent and containing a  condition declared unlawful by this section: 

Provided that this sub-section shall not apply if the plaintiff is not a party to the contract and proves to  the satisfaction of the court that the restrictive condition was inserted in the contract without his  knowledge and consent, express or implied. 

(4) Nothing in this section shall— 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 59 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

60 

(a) affect a condition in a contract by which a person is prohibited from selling goods other than  those of a particular person; 

(b) validate a contract which, but for this section, would be invalid; 

(c) affect a condition in a contract for the lease of, or licence to use, a patented article, by which  the lessor or licensor reserves to himself or his nominee the right to supply such new parts of the  patented article as may be required or to put or keep it in repair. 

1* * * * * 

  1. Determination of certain contracts.—(1) Any contract for the sale or lease of a patented article  or for licence to manufacture, use or work a patented article or process, or relating to any such sale, lease  or licence 2*** may at any time after the patent or all the patents by which the article or process was  protected at the time of the making of the contract has or have ceased to be in force, and notwithstanding  anything to the contrary in the contract or in any other contract, be determined by the purchaser, lessee, or  licensee, as the case may be, of the patent on giving three months’ notice in writing to the other party. 

(2) The provisions of this section shall be without prejudice to any right of determining a contract  exercisable apart from this section. 

  1. Fees.—(1) There shall be paid in respect of the grant of patents and applications therefor, and in  respect of other matters in relation to the grant of patents under this Act, such fees as may be prescribed  by the Central Government. 

(2) Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Controller, the Controller shall not  do that act until the fee has been paid. 

3[(3) Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the patent office, the fee shall be  paid along with the document or within the prescribed time and the document shall be deemed not to have  been filed at the office if the fee has not been paid within such time.] 

(4) Where a principal patent is granted later than two years from the date of filing of 4[the  application], the fees which have become due in the meantime may be paid within a term of three months  from the date of the recording of the patent in the register 5[or within the extended period not later than  nine months from the date of recording]. 

6[143. Restrictions upon publication of specification.—Subject to the provisions of Chapter VII,  an application for a patent, and any specification file in pursuance thereof, shall not, except with the  consent of the applicant, be published by the Controller before the expiration of the period prescribed  under sub-section (1) of section 11A or before the same is open to public inspection in pursuance of  sub-section (3) of section 11A or section 43.] 

  1. Reports of Examiners to be confidential.—The reports of examiners to the Controller under  this Act shall not be open to public inspection or be published by the Controller; and such reports shall not be liable to production or inspection in any legal proceeding unless the court certifies that the  production or inspection is desirable in the interests of justice, and ought to be allowed. 

7[145. Publication of official journal.—The Controller shall publish periodically an official journal  which shall contain such information as may be required to be published by or under the provisions of  this Act or any rule made thereunder.] 

  1. Power of Controller to call for information from patentees.—(1) The Controller may, at any  time during the continuance of the patent, by notice in writing, require a patentee or a licensee, exclusive  or otherwise, to furnish to him within two months from the date of such notice or within such further time  

  

  1. Sub-section (5) omitted by Act 38 of 2002, s. 59 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  2. The words “ whether made before or after the commencement of this Act,” omitted by s. 60, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  3. Subs. by s. 61, ibid., for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 71, for “the complete specification” (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  4. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 61 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  5. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 72, for section 143 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  6. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 73, for section 145 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

61 

as the Controller may allow, such information or such periodical statements as to the extent to which the  patented invention has been commercially worked in India as may be specified in the notice. 

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), every patentee and every licensee (whether  exclusive or otherwise) shall furnish in such manner and form and at such intervals (not being less than  six months) as may be prescribed statements as to the extent to which the patented invention has been  worked on a commercial scale in India. 

(3) The Controller may publish the information received by him under sub-section (1) or  sub-section (2) in such manner as may be prescribed. 

  1. Evidence of entries, documents, etc.—(1) A certificate purporting to be signed by the  Controller as to any entry, matter or thing which he is authorised by this Act or any rules made thereunder  to make or do, shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made and of the contents thereof  and of the matter or thing having been done or omitted to be done. 

(2) A copy of any entry in any register or of any document kept in the patent office or of any patent,  or an extract from any such register or document, purporting to be certified by the Controller and sealed  with the seal of the patent office shall be admitted in evidence in all courts, and in all proceedings,  without further proof or production of the original. 

(3) The Controller or any other officer of the patent office shall not, in any legal proceedings to which  he is not a party, be compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody, the  contents of which can be proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear  as a witness to prove the matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special causes. 

  1. Declaration by infant, lunatic, etc.—(1) If any person is, by reason of minority, lunacy or other  disability, incapable of making any statement or doing anything required or permitted by or under this  Act, the lawful guardian, committee or manager (if any) of the person subject to the disability, or if there  be none, any person appointed by any court possessing jurisdiction in respect of his property, may make  such statement or a statement as nearly corresponding thereto as circumstances permit, and do such things  in the name and on behalf of the person subject to the disability. 

(2) An appointment may be made by the court for the purposes of this section upon the petition of any  person acting on behalf of the person subject to the disability or of any other person interested in the  making of the statement or the doing of the thing. 

  1. Service of notices, etc. by post.—Any notice required or authorised to be given by or under this  Act, and any application or other document so authorised or required to be made or filed, may be given,  made or filed by post. 
  2. Security for costs.—If any party by whom notice of any opposition is given under this Act or by  whom application is made to the Controller for the grant of a licence under a patent neither resides nor  carries on business in India, the Controller may require him to give security for the costs of the  proceedings, and in default of such security being given may treat the opposition or application as  abandoned. 
  3. Transmission of orders of courts to Controller.—(1) Every order of 1[the High Court 2***] on  a petition for revocation, including orders granting certificates of validity of any claim, shall be  transmitted by 1[the High Court 2***] to the Controller who shall cause an entry thereof and reference  thereto to be made in the register. 

(2) Where in any suit for infringement of a patent or in any suit under section 106 the validity of any  claim or a specification is contested and that claim is found by the court to be valid or not valid, as the  case may be, the court shall transmit a copy of its judgment and decree to the Controller who shall on  receipt thereof cause an entry in relation to such proceeding to be made in the prescribed manner in a  supplemental record. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 74, for “the High Court” (w.e.f. 2-4-2007).  
  2. The words “or the Appellate Board” omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

62 

(3) The provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall also apply to the court to which appeals are  preferred against decisions of 1[the courts] referred to in those sub-sections. 

  1. [Transmission of copies of specification, etc., and inspection thereof.]—Omitted by The  Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 (15 of 2005), s. 75 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 
  2. Information relating to Patents.—A person making a request to the Controller in the  prescribed manner for information relating to any such matters as may be prescribed as respects any  patent specified in the request or as respects any application for a patent so specified shall be entitled,  subject to the payment of the prescribed fee, to have information supplied to him accordingly. 
  3. Loss or destruction of Patents.—If a patent is lost or destroyed, or its non-production is  accounted for to the satisfaction of the Controller, the Controller may at any time, on application made in  the prescribed manner and on payment of the prescribed fee, cause a duplicate thereof to be sealed and  delivered to the applicant.  
  4. Reports of Controller to be placed before Parliament.—The Central Government shall cause  to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution of this Act by  or under the Controller. 
  5. Patent to bind Government.—Subject to the other provisions contained in this Act, a patent  shall have to all intents the like effect as against Government as it has against any person. 
  6. Right of Government to sell or use forfeited articles.—Nothing in this Act shall affect the  power of the Government or of any person deriving title directly or indirectly from the Government to sell  or use any articles forfeited under any law for the time being in force. 

2[157A. Protection of security of India.—Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the  Central Government shall— 

(a) not disclose any information relating to any patentable invention or any application relating to  the grant of patent under this Act, which it considers prejudicial to the interest of the security of India; 

(b) take any action including the revocation of any patent which it considers necessary in the  interest of the security of India by issue of a notification in the Official Gazette to that effect. 

Explanation. For the purposes of this section, the expression “security of India” include any action  necessary for the security of India which- 

(i) relates to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived; or 

(ii) relates to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other  goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military  establishment; or 

(iii) is taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations.] 

  1. Power of High Courts to make rules.—The High Court may make rules consistent with this  Act as to the conduct and procedure in respect of all proceedings before it under this Act. 
  2. Power of Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Government may, by  notification in the Official Gazette, make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Act. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, the Central Government may make  rules to provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(i) the form and manner in which any application for a patent, any specifications or drawings and  any other application or document may be filed in the patent office; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13, for “the Appellate Board or the courts, as the case may be” (w.e.f. 4-4-2021). 2. Subs. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 63, for section 157A (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

63 

1[(ia) the period which the Controller may allow for filing of statement and undertaking for in  respect of applications under sub-section (1), the period within which the details relating to  processing of applications may be filed before the Controller and the details to be furnished by the  applicant to the Controller under sub-section (2) of section 8; 

(ib) the period within which a reference to the deposit of materials shall be made in the  specification under sub-clause (A) of clause (ii) of the proviso to sub-section (4) of section 10; 

(ic) the period for which application for patent shall not be open to the public under  sub-section (1) and the manner in which the applicant may make a request to the Controller to publish  his application under subsection (2) of section 11A; 

(id) the manner of making the request for examination for an application for patent and the period  within which such examination shall be made under sub-sections (1) and (3) of section 11B; 

(ie) the manner in which an application for withdrawal of an application for grant of a patent shall  be made and the period within which a request for examination from the date of revocation of secrecy  directions shall be made under the proviso to sub-section (4) of section 11B.] 

(ii) the time within which any act or thing may be done under this Act, including the manner in  which and the time within which any matter may be 2[published] under this Act; 

(iii) the fees which may be payable under this Act and the manner 3[and time] of payment of such  fees; 

(iv) the matters in respect of which the examiner may make a report to the Controller; 

4[(v) the manner in which and the period within which the Controller shall consider and dispose  of a representation under sub-section (1) of section 25; 

(va) the period within which the Controller is required to dispose of an application under  section 39;] 

(vi) the form and manner in which and the time within which any notice may be given under this  Act; 

(vii) the provisions which may be inserted in an order for restoration of a patent for the protection  of persons who may have availed themselves of the subject-matter of the patent after the patent had  ceased; 

(viii) the establishment of branch offices of the patent office and the regulation generally of the  business of the patent office, including its branch offices; 

(ix) the maintenance of the register of patents 3[and the safeguards to be observed in the  maintenance of such register in computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form] and the  matters to be entered therein; 

(x) the matters in respect of which the Controller shall have powers of a civil court; 

(xi) the time when and the manner in which the register and any other document open to  inspection may be inspected under this Act; 

(xii) the qualifications of, and the preparation of a roll of, scientific advisers for the purpose of  section 115; 

5* * * ** 

(xiii) the manner in which any compensation for acquisition by Government of an invention may  be paid; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 76, for clauses (ia) and (ib) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 76, for “advertised” (w.e.f. (1-1-2005).  
  3. Ins. by Act 38 of 2002, s. 64 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).  
  4. Subs. by Act 15 of 2005, s. 76, for clause (v) (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  5. Clauses (xiia), (xiib) and (xiic) omitted by Act 33 of 2021, s. 13 (w.e.f. 4-4-2021).

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(xiv) the manner in which the register of patent agents may be maintained 1[under sub-section (1)  of section 125 and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of such register of patent agents  on computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form under sub-section (2) of that section] the  conduct of qualifying examinations for patent agents; and matters connected with their practice and  conduct, including the taking of disciplinary proceedings against patent agents for misconduct; 

(xv) the regulation of the making, printing, publishing and selling of indexes to, and abridgments  of, specifications and other documents in the patent office; and the inspection of indexes and  abridgments and other documents; 

(xvi) any other matter which has to be or may be prescribed. 

(3) The power to make rules under this section shall be subject to condition of the rules being made  after previous publications: 

1[Provided that the Central Government may, if it is satisfied that the circumstances exist which  render it practically not possible to comply with such condition of previous publication, dispense with  such compliance.] 

  1. Rules to be placed before Parliament.—Every rule made under this Act shall be laid, as soon  as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of  thirty days which may be comprised in one session or 2[in two or more successive sessions, and if before  the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid] both  Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be  made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may  be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of  anything previously done under that rule. 
  2. [Special provisions with respect to certain applications deemed to have been refused under  Act 2 of 1911.]Omitted by The Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002 (38 of 2002), s. 46 (w.e.f. 20-5-2003). 
  3. Repeal of Act 2 of 1911 in so far as it relates to patents and savings.—(1) The Indian Patents  and Designs Act, 1911, in so far as it relates to patents, is hereby repealed, that is to say, the said Act shall  be amended in the manner specified in the Schedule. 

3* * * * * 

(4) The mention of particular matters in this section shall not prejudice the general application of the  General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1987), with respect to repeals. 

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, any suit for infringement of a patent or any  proceeding for revocation of a patent, pending in any court at the commencement of this Act, may be  continued and disposed of, as if this Act had not been passed. 

  1. [Amendment of Act 43 of 1958].Omitted by The Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 (15 of 2005), s. 77 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005). 

  

  1. The proviso added by Act 15 of 2005, s. 76 (w.e.f. 1-1-2005).  
  2. Subs. by Act 4 of 1986, s. 2 and the Schedule, for certain words (w.e.f. 15-5-1986). 
  3. Sub-sections (2) and (3) omitted by s. 66, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-5-2003).

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THE SCHEDULE 

[See section 162] 

AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN PATENTS AND DESIGNS ACT, 1911 

  1. Long title—Omit “Inventions and”. 
  2. Preamble—Omit “inventions and”. 
  3. Section 1—In sub-section (1) omit “Indian Patents and”. 
  4. Section 2— 

(a) omit clause (1); 

(b) in clause (2) omit “(as respects designs)”; 

(c) for clause (3), substitute— 

‘(3) “controller” means the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks  appointed under sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43  of 1958);’; 

(d) in clause (5) for “trade mark as defined in section 478”, substitute “trade mark  as defined in clause (v) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Trade and Merchandise Marks  Act, 1958 (43 of 1958)”.; 

(e) omit clause (6); 

(f) in clause 7, after sub-clause (ee) insert,— 

“(f) in relation to the Union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Goa, Daman and Diu,  the High Court at Bombay; 

(g) in relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry, the High Court at Madras.”; (g) omit clauses (8), (10) and (11); 

(h) for clause (12), substitute— 

‘(12) “patent office” means the patent office referred to in section 74 of the Patents  Act, 1970’.’ 

  1. Omit Part I. 
  2. For section 51B, substitute— 

51B. Designs to bind Government.—A registered design shall have to all intents the like effect  as against Government as it has against any person and the provisions of Chapter XVII of the Patents  Act, 1970, shall apply to registered designs as they apply to patents.” 

  1. In section 54, for “The provisions of this Act,” substitute “The provisions of the Patents  Act, 1970”. 
  2. Omit sections 55 and 56. 
  3. Section 57—For sub-section (1), substitute— 

“(1) There shall be paid in respect of the registration of designs and applications therefor and in  respect of other matters relating to designs under this Act such fees as may be prescribed by the  Central Government.”. 

  1. Omit section 59A. 
  2. Section 61—Omit sub-section (1).

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  1. For section 62, substitute— 

62. Power of Controller to correct clerical errors.—The Controller may, on request in writing  accompanied by the prescribed fee, correct any clerical error in the representation of a design or in the  name or address of the proprietor of any design or in any other matter which is entered upon the register  of designs.”. 

  1. Section 63— 

(a) in sub-section (1), omit “to a patent or” and “patent or”; 

(b) in sub-section (2), omit “patent or” and for “patents or designs, as the case may be,”,  substitute “designs,”; 

(c) in sub-section (3), omit “patent or” wherever that expression occurs; 

(d) in sub-section (4), omit “to a patent or”. 

  1. Section 64— 

(a) in sub-section (1), omit “patents or” and omit the word “either” wherever it occurs; (b) in sub-section (5), omit clause (a). 

  1. Omit section 66. 
  2. Section 67—Omit “for a patent, or for amendment of an application or of a specification, or”. 17. Section 69—In sub-section (1), omit “to grant a patent for an invention or”. 
  3. Section 71A—Omit “or from patents, specifications and other.”. 
  4. Omit section 72. 
  5. Omit sections 74A and 75. 
  6. Section 76— 

(a) in sub-section (1), omit “other”; 

(b) in sub-section (2), in clause (c), omit “opponent”. 

  1. Section 77— 

(a) in sub-section (1)— 

(i) in clauses (c) and (d), omit “specifications”; 

(ii) for clause (e), substitute— 

“(e) providing for the inspection of documents in the patent office and for the manner in  which they may be published;”; 

(iii) omit clause (eee); 

(b) omit sub-section (2A). 

  1. Omit section 78. 
  2. For section 78A, substitute— 

78A. Reciprocal arrangement with United Kingdom and other Commonwealth  countries—(1) Any person who has applied for protection for any design in the United Kingdom or  his legal representative or assignee shall, either alone or jointly with any other person, be entitled to  claim that the registration of the said design under this Act shall be in priority to other applicants and  shall have the same date as the date of the application in the United Kingdom: 

Provided that— 

(a) the application is made within six months from the application for protection in the  United Kingdom; and 

(b) nothing in this section shall entitle the proprietor of the design to recover damages for  infringements happening prior to the actual date on which the design is registered in India.

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(2) The registration of a design shall not be invalidated by reason only of the exhibition or use of,  or the publication of a description or representation of, the design in India during the period specified  in this section as that within which the application may be made. 

(3) The application for the registration of a design under this section must be made in the same  manner as an ordinary application under this Act. 

(4) Where it is made to appear to the Central Government that the legislature of any such  Commonwealth country as may be notified by the Central Government in this behalf has made  satisfactory provision for the protection of designs registered in India, the Central Government may,  by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the provisions of this section, with such variations  or additions, if any, as may be set out in such notification, shall apply for the protection of designs  registered in that Commonwealth country.”. 

  1. Omit sections 78B, 78C, 78D and 78E. 
  2. Omit the Schedule.

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