Bare Act

THE MOTOR VEHICLES ACT, 1988 

____________ 

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS 

___________________ 

Last update: 26-7-2021 

CHAPTER I 

PRELIMINARY 

SECTIONS 

  1. Short title, extent and commencement. 
  2. Definitions. 

2A. e-cart and e-rickshaw. 

2B. Promotion of innovation. 

CHAPTER II 

LICENSING OF DRIVERS OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

  1. Necessity for driving licence. 
  2. Age limit in connection with driving of motor vehicles. 
  3. Responsibility of owners of motor vehicles for contravention of sections 3 and 4. 6. Restrictions on the holding of driving licences. 
  4. Restrictions on the granting of learner’s licences for certain vehicles. 
  5. Grant of learner’s licence. 
  6. Grant of driving licence. 
  7. Form and contents of licences to drive. 
  8. Additions to driving licence. 
  9. Licensing and regulation of schools or establishments for imparting instruction in driving of  motor vehicles. 
  10. Extent of effectiveness of licences, to drive motor vehicles. 
  11. Currency of licences to drive motor vehicles. 
  12. Renewal of driving licences. 
  13. Revocation of driving licence on grounds of disease or disability. 
  14. Orders refusing or revoking driving licences and appeals therefrom. 
  15. Driving Licences to drive motor vehicles, belonging to the Central Government. 19. Power of licensing authority to disqualify from holding a driving licence or revoke such licence. 20. Power of Court to disqualify. 
  16. Suspension of driving licence in certain cases. 
  17. Suspension or cancellation of driving licence on conviction. 
  18. Effect of disqualification order. 
  19. Endorsement. 
  20. Transfer of endorsement and issue of driving licence free from endorsement. 25A. National Register of Driving Licences. 
  21. Maintenance of State Registers of Driving Licences. 
  22. Power of Central Government to make rules. 
  23. Power of State Government to make rules.

CHAPTER III 

LICENSING OF CONDUCTORS OF STAGE CARRIAGES 

SECTIONS 

  1. Necessity for conductor’s licence. 
  2. Grant of conductor’s licence. 
  3. Disqualifications for the grant of conductor’s licence. 
  4. Revocation of a conductor’s licence on grounds of disease or disability. 
  5. Orders refusing, etc., conductor’s licences and appeals therefrom. 
  6. Power of licensing authority to disqualify. 
  7. Power of Court to disqualify. 
  8. Certain provisions of Chapter II to apply to conductor’s licence. 
  9. Savings. 
  10. Power of State Government to make rules. 

CHAPTER IV 

REGISTRATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

  1. Necessity for registration. 
  2. Registration, where to be made. 
  3. Registration, how to be made. 
  4. Special provision for registration of motor vehicles of diplomatic officers, etc. 43. Temporary registration. 
  5. Production of vehicle at the time of registration. 
  6. Refusal of registration or renewal of the certificate of registration. 
  7. Effectiveness in India of registration. 
  8. Assignment of new registration mark on removal to another State. 
  9. No objection certificate. 
  10. Change of residence or place of business. 
  11. Transfer of ownership. 
  12. Special provisions regarding motor vehicle subject to hire-purchase agreement, etc. 52. Alteration in motor vehicle. 
  13. Suspension of registration. 
  14. Cancellation of registration suspended under section 53. 
  15. Cancellation of registration. 
  16. Certificate of fitness of transport vehicles. 
  17. Appeals. 
  18. Special provisions in regard to transport vehicles. 
  19. Power to fix the age limit of motor vehicle. 
  20. Registration of vehicles belonging to the Central Government. 
  21. Application of Chapter to trailers. 
  22. Information regarding stolen and recovered motor vehicles to be furnished by the police to the  State Transport Authority. 

62A. Prohibition of registration and issuance of certificate of fitness to oversized vehicles. 62B. National Register of Motor Vehicles. 

  1. Maintenance of State Registers of Motor Vehicles. 
  2. Power of Central Government to make rules. 
  3. Power of State Government to make rules.

CHAPTER V 

CONTROL OF TRANSPORT VEHICLES 

SECTIONS 

  1. Necessity for permits. 

66A. National Transportation Policy. 

66B. No bar against permit holders to apply and hold licences under schemes. 67. Power to State Government to control road transport. 

  1. Transport Authorities. 
  2. General provision as to applications for permits. 
  3. Application for stage carriage permit. 
  4. Procedure of Regional Transport Authority in considering application for stage carriage permit. 72. Grant of stage carriage permits. 
  5. Application for contract carriage permit. 
  6. Grant of contract carriage permit. 
  7. Scheme for renting of motor cabs. 
  8. Application for private service vehicle permit. 
  9. Application for goods carriage permit. 
  10. Consideration of application for goods carriage permit. 
  11. Grant of goods carriage permit. 
  12. Procedure in applying for and granting permits. 
  13. Duration and renewal of permits. 
  14. Transfer of permit. 
  15. Replacement of vehicles. 
  16. General conditions attaching to all permits. 
  17. General form of permits. 
  18. Cancellation and suspension of permits. 
  19. Temporary permits. 
  20. Validation of permits for use outside region in which granted. 

88A. Power of Central Government to make schemes for national, multimodal and inter-State  transport of passengers and goods. 

  1. Appeals. 
  2. Revision. 
  3. Restriction of hours of work of drivers. 
  4. Voidance of contracts restrictive of liability. 
  5. Agent or canvasser or aggregator to obtain licence. 
  6. Bar on jurisdiction of Civil Courts. 
  7. Power of State Government to make rules as to stage carriages and contract carriages. 96. Power of State Government to make rules for the purposes of this Chapter. 

CHAPTER VI 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO STATE TRANSPORT UNDERTAKINGS 

  1. Definition. 
  2. Chapter to override Chapter V and other laws. 
  3. Preparation and publication of proposal regarding road transport service of a State transport  undertaking. 
  4. Objection to the proposal. 
  5. Operation of additional services by a State transport undertaking in certain circumstances.

SECTIONS 

  1. Cancellation or modification of scheme. 
  2. Issue of permits to State transport undertakings. 
  3. Restriction on grant of permits in respect of a notified area or notified route. 105. Principles and method of determining compensation and payment thereof. 106. Disposal of article found in vehicles. 
  4. Power of State Government to make rules. 
  5. Certain powers of State Government exercisable by the Central Government. 

CHAPTER VII 

CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

  1. General provision regarding construction and maintenance of vehicles. 110. Power of Central Government to make rules. 

110A. Recall of motor vehicles. 

110B. Type of approval certificate and testing agencies. 

  1. Power of State Government to make rules. 

CHAPTER VIII 

CONTROL OF TRAFFIC 

  1. Limits of speed. 
  2. Limits of weight and limitations on use. 
  3. Power to have vehicle weighed. 
  4. Power to restrict the use of vehicles. 
  5. Power to erect traffic signs. 
  6. Parking places and halting stations. 
  7. Driving regulations. 
  8. Duty to obey traffic signs. 
  9. Vehicles with left hand control. 
  10. Signals and signalling devices. 
  11. Leaving vehicle in dangerous position. 
  12. Riding on running board, etc. 
  13. Prohibition against travelling without pass or ticket. 
  14. Obstruction of driver. 
  15. Stationary vehicles. 
  16. Removal of motor vehicles abandoned or left unattended on a public place. 128. Safety measures for drivers and pillion riders. 
  17. Wearing of protective headgear. 
  18. Duty to produce licence and certificate of registration. 
  19. Duty of the driver to take certain precautions at unguarded railway level crossing. 132. Duty of driver to stop in certain cases. 
  20. Duty of owner of motor vehicle to give information. 
  21. Duty of driver in case of accident and injury to a person. 

134A. Protection of Good Samaritans. 

  1. Schemes to be framed for the investigation of accident cases and wayside amenities, etc. 136. Inspection of vehicle involved in accident. 

136A. Electronic monitoring and enforcement of road safety.

SECTIONS 

  1. Power of Central Government to make rules. 
  2. Power of State Government to make rules. 

CHAPTER IX 

MOTOR VEHICLES TEMPORARILY LEAVING OR VISITING INDIA 

  1. Power of Central Government to make rules. 

CHAPTER X [LIABILITY WITHOUT FAULT IN CERTAINCASES] [Omitted.]. 

  1. [Omitted.]. 
  2. [Omitted.]. 
  3. [Omitted.]. 
  4. [Omitted.]. 
  5. [Omitted.]. 

CHAPTER XI 

INSURANCE OF MOTOR VEHICLES AGAINST THIRD PARTY RISKS 

  1. Definitions. 
  2. Necessity for insurance against third party risks. 
  3. Requirements of policies and limits of liability. 
  4. Validity of policies of insurance issued in reciprocating countries. 
  5. Settlement by insurance company and procedure therefor. 
  6. Duty of insurers to satisfy judgments and awards against persons insured in respect of third party  risks. 
  7. Rights of third party against insurers on insolvency of insured. 
  8. Duty to give information as to insurance. 
  9. Settlement between insurers and insured persons. 
  10. Saving in respect of sections 151, 152 and 153. 
  11. Effect of death on certain causes of action. 
  12. Effect of certificate of insurance. 
  13. Transfer of certificate of insurance. 
  14. Production of certain certificates, licence and permit in certain cases. 
  15. Information to be given regarding accident. 
  16. Duty to furnish particulars of vehicle involved in accident. 
  17. Special provisions as to compensation in case of hit and run motor accident. 162. Scheme for golden hour. 
  18. Refund in certain cases of compensation paid under section 161. 
  19. Payment of compensation in case of death or grevious hurt, etc. 

164A. Scheme for interim relief for claimants. 

164B. Motor Vehicle Accident Fund. 

164C. Power of Central Government to make rules. 

164D. Power of State Government to make rules.

CHAPTER XII 

CLAIMS TRIBUNALS 

SECTIONS 

165.Claims Tribunals. 

  1. Application for compensation. 
  2. Option regarding claims for compensation in certain cases. 
  3. Award of the Claims Tribunal. 
  4. Procedure and powers of Claims Tribunals. 

170.Impleading insurer in certain cases. 

  1. Award of interest where any claim is allowed. 
  2. Award of compensatory costs in certain cases. 
  3. Appeals. 

174.Recovery of money from insurer as arrear of land revenue. 

175.Bar on jurisdiction of Civil Courts. 

  1. Power of State Government to make rules. 
  2. General provision for punishment of offences. 

 177A. Penalty for contravention of regulations under section 118. 

CHAPTER XIII 

OFFENCES, PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE 

  1. Penalty for travelling without pass or ticket and for dereliction of duty on the part of conductor  and refusal to ply contract carriage, etc. 
  2. Disobedience of orders, obstruction and refusal of information. 
  3. Allowing unauthorised persons to drive vehicles. 
  4. Driving vehicles in contravention of section 3 or section 4. 
  5. Offences relating to licences. 

182A. Punishment for offences relating to construction, maintenance, sale and alteration of motor  vehicles and components. 

182B. Punishment for contravention of section 62A. 

  1. Driving at excessive speed, etc. 
  2. Driving dangerously. 
  3. Driving by a drunken person or by a person under the influence of drugs. 
  4. Driving when mentally or physically unfit to drive. 
  5. Punishment for offences relating to accident. 
  6. Punishment for abetment of certain offences. 

189.Racing and trials of speed. 

  1. Using vehicle in unsafe condition. 

191.[Omitted]. 

  1. Using vehicle without registration. 

192A. Using vehicle without permit. 

192B. Offences relating to registration. 

  1. Punishment of agents, canvassers and aggregators without proper authority. 194. Driving vehicle exceeding permissible weight. 

194A. Carriage of excess passengers. 

194B. Use of safety belts and the seating of children.

SECTIONS 

194C. Penalty for violation of safety measures for motor cycle drivers and pillion riders. 194D. Penalty for not wearing protective headgear. 

194E. Failure to allow free passage to emergency vehicles. 

194F. Use of horns and silence zones. 

195.[Omitted]. 

  1. Driving uninsured vehicle. 

197.Taking vehicle without authority. 

  1. Unauthorised interference with vehicle. 

198A. Failure to comply with standards for road design, construction and maintenance. 199. Offences by companies. 

199A. Offences by juveniles. 

199B. Revision of fines. 

200.Composition of certain offences. 

  1. Penalty for causing obstruction to free flow of traffic. 
  2. Power to arrest without warrant. 

203.Breath tests. 

204.Laboratory test. 

  1. Presumption of unfitness to drive. 
  2. Power of police officer to impound document. 
  3. Power to detain vehicles used without certificate of registration permit, etc. 208. Summary disposal of cases. 

209.Restriction on conviction. 

210.Courts to send intimation about conviction. 

210A. Power of State Government to increase penalties. 

210B. Penalty for offence committed by an enforcing authority. 

210C. Power of Central Government to make rules. 

210D. Power of State Government to make rules. 

CHAPTER XIV 

MISCELLANEOUS 

  1. Power to levy fee. 

 211A. Use of electronic forms and documents. 

  1. Publication, commencement and laying of rules and notifications. 
  2. Appointment of motor vehicles officers. 

214.Effect of appeal and revision on orders passed by original authority. 

215.Road Safety Councils and Committees. 

215A. Power of Central Government and State Government to delegate. 

215B. National Road Safety Board. 

215C. Power of Central Government to make rules. 

215D. Power of State Government to make rules. 

  1. Power to remove difficulties. 

217.Repeal and savings. 

217A. Renewal of permits, driving licences and registration granted under the Motor Vehicles Act,  1939. 

THE FIRST SCHEDULE. 

THE SECOND SCHEDULE. [Omitted].

THE MOTOR VEHICLES ACT, 1988 

ACT NO. 59 OF 1988 

[14th October, 1988.] 

An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to motor vehicles. 

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-ninth Year of the Republic of India as follows:— CHAPTER I 

PRELIMINARY 

  1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called the Motor Vehicles Act,  1988. 

(2) It extends to the whole of India. 

(3) It shall come into force on such date1as the Central Government may, by notification in the  Official Gazette, appoint; and different dates may be appointed for different States and any reference in  this Act to the commencement of this Act shall, in relation to a State, be construed as a reference to the  coming into force of this Act in that State. 

  1. Definitions.—In this Act, unless context otherwise requires,— 

2[(1) “adapted vehicle” means a motor vehicle either specially designed and constructed, or to  which alterations have been made under sub-section (2) of section 52, for the use of a person  suffering from any physical defect or disability, and used solely by or for such person; 

(1A) “aggregator” means a digital intermediary or market place for a passenger to connect with a  driver for the purpose of transportation; 

(1B) “area”, in relation to any provision of this Act, means such area as the State Government  may, having regard to the requirements of that provision, specify by notification in the Official  Gazette;] 

(2) “articulated vehicle” means a motor vehicle to which a semitrailer is attached; 

(3) “axle weight” means in relation to an axle of a vehicle the total weight transmitted by the  several wheels attached to that axle to the surface on which the vehicle rests; 

(4) “certificate of registration” means the certificate issued by a competent authority to the effect  that a motor vehicle has been duly registered in accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV; 

3[(4A) “community service” means an unpaid work which a person is required to perform as a  punishment for an offence committed under this Act;] 

(5) “conductor”, in relation to a stage carriage, means a person engaged in collecting fares from  passengers, regulating their entrance into, or exit from, the stage carriage and performing such other  functions as may be prescribed; 

(6) “conductor’slicence” means the licence issued by a competent authority under Chapter III  authorising the person specified therein to act as a conductor; 

(7) “contract carriage” means a motor vehicle which carries a passenger or passengers for hire or  reward and is engaged under a contract, whether expressed or implied, for the use of such vehicle as a  whole for the carriage of passengers mentioned therein and entered into by a person with a holder of a  permit in relation to such vehicle or any person authorised by him in this behalf on a fixed or an  agreed rate or sum— 

(a) on a time basis, whether or not with reference to any route or distance; or 

  

  1. 1st July, 1989, vide notification No. S.O. 368(E), dated 22nd May, 1989, see Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Pt. II, sec. 3 (ii). 2. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 2, for clause (1) (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

(b) from one point to another,  

and in either case, without stopping to pick up or set down passengers not included in the contract  anywhere during the journey, and includes— 

(i) amaxicab; and 

(ii) a motor cab notwithstanding that separate fares are charged for its passengers; (8) “dealer” includes a person who is engaged— 

1* * * * * (b) in building bodies for attachment to chassis; or 

(c) in the repair of motor vehicles; or 

(d) in the business of hypothecation, leasing or hire-purchase of motor vehicle; 

(9) “driver” includes, in relation to a motor vehicle which is drawn by another motor vehicle, the  person who acts as a steersman of the drawn vehicle; 

2[(9A) “driver refresher training course” means the course referred to in sub-section (2A) of section  19;] 

(10) “driving licence” means the licence issued by a competent authority under Chapter II authorising  the person specified therein to drive, otherwise than as a learner, a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle of  any specified class or description; 

(11) “educational institution bus” means an omnibus, which is owned by a college, school or other  educational institution and used solely for the purpose of transporting students or staff of the educational  institution in connection with any of its activities; 

(12) “fares” includes sums payable for a season ticket or in respect of the hire of a contract carriage; 

2[(12A) “golden hour” means the time period lasting one hour following a traumatic injury during  which there is highest likelihood of preventing death by providing prompt medical care;] 

(13) “goods” includes live-stock, and anything (other than equipment ordinarily used with the  vehicle) carried by a vehicle except living persons, but does not include luggage or personal effects  carried in a motor car or in a trailer attached to a motor car or the personal luggage of passengers  travelling in the vehicle; 

(14) “goods carriage” means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted for use solely for the carriage  of goods, or any motor vehicle not so constructed or adapted when used for the carriage of goods; 

(15) “gross vehicle weight” means in respect of any vehicle the total weight of the vehicle and load  certified and registered by the registering authority as permissible for that vehicle; 

(16) “heavy goods vehicle” means any goods carriage the gross vehicle weight of which, or a tractor  or a road-roller the unladen weight of either of which, exceeds 12,000 kilograms; 

(17) “heavy passenger motor vehicle” means any public service vehicle or private service vehicle or  educational institution bus or omnibus the gross vehicle weight of any of which, or a motor car the  unladen weight of which, exceeds 12,000 kilograms; 

3* * * * * 

(19) “learner’s licence” means the licence issued by a competent authority under Chapter II  authorising the person specified therein to drive as a learner, a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle of any  specified class or description; 

  

  1. Sub-clause (a) omitted by Act 54 of 1994, s. 2 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. Clause (18) omitted by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

(20) “licensing authority” means an authority empowered to issue licences under Chapter II or, as the  case may be, Chapter III; 

(21) “light motor vehicle” means a transport vehicle or omnibus the gross vehicle weight of either of  which or a motor car or tractor or road-roller the unladen weight of any of which, does not exceed 1[7500] kilograms; 

2[(21A) “manufacturer” means a person who is engaged in the manufacture of motor vehicles;] 

(22) “maxicab” means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six passengers,  but not more than twelve passengers, excluding the driver, for hire or reward; 

(23) “medium goods vehicle” means any goods carriage other than a light motor vehicle or a heavy  goods vehicle; 

(24) “medium passenger motor vehicle” means any public service vehicle or private service vehicle,  or educational institution bus other than a motor cycle, 3[adapted vehicle], light motor vehicle or heavy  passenger motor vehicle; 

(25) “motorcab” means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry not more than six  passengers excluding the driver for hire or reward; 

(26) “motor car” means any motor vehicle other than a transport vehicle, omnibus, road-roller,  tractor, motor cycle or 3[adapted vehicle]; 

(27) “motor cycle” means a two-wheeled motor vehicle, inclusive of any detachable side-car having  an extra wheel, attached to the motor vehicle; 

(28) “motor vehicle” or “vehicle” means any mechanically propelled vehicle adapted for use upon  roads whether the power of propulsion is transmitted thereto from an external or internal source and  includes a chassis to which a body has not been attached and a trailer; but does not include a vehicle  running upon fixed rails or a vehicle of a special type adapted for use only in a factory or in any other  enclosed premises or a vehicle having less than four wheels fitted with engine capacity of not exceeding 

4[twenty-five cubic centimetres]; 

(29) “omnibus” means any motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six persons  excluding the driver; 

(30) “owner” means a person in whose name a motor vehicle stands registered, and where such  person is a minor, the guardian of such minor, and in relation to a motor vehicle which is the subject of a  hire-purchase, agreement, or an agreement of lease or an agreement of hypothecation, the person in  possession of the vehicle under that agreement; 

(31) “permit” means a permit issued by a State or Regional Transport Authority or an authority  prescribed in this behalf under this Act authorising the use of a motor vehicle as a transport vehicle; 

(32) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; 

(33) “private service vehicle” means a motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six  persons excluding the driver and ordinarily used by or on behalf of the owner of such vehicle for the  purpose of carrying persons for, or in connection with, his trade or business otherwise than for hire or  reward but does not include a motor vehicle used for public purposes; 

(34) “public place” means a road, street, way or other place, whether a thoroughfare or not, to which  the public have a right of access, and includes any place or stand at which passengers are picked up or set  down by a stage carriage; 

(35) “public service vehicle” means any motor vehicle used or adapted to be used for the carriage of  passengers for hire or reward, and includes a maxicab, a motorcab, contract carriage, and stage carriage;   

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 2, for “6000” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).  
  3. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 2, for “invalid carriage” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 2, for “thirty-five cubic centimetres” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

10 

(36) “registered axle weight” means in respect of the axle of any vehicle, the axle weight certified and  registered by the registering authority as permissible for that axle; 

(37) “registering authority” means an authority empowered to register motor vehicles under Chapter  IV; 

(38) “route” means a line of travel which specifies the highway which may be traversed by a motor  vehicle between one terminus and another; 

1[(38A) “scheme” means a scheme framed under this Act;] 

2[(39) “semi-trailer” means a vehicle not mechanically propelled (other than a trailer), which is  intended to be connected to a motor vehicle and which is so constructed that a portion of it is super imposed on, and a part of whose weight is borne by, that motor vehicle;] 

(40) “stage carriage” means a motor vehicle constructed or adapted to carry more than six passengers  excluding the driver for hire or reward at separate fares paid by or for individual passengers, either for the  whole journey or for stages of the journey; 

(41) “State Government” in relation to a Union territory means the Administrator thereof appointed  under article 239 of the Constitution; 

(42) “State transport undertaking” means any undertaking providing road transport service, where  such undertaking is carried on by,— 

(i) the Central Government or a State Government; 

(ii) any Road Transport Corporation established under section 3 of the Road Transport  Corporations Act, 1950 (64 of 1950); 

(iii) any municipality or any corporation or company owned or controlled by the Central  Government or one or more State Governments, or by the Central Government and one or more State  Governments; 

3[(iv) Zilla Parishad or any other similar local authority.] 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, “road transport service” means a service of motor  vehicles carrying passengers or goods or both by road for hire or reward; 

1[(42A) “testing agency” means any entity designated as a testing agency under section 110B;] 

(43) “tourist vehicle” means a contract carriage constructed or adapted and equipped and maintained  in accordance with such specifications as may be prescribed in this behalf; 

(44) “tractor” means a motor vehicle which is not itself constructed to carry any load (other than  equipment used for the purpose of propulsion); but excludes a road-roller; 

(45) “traffic signs” includes all signals, warning sign posts, direction posts, markings on the road or  other devices for the information, guidance or direction of drivers of motor vehicles; 

(46) “trailer” means any vehicle, other than a semi-trailer and a side-car, drawn or intended to be  drawn by a motor vehicle; 

(47) “transport vehicle” means a public service vehicle, a goods carriage, an educational institution  bus or a private service vehicle; 

(48) “unladen weight” means the weight of a vehicle or trailer including all equipment ordinarily used  with the vehicle or trailer when working, but excluding the weight of a driver or attendant; and where  alternative parts or bodies are used the unladen weight of the vehicle means the weight of the vehicle with  the heaviest such alternative part or body; 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Subs. by Act 54 of 1988, s. 2, for clause (39) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Ins. by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

11 

(49) “weight” means the total weight transmitted for the time being by the wheels of a vehicle to the  surface on which the vehicle rests 1[or moves]. 

2[2A. e-cart and e-rickshaw.—(1) Save as otherwise provided in the proviso to sub-section (1) of  section 7 and sub-section (10) of section 9, the provisions of this Act shall apply to e-cart and e-rickshaw. 

(2) For the purposes of this section, “e-cart or e-rickshaw” means a special purpose battery powered  vehicle of power not exceeding 4000 watts, having three wheels for carrying goods or passengers, as the  case may be, for hire or reward, manufactured, constructed or adapted, equipped and maintained in  accordance with such specifications, as may be prescribed in this behalf.] 

3[2B. Promotion of innovation.—Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act and subject to such  conditions as may be prescribed by the Central Government, in order to promote innovation, research and  development in the fields of vehicular engineering, mechanically propelled vehicles and transportation in  general, the Central Government may exempt certain types of mechanically propelled vehicles from the  application of the provisions of this Act.] 

CHAPTER II 

LICENSING OF DRIVERS OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

  1. Necessity for driving licence.—(1) No person shall drive a motor vehicle in any public place  unless he holds an effective driving licence issued to him authorising him to drive the vehicle; and no  person shall so drive a transport vehicle [other than 4[a motor cab or motor cycle] hired for his own use or  rented under any scheme made under sub-section (2) of section 75] unless his driving licence specifically  entitles him so to do. 

(2) The conditions subject to which sub-section (1) shall not apply to a person receiving instructions  in driving a motor vehicle shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

  1. Age limit in connection with driving of motor vehicles.—(1) No person under the age of  eighteen years shall drive a motor vehicle in any public place: 

Provided that 5[a motor cycle with engine capacity not exceeding 50cc] may be driven in a public  place by a person after attaining the age of sixteen years. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of section 18, no person under the age of twenty years shall drive a  transport vehicle in any public place. 

(3) No learner’s licence or driving licence shall be issued to any person to drive a vehicle of the class  to which he has made an application unless he is eligible to drive that class of vehicle under this section.  

  1. Responsibility of owners of motor vehicles for contravention of sections 3 and 4.—No owner  or person in charge of a motor vehicle shall cause or permit any person who does not satisfy the  provisions of section 3 or section 4 to drive the vehicle. 
  2. Restrictions on the holding of driving licences.—(1) No person shall, while he holds any driving  licence for the time being in force, hold any other driving licence except a learner’s licence or a driving  licence issued in accordance with the provisions of section 18 or a document authorising, in accordance  with the rules made under section 139, the person specified therein to drive a motor vehicle. 

(2) No holder of a driving licence or a learner’s licence shall permit it to be used by any other person. 

(3) Nothing in this section shall prevent a licensing authority having the jurisdiction referred to in  sub-section (1) of section 9 from adding to the classes of vehicles which the driving licence authorises the  holder to drive. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Ins. by Act 3 of 2015, s. 2 (w.e.f. 7-1-2015). 
  3. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 3 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 3 for “a motor cab” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  5. Subs. by s. 4, ibid., for “a motor cycle without gear” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

12 

  1. Restrictions on the granting of learner’slicences for certain vehicles.—1[(1) No person shall  be granted a learner’s licence to drive a transport vehicle unless he has held a driving licence to  drive a light motor vehicle for at least one year:] 

2[Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to an e-cart or e-rickshaw.] 

(2) No person under the age of eighteen years shall be granted a learner’s licence to drive a motor  cycle without gear except with the consent in writing of the person having the care of the person desiring  the learner’s licence. 

  1. Grant of learner’s licence.—(1) Any person who is not disqualified under section 4 for driving a  motor vehicle and who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving licence  may, subject to the provisions of section 7, apply to 3[any of the licensing authority in the State]— 

(i) in which he ordinarily resides or carries on business, or 

(ii) in which the school or establishment referred to in section 12 from where he intends to  receive instruction in driving a motor vehicle is situate, 

for the issue to him of a learner’s licence. 

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be in such form and shall be accompanied by such  documents 4[with such fee and submit in such manner, including electronic means] as may be prescribed  by the Central Government. 

(3) Every application 5[to drive a transport vehicle made] under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied  by a medical certificate in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government and signed by such  registered medical practitioner, as the State Government or any person authorised in this behalf by the  State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint for this purpose: 

6* * * * * 

(4) If, from the application or from the medical certificate referred to in sub-section (3), it appears that  the applicant is suffering from any disease or disability which is likely to cause the driving by him of a  motor vehicle of the class which he would be authorised by the learner’s licence applied for to drive to be  a source of danger to the public or to the passengers, the licensing authority shall refuse to issue the  learner’s licence: 

Provided that a learner’s licence limited to driving an 7[adapted vehicle] may be issued to the  applicant, if the licensing authority is satisfied that he is fit to drive such a carriage. 

(5) No learner’s licence shall be issued to any applicant unless he 8[satisfies such conditions] as may  be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(6) When an application has been duly made to the appropriate licensing authority and the applicant  has satisfied such authority of his physical fitness under sub-section (3) and has passed to the satisfaction  of the licensing authority the test referred to in sub-section (5), the licensing authority shall, subject to the  provisions of section 7, issue the applicant a learner’s licence unless the applicant is disqualified under  section 4 for driving a motor vehicle or is for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a  licence to drive a motor vehicle: 

Provided that a licensing authority may issue a learner’s licence to drive a motor cycle or a light  motor vehicle notwithstanding that it is not the appropriate licensing authority, if such authority is  satisfied that there is good reason for the applicant’s inability to apply to the appropriate licensing  authority. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 5, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by Act 3 of 2015, s. 3 (w.e.f. 7-1-2015). 
  3. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 4, for “the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 4. Subs. by s. 4, ibid., for “and with such fee” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Ins. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  5. The proviso omitted by s. 4, ibid (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  6. Subs. by s. 4, ibid., for “invalid carriage” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  7. Subs. by s. 4, ibid., for “passes to the satisfaction of the licensing authority such test” (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

13 

1[Provided further that a licencing authority may issue a learner’s licence in electronic form and such  manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government.: 

Provided also that the licensing authority may, before issuing the license, verify the identity of the  applicant in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government.] 

(7) Where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by  rules made in this behalf, exempt generally, either absolutely or subject to such conditions as may be  specified in the rules, any class of persons from the provisions of sub-section (3), or sub-section (5), or  both. 

(8) Any learner’s licence for driving a motor cycle in force immediately before the commencement of  this Act shall, after such commencement, be deemed to be effective for driving a motor cycle with or  without gear. 

  1. Grant of driving licence—(1) Any person who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or  obtaining a driving licence may apply to 2[any licensing authority in the State]— 

(i) in which he ordinarily resides or carries on business, or 

(ii) in which the school or establishment referred to in section 12 from where he is receiving or  has received instruction in driving a motor vehicle is situated,  

for the issue to him of a driving licence. 

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be in such form and shall be accompanied by such  fee and such documents as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

3[(3) If the applicant passes such test as may be prescribed by the Central Government, he shall be  issued the driving licence: 

Provided that no such test shall be necessary where the applicant produces proof to show that— 

(a) (i) the applicant has previously held a driving licence to drive such class of vehicle and that  the period between thed ate of expiry of that licence and the date of the application does not exceed  five years, or 

(ii) the applicant holds or has previously held a driving licence to drive such class of vehicle  issued under section 18, or 

(iii) the applicant holds a driving licence to drive such class of vehicle issued by a competent  authority of any country outside India, subject to the condition that the applicant complies with the  provisions of sub-section (3) of section 8, 

(b) the applicant is not suffering from any disability which is likely to cause the driving by him to  be a source of danger to the public; and the licensing authority may, for that purpose, require the  applicant to produce a medical certificate in the same form and in the same manner as is referred to in  sub-section (3) of section 8: 

4[Provided further that a driving licence for driving an adapted vehicle may be issued to the  applicant, if the licensing authority is satisfied that he is fit to drive such motor vehicle.]] 

(4) Where the application is for a licence to drive a transport vehicle, no such authorisation shall be  granted to any applicant unless he possesses 5*** a driving certificate issued by a school or establishment  referred to in section 12. 

6[(5) Where the applicant does not pass the test; he may be permitted to re-appear for the test after a  period of seven days: 

  

  1. The Provisos ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 4 (1-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 5, ibid., for “the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 3. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 7, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 5, for the second proviso (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. The words “such minimum educational qualification as may be prescribed by the Central Government and” omitted by s. 5,  ibid (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  5. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 7, for sub-section (5) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

14 

Provided that where the applicant does not pass the test even after three appearances, he shall not be  qualified to re-appear for such test before the expiry of a period of sixty days from the date of last such  test 1[and such applicant shall be required to complete a remedial driver training course from any school  or establishment under section 12].] 

(6) The test of competence to drive shall be carried out in a vehicle of the type to which the  application refers: 

Provided that a person who passed a test in driving a motor cycle with gear shall be deemed also to  have passed a test in driving a motor cycle without gear. 

(7) When any application has been duly made to the appropriate licensing authority and the applicant  has satisfied such authority of his competence to drive, the licensing authority shall issue the applicant a  driving licence unless the applicant is for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving  licence: 

Provided that a licensing authority may issue a driving licence to drive a motor cycle or a light motor  vehicle notwithstanding that it is not the appropriate licensing authority, if the licensing authority is  satisfied that there is good and sufficient reason for the applicant’s inability to apply to the appropriate  licensing authority: 

Provided further that the licensing authority shall not issue a new driving licence to the applicant, if he had previously held a driving licence, unless it is satisfied that there is good and sufficient reason for  his inability to obtain a duplicate copy of his former licence. 

(8) If the licensing authority is satisfied, after giving the applicant an opportunity of being heard, that  he— 

(a) is a habitual criminal or a habitual drunkard; or 

(b) is a habitual addict to any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance within the meaning of the  Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 (61 of 1985); or 

(c) is a person whose licence to drive any motor vehicle has, at any time earlier, been revoked, it may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, make an order refusing to issue a driving licence to such  person and any person aggrieved by an order made by a licensing authority under this sub-section may,  within thirty days of the receipt of the order, appeal to the prescribed authority. 

(9) Any driving licence for driving a motor cycle in force immediately before the commencement of  this Act shall, after such commencement, bedeemed to be effective for driving a motor cycle with or  without gear. 

2[(10) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, the driving licence to drive e-cart or  e-rickshaw shall be issued in such manner and subject to such conditions, as may be prescribed.] 10. Form and contents of licences to drive.—(1) Every learner’s licence and driving licence, except  a driving licence issued under section 18, shall be in such form and shall contain such information as may  be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(2) A learner’s licence or, as the case may be, driving licence shall also be expressed as entitling the  holder to drive a motor vehicle of one or more of the following classes, namely:— (a) motor cycle without gear; 

(b) motor cycle with gear; 

(c) 3[adapted vehicle]; 

(d) light motor vehicle; 

4[(e) transport vehicle;] 

(i) road-roller; 

(j) motor vehicle of a specified description. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 5, (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by Act 3 of 2015, s. 4 (w.e.f. 7-1-2015). 
  3. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 6, for “invalid carriage” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 8, for cls. (e) to (h) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 

15 

  1. Additions to driving licence.—(1) Any person holding a driving licence to drive any class or  description of motor vehicles, who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving  licence to drive any other class or description of motor vehicles, may apply to 1[any licensing authority in  the State] in which he resides or carries on his business in such form and accompanied by such documents  and with such fees as may be prescribed by the Central Government for the addition of such other class or  description of motor vehicles to the licence. 

(2) Subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the Central Government, the provisions of section 9  shall apply to an application under this section as if the said application were for the grant of a licence  under that section to drive the class or description of motor vehicles which the applicant desires to be  added to his licence. 

2[Provided that the licensing authority may, before issuing the license verify the identity of the  applicant in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government.] 

  1. Licensing and regulation of schools or establishments for imparting instruction in driving of  motor vehicles.—(1) The Central Government may make rules for the purpose of licensing and  regulating, by the State Governments, schools or establishments (by whatever name called) for imparting  instruction in driving of motor vehicles and matters connected therewith. 

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may  provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) licensing of such schools or establishments including grant, renewal and revocation of such  licences; 

(b) supervision of such schools or establishments; 

(c) the form of application and the form of licence and the particulars to be contained therein; (d) fee to be paid with the application for such licences; 

(e) conditions subject to which such licences may be granted; 

(f) appeals against the orders of refusal to grant or renew such licences and appeals against the orders revoking such licences; 

(g) conditions subject to which a person may establish and maintain any such school or  establishment for imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles; 

(h) nature, syllabus and duration of course or courses for efficient instruction in driving any  motor vehicle; 

(i) apparatus and equipments (including motor vehicles fitted with dual control) required for the  purpose of imparting such instruction; 

(j) suitability of the premises at which such schools or establishments may be established or  maintained and facilities to be provided therein; 

(k) qualifications, both educational and professional (including experience), which a person  imparting instruction in driving a motor vehicle shall possess; 

(l) inspection of such schools and establishments (including the services rendered by them and  the apparatus, equipments and motor vehicles maintained by them for imparting such instruction); (m) maintenance of records by such schools or establishments; 

(n) financial stability of such schools or establishments; 

(o) the driving certificates, if any, to be issued by such schools or establishments and the form in  which such driving certificates shall be issued and the requirements to be complied with for the  purposes of issuing such certificates; 

(p) such other matters as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section. (3) Where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by  rules made in this behalf, exempt generally, either absolutely or subject to such conditions as may be  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 7, for “the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 2. Ins. by s. 7, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

16 

specified in the rules, any class of schools or establishments imparting instruction in driving of motor  vehicles or matters connected therewith from the provisions of this section. 

(4) A school or establishment imparting instruction in driving of motor vehicles or matters connected  therewith immediately before the commencement of this Act whether under a licence or not, may  continue to impart such instruction without a licence issued under this Act for a period of one month from  such commencement, and if it has made an application for such licence under this Act within the said  period of one month and such application is in the prescribed form, contains the prescribed particulars and  is accompanied by the prescribed fee, till the disposal of such application by the licensing authority. 

1[(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision, where any school or establishment  has been accredited by a body notified by the Central Government under any other law for the time being  in force, any person who has successfully completed a training module at such school or establishment  covering a particular type of motor vehicle shall be eligible to obtain a driving licence for such type of  motor vehicle. 

(6) The curriculum of the training module referred to in sub-section (5) and the remedial driver  training course referred to in sub-section (5) of section 9 shall be such as may be prescribed by the  Central Government and that Government may make rules for the regulation of such schools or  establishments.] 

  1. Extent of effectiveness of licences, to drive motor vehicles.—A learner’s licence or a driving  licence issued under this Act shall be effective throughout India. 
  2. Currency of licences to drive motor vehicles.—(1) A learner’s licence issued under this Act  shall, subject to the other provisions of this Act, be effective for a period of six months from the date of issue of the licence. 

(2) A driving licence issued or renewed under this Act shall,— 

(a) in the case of a licence to drive a transport vehicle, be effective for a period of 2[five years]:  3*** 

4[Provided that in the case of licence to drive a transport vehicle carrying goods of dangerous  or hazardous nature be effective for a period of 5[three years and renewal thereof shall be subject to such conditions as the Central Government may prescribe; and];] 

6[(b) in the case of any other licence, subject to such conditions as the Central Government may  prescribe, if the person obtaining the licence, either originally or on renewal thereof,— (i) has not attained the age of thirty years on the date of issue or, renewal thereof, be effective  until the date on which such person attains the age of forty years; or 

(ii) has attained the age of thirty years but has not attained the age of fifty years on the date of  issue or, renewal thereof, be effective for a period of ten years from the date of such issue or  renewal; or 

(iii) has attained the age of fifty years but has not attained the age of fifty-five years on the  date of issue or, renewal thereof, be effective until the date on which such person attains the age  of sixty years; or 

(iv) has attained the age of fifty-five years on the date of issue or as the case may be, renewal  thereof, be effective for a period of five years from the date of such issue or renewal.] 7* * * * * 

  1. Renewal of driving licences.—(1) Any licensing authority may, on application made to it, renew  a driving licence issued under the provisions of this Act with effect from the date of its expiry: 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 8 (w.e.f. 1-7-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 9, ibid., for “three years” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. The word “and” omitted by Act 54 of 1994, s. 9 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  4. Ins. by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  5. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 9, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  6. Subs. by s. 9, ibid., for cl. (b) (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  7. The proviso omitted by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

17 

Provided that in any case where the application for the renewal of a licence is made 1[either one year  prior to date of its expiry or within one year] after the date of its expiry, the driving licence shall be  renewed with effect from the date of its renewal: 

Provided further that where the application is for the renewal of a licence to drive a transport vehicle  or where in any other case the applicant has attained the age of forty years, the same shall be  accompanied by a medical certificate in the same form and in the same manner as is referred to in  sub-section (3) of section 8, and the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 8 shall, so far as may be,  apply in relation to every such case as they apply in relation to a learner’s licence. 

(2) An application for the renewal of a driving licence shall be made in such form and accompanied  by such documents as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(3) Where an application for the renewal of a driving licence is made previous to, or not more than  2[one year] after the date of its expiry, the fee payable for such renewal shall be such as may be prescribed  by the Central Government in this behalf. 

(4) Where an application for the renewal of a driving licence is made more than 1[one year] after the  date of its expiry, the fee payable for such renewal shall be such amount as may be prescribed by the  Central Government: 

Provided that the fee referred to in sub-section (3) may be accepted by the licensing authority in  respect of an application for the renewal of a driving licence made under this sub-section if it is satisfied  that the applicant was prevented by good and sufficient cause from applying within the time specified in  sub-section (3): 

Provided further that if the application is made more than 3[one year after the driving licence has  ceased to be effective, the licensing authority shall] refuse to renew the driving licence, unless the  applicant undergoes and passes to its satisfaction the test of competence to drive referred to in sub-section  (3) of section 9. 

(5) Where the application for renewal has been rejected, the fee paid shall be refunded to such extent  and in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(6) Where the authority renewing the driving licence is not the authority which issued the driving  licence it shall intimate the fact of renewal to the authority which issued the driving licence. 

  1. Revocation of driving licence on grounds of disease or disability.—Notwithstanding anything  contained in the foregoing sections, any licensing authority may at any time revoke a driving licence or  may require, as a condition of continuing to hold such driving licence, the holder thereof to produce a  medical certificate in the same form and in the same manner as is referred to in sub-section (3) of  section 8, if the licensing authority has reasonable grounds to belive that the holder of the driving licence  is, by virtue of any disease or disability, unfit to drive a motor vehicle and where the authority revoking a  driving licence is not the authority which issued the same, it shall intimate the fact of revocation to the  authority which issued that licence. 
  2. Orders refusing or revoking driving licences and appeals therefrom—(1) Where a licensing  authority refuses to issue any learner’s licence or to issue or renew, or revokes, any driving licence, or  refuses to add a class or description of motor vehicle to any driving licence, it shall do so by an order  communicated to the applicant or the holder, as the case may be, giving the reasons in writing for such  refusal or revocation. 

(2) Any person aggrieved by an order made under sub-section (1) may, within thirty days of the  service on him of the order, appeal to the prescribed authority which shall decide the appeal after giving  such person and the authority which made the order an opportunity of being heard and the decision of the  appellate authority shall be binding on the authority which made the order. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 10, for “more than thirty days” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Subs. by s. 10, ibid., for “thirty days” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. Subs. by s. 10, ibid., for “five years after the driving licence has ceased to be effective, the licensing authority may” (w.e.f. 1- 9-2019).

18 

  1. Driving licences to drive motor vehicles, belonging to the Central Government.—(1) Such  authority as may be prescribed by the Central Government may issue driving licence valid throughout  India to persons who have completed their eighteenth year to drive motor vehicles which are the property  or for the time being under the exclusive control of the Central Government and are used for Government  purposes relating to the defence of the country and unconnected with any commercial enterprise. 

(2) A driving licence issued under this section shall specify the class or description of vehicle which  the holder is entitled to drive and the period for which he is so entitled. 

(3) A driving licence issued under this section shall not entitle the holder to drive any motor vehicle  except a motor vehicle referred to in sub-section (1). 

(4) The authority issuing any driving licence under this section shall, at the request of any State  Government, furnish such information respecting any person to whom a driving licence is issued as that  Government may at any time require. 

  1. Power of licensing authority to disqualify from holding a driving licence or revoke such  licence.—(1) If a licensing authority is satisfied, after giving the holder of a driving licence an  opportunity of being heard, that he— 

(a) is a habitual criminal or a habitual drunkard; or 

(b) is a habitual addict to any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance within the meaning of the  Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 (61 of 1985); or 

(c) is using or has used a motor vehicle in the commission of a cognizable offence; or 

(d) has by his previous conduct as driver of a motor vehicle shown that his driving is likely to be  attended with danger to the public; or 

(e) has obtained any driving licence or a licence to drive a particular class or description of motor  vehicle by fraud or misrepresentation; or 

(f) has committed any such act which is likely to cause nuisance or danger to the public, as may  be prescribed by the Central Government, having regard to the objects of this Act; or 

(g) has failed to submit to, or has not passed, the tests referred to in the proviso to sub-section (3)  of section 22; or 

(h) being a person under the age of eighteen years who has been granted a learner’s licence or a  driving licence with the consent in writing of the person having the care of the holder of the licence  and has ceased to be in such care, 

it may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, make an order— 

(i) disqualifying that person for a specified period for holding or obtaining any driving licence to  drive all or any classes or descriptions of vehicles specified in the licence; or 

(ii) revoke any such licence. 

1[(1A) Where a licence has been forwarded to the licensing authority under sub-section (4) of  section 206, the licensing authority, if satisfied after giving the holder of the driving licence an  opportunity of being heard, may either discharge the holder of a driving licence or, it may for detailed  reasons recorded in writing, make an order disqualifying such person from holding or obtaining any  licence to drive all or any class or description of vehicles specified in the licence— 

(a) for a first offence, for a period of three months; 

(b) for a second or subsequent offence, with revocation of the driving licence of such person: 

Provided that where a driving licence is revoked under this section, the name of the holder of such  driving licence may be placed in the public domain in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central  Government.] 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 11 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

19 

(2) Where an order under sub-section (1) 1[or sub-section (1A)] is made, the holder of a driving  licence shall forthwith surrender his driving licence to the licensing authority making the order, if the  driving licence has not already been surrendered, and the licensing authority shall,— 

(a) if the driving licence is a driving licence issued under this Act, keep it until the  disqualification has expired or has been removed; or 

(b) if it is not a driving licence issued under this Act, endorse the disqualification upon it and send  it to the licensing authority by which it was issued; or 

(c) in the case of revocation of any licence, endorse the revocation upon it and if it is not the  authority which issued the same, intimate the fact of revocation to the authority which issued that  licence: 

2[Provided that the driving licence shall be returned to the holder at the end of the period of  disqualification only if he successfully completes the driver refresher training course.] 

3[(2A) The licence holder whose licence has been suspended shall undergo the driver refresher training  course from a school or establishment licenced and regulated under section 12 or such other agency, as  may be notified by the Central Government. 

(2B) The nature, syllabus and duration of the driver refresher training course shall be such as may be  prescribed by the Central Government.] 

(3) Any person aggrieved by an order made by a licensing authority under sub-section (1) 1[or sub section (1A)] may, within thirty days of the receipt of the order, appeal to the prescribed authority, and  such appellate authority shall give notice to the licensing authority and hear either party if so required by  that party and may pass such order as it thinks fit and an order passed by any such appellate authority  shall be final. 

  1. Power of Court to disqualify.—(1) Where a person is convicted of an offence under this Act or  of an offence in the commission of which a motor vehicle was used, the Court by which such person is  convicted may, subject to the provisions of this Act, in addition to imposing any other punishment  authorised by law, declare the persons so convicted to be disqualified, for such period as the Court may  specify, from holding any driving licence to drive all classes or description of vehicles, or any particular  class or description of such vehicles, as are specified in such licence: 

Provided that in respect of an offence punishable under section 183 no such order shall be made for  the first or second offence. 

(2) Where a person is convicted of an offence under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 132,  section 134 or section 185, the Court convicting any person of any such offence shall order the  disqualification under sub-section (1), and if the offence is relatable to clause (c) of sub-section(1) of  section 132 or section 134, such disqualification shall be for a period of not less than one month, and if  the offence is relatable to section 185, such disqualification shall be for a period of not less than six  months. 

(3) A Court shall, unless for special reasons to be recorded in writing it thinks fit to order otherwise,  order the disqualification of a person— 

(a) who having been convicted of an offence punishable under section 184 is again convicted of  an offence punishable under that section, 

(b) who is convicted of an offence punishable under section 189, or 

(c) who is convicted of an offence punishable under section 192: 

Provided that the period of disqualification shall not exceed, in the case referred to in clause (a), five  years, or, in the case referred to in clause (b), two years or, in the case referred to in clause (c), one year. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 11, (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. The Proviso subs. by s. 11, ibid, (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  3. Ins. by s. 11, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

20 

(4) A Court ordering the disqualification of a person convicted of an offence punishable under section  184 may direct that such person shall, whether he has previously passed the test of competence to drive as  referred to in sub-section (3) of section 9 or not, remain disqualified until he has subsequent to the making  of the order of disqualification passed that test to the satisfaction of the licensing authority. 

(5) The Court to which an appeal would ordinarily lie from any conviction of an offence of the nature  specified in sub-section (1) may set aside or vary any order of disqualification made under that  sub-section notwithstanding that no appeal would lie against the conviction as a result of which such  order of disqualification was made. 

  1. Suspension of driving licence in certain cases.—(1) Where, in relation to a person who had  been previously convicted of an offence punishable under section 184, a case is registered by a police  officer on the allegation that such person has, by such dangerous driving as is referred to in the said  section 184, of any class or description of motor vehicle caused the death of, or grievous hurt to, one or  more persons, the driving licence held by such person shall in relation to such class or description of  motor vehicle become suspended— 

(a) for a period of six months from the date on which the case is registered, or 

(b) if such person is discharged or acquitted before the expiry of the period aforesaid, until such  discharge or acquittal, as the case may be. 

(2) Where by virtue of the provisions of sub-section (1), the driving licence held by a person becomes  suspended, the police officer, by whom the case referred to in sub-section (1) is registered, shall bring  such suspension to the notice of the Court competent to take cognizance of such offence, and thereupon,  such Court shall take possession of the driving licence, endorse the suspension thereon and intimate the  fact of such endorsement to the licensing authority by which the licence was granted or last renewed. 

(3) Where the person referred to in sub-section (1) is acquitted or discharged, the Court shall cancel  the endorsement on such driving licence with regard to the suspension thereof. 

(4) If a driving licence in relation to a particular class or description of motor vehicles is suspended  under sub-section (1), the person holding such licence shall be debarred from holding or obtaining any  licence to drive such particular class or description of motor vehicles so long as the suspension of the  driving licence remains in force. 

  1. Suspension or cancellation of driving licence on conviction.—(1) Without prejudice to the  provisions of sub-section (3) of section 20 where a person, referred to in sub-section (1) of section 21 is  convicted of an offence of causing, by such dangerous driving as is referred to in section 184 of any class  or description of motor vehicle the death of, or grievous hurt to, one or more persons, the Court by which  such person is convicted may cancel, or suspend for such period as it may think fit, the driving licence  held by such person in so far as it relates to that class or description of motor vehicle. 

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 20, if a person, having been  previously convicted of an offence punishable under section 185 is again convicted of an offence  punishable under that section, the Court, making such subsequent conviction, shall, by order, cancel the  driving licence held by such person. 

(3) If a driving licence is cancelled or suspended under this section, the Court shall take the driving  licence in its custody, endorse the cancellation or, as the case may be, suspension, thereon and send the  driving licence so endorsed to the authority by which the licence was issued or last renewed and such  authority shall, on receipt of the licence, keep the licence in its safe custody, and in the case of a  suspended licence, return the licence to the holder thereof after the expiry of the period of suspension on  an application made by him for such return: 

Provided that no such licence shall be returned unless the holder thereof has, after the expiry of the  period of suspension, undergone and passed, to the satisfaction of the licensing authority by which the  licence was issued or last renewed, a fresh test of competence to drive referred to in sub-section (3) of  section 9 and produced a medical certificate in the same form and in the same manner as is referred to in  sub-section (3) of section 8.

21 

(4) If a licence to drive a particular class or description of motor vehicles is cancelled or suspended  under this section, the person holding such a licence shall be debarred from holding, or obtaining, any  licence to drive such particular class or description of motor vehicles so long as the cancellation or  suspension of the driving licence remains in force. 

  1. Effect of disqualification order.—(1) A person in respect of whom any disqualification order is  made under section 19 or section 20 shall be debarred to the extent and for the period specified in such  order from holding or obtaining a driving licence and the driving licence, if any, held by such person at  the date of the order shall cease to be effective to such extent and during such period. 

(2) The operation of a disqualification order made under section 20 shall not be suspended or  postponed while an appeal is pending against such order or against the conviction as a result of which  such order is made, unless the appellate court so directs. 

(3) Any person in respect of whom any disqualification order has been made may at any time after the  expiry of six months from the date of the order apply to the Court or other authority by which the order  was made, to remove the disqualification; and the Court or authority, as the case may be, may, having  regard to all the circumstances, either cancel or vary the disqualification order: 

Provided that where the Court or other authority refuses to cancel or vary any disqualification order  under this section, a second application thereunder shall not be entertained before the expiry of a period  of three months from the date of such refusal. 

  1. Endorsement.—(1) The Court or authority making an order of disqualification shall endorse or  cause to be endorsed upon the driving licence if any, held by the person disqualified, particulars of the  order of disqualification and of any conviction of an offence in respect of which an order of  disqualification is made; and particulars of any cancellation or variation of an order of disqualification  made under sub-section (3) of section 23 shall be similarly so endorsed. 

(2) A Court by which any person is convicted of an offence under this Act as may be prescribed by  the Central Government, having regard to the objects of this Act, shall, whether or not a disqualification  order is made in respect of such conviction, endorse or cause to be endorsed particulars of such  conviction on any driving licence held by the person convicted. 

(3) Any person accused of an offence prescribed under sub-section (2) shall when attending the Court  bring with him his driving licence if it is in his possession. 

(4) Where any person is convicted of any offence under this Act and sentenced to imprisonment for a  period exceeding three months the Court awarding the sentence shall endorse the fact of such sentence  upon the driving licence of the person concerned and the prosecuting authority shall intimate the fact of  such endorsement to the authority by which the driving licence was granted or last renewed. 

(5) When the driving licence is endorsed or caused to be endorsed by any Court, such Court shall  send the particulars of the endorsement to the licensing authority by which the driving licence was  granted or last renewed. 

(6) Where on an appeal against any conviction or order of a Court, which has been endorsed on a  driving licence, the appellate court varies or sets aside the conviction or order, the appellate court shall  inform the licensing authority by which the driving licence was granted or last renewed and such  authority shall amend or cause to be amended the endorsement. 

  1. Transfer of endorsement and issue of driving licence free from endorsement.—(1) An  endorsement on any driving licence shall be transferred to any new or duplicate driving licence obtained  by the holder thereof until the holder becomes entitled under the provisions of this section to have a  driving licence issued to him free from endorsement.

22 

(2) Where a driving licence is required to be endorsed and the driving licence is not in the possession  of the Court or authority by which the endorsement is to be made, then— 

(a) if the person in respect of whom the endorsement is to be made is at the time the holder of a  driving licence, he shall produce the driving licence to the Court or authority within five days, or such  longer time as the Court or authority may fix; or 

(b) if, not being then the holder of a driving licence, he subsequently obtains a driving licence, he  shall within five days after obtaining the driving licence produce it to the Court or authority, 

and if the driving licence is not produced within the time specified, it shall, on the expiration of such time,  be of no effect until it is produced for the purpose of endorsement. 

(3) A person whose driving licence has been endorsed shall, if during a continuous period of three  years after such endorsement no further endorsement has been made against him, be entitled on  surrendering his driving licence and on payment of a fee of five rupees, to receive a new driving licence free from all endorsements: 

Provided that if the endorsement is only in respect of an offence contravening the speed limits  referred to in section 112, such person shall be entitled to receive a new driving licence free from such  endorsements on the expiration of one year of the date of the endorsement: 

Provided further that in reckoning the said period of three years and one year, respectively, any period  during which the said person was disqualified for holding or obtaining a driving licence shall be excluded. 

1[25A. National Register of Driving Licences.—(1) The Central Government shall maintain a  National Register of Driving Licences in such form and manner as may be prescribed. 

(2) All State Registers of Driving Licences shall be subsumed under the National Register of  Driving Licences by a date to be notified by the Central Government. 

(3) No driving licence issued, or renewed, under this Act shall be valid unless it has been issued a  unique driving licence number under the National Register of Driving Licences. 

(4) All State Governments and licensing authorities under this Act shall transmit all information  including contained data in the State Register of Driving Licences in such form and manner as may be  prescribed by the Central Government. 

(5) The State Governments shall be entitled to access the National Register and update their  records in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government.] 

2[26. Maintenance of State Registers of Driving Licences.— Each State Government shall  maintain, in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government, a register to be known as the  State Register of Driving Licences, in respect of driving licences issued and renewed by the licensing  authorities of the State Government, containing particulars, including— 

(a) names and addresses of holders of driving licences; 

(b) licence numbers; 

(c) dates of issue or renewal of licences; 

(d) dates of expiry of licences; 

(e) classes and types of vehicles authorised to be driven; and 

(f) such other particulars as the Central Government may prescribe.] 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 12 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 13, ibid., for the section 26 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

23 

(2) Each State Government shall supply to the Central Government a 1[printed copy or copy in such  other form as the Central Government may require] of the State Register of Driving Licences and shall  inform the Central Government without delay of all additions to and other amendments in such register  made from time to time. 

(3) The State Register of Driving Licences shall be maintained in such manner as may be prescribed  by the State Government. 

  1. Power of Central Government to make rules.—The Central Government may make rules— 2[(a) specifications relating to e-cart and e-rickshaw under sub-section (2) of section 2A;] 3[(aa)] regarding conditions referred to in sub-section (2) of section 3; 

(b) providing for the form in which the application for learner’s licence may be made, the  information it shall contain and the documents to be submitted with the application referred to in  sub-section (2) of section 8; 

(c) providing for the form of medical certificate referred to in sub-section (3) of section 8; (d) providing for the particulars for the test referred to in sub-section (5) of section 8; 

4[(da) the form and manner in which a licensing authority may issue a learner’s licence under  sub-section (6) of section 8; 

(db) the manner in which a licensing authority may verify the identity of the applicant under the  third proviso to sub-section (6) of section 8;] 

(e) providing for the form in which the application for driving licence may be made, the  information it shall contain and the documents to be submitted with the application referred to in  sub-section (2) of section 9; 

(f) providing for the particulars regarding test of competence to drive, referred to in sub-section  (3) of section 9; 

2[(ff) the manner and the conditions subject to which the driving licence may be issued under  sub-section (10) of section 9;] 

(g) specifying the minimum educational qualifications of persons to whom licences to drive  transport vehicles may be issued under this Act and the time within which such qualifications are to  be acquired by such persons; 

(h) providing for the form and contents of the licences referred to in sub-section (1) of section 10; 

(i) providing for the form and contents of the application referred to in sub-section (1) of  section 11 and documents to be submitted with the application and the fee to be charged; 

(j) providing for the conditions subject to which section 9 shall apply to an application made  under section 11; 

4[(ja) the curriculum of training modules and the regulation of schools and establishments under  sub-section (6) of section 12; 

(jb) the conditions for the renewal of licence to drive transport vehicles carrying goods of  dangerous or hazardous nature and other motor vehicles under clause (a) and clause (b) of  sub-section (2) of section 14; 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 10, for “printed copy” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by Act 3 of 2015, s. 5 (w.e.f. 7-1-2015). 
  3. Clause (a) renumbered as clause (aa) thereof by s. 5, ibid. (w.e.f. 7-1-2015). 
  4. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

24 

(jc) the manner in which a licensing authority may verify the identity of the applicant under the  third proviso to sub-section (2) of section 11;] 

(k) providing for the form and contents of the application referred to in sub-section (1) of section  15 and the documents to accompany such application under sub-section (2) of section 15; 

(l) providing for the authority to grant licences under sub-section (1) of section 18; 

(m) specifying the fees payable under sub-section (2) of section 8, sub-section (2) of section 9 and  sub-sections (3) and (4) of section 15 for the grant of learner’s licences, and for the grant and renewal  of driving licences and licences for the purpose of regulating the schools or establishment for  imparting instructions in driving motor vehicles; 

(n) specifying the acts for the purposes of clause (f) of sub-section (1) of section 19; 

1[(na) the manner of placing in the public domain of the name of the licence holder as referred to  in sub-section (1A) of section 19; 

(nb) providing for the nature, syllabus and duration of the driver refresher training course as  referred to in sub-section (2B) of section 19;] 

(o) specifying the offences under this Act for the purposes of sub-section (2) of section 24; 1[(oa) all or any of the matters referred to in section 25A;] 

(p) to provide for all or any of the matters referred to in 2*** section 26; 

(q) any other matter which is, or has to be, prescribed by the Central Government. 

  1. Power of State Government to make rules.—(1) A State Government may make rules for the  purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Chapter other than the matters specified in  section 27. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for— 

(a) the appointment, jurisdiction, control and functions of licensing authorities and other  prescribed authorities; 

(b) the conduct and hearing of appeals that may be preferred under this Chapter, the fees to be  paid in respect of such appeals and the refund of such fees: 

Provided that no fee so fixed shall exceed twenty-five rupees; 

(c) the issue of duplicate licences to replace licences lost, destroyed or mutilated, the replacement  of photographs which have become obsolete and the fees to be charged therefor; 

(d) the badges and uniform to be worn by drivers of transport vehicles and the fees to be paid in  respect of badges; 

(e) the fee payable for the issue of a medical certificate under sub-section (3) of section 8; 

(f) the exemption of prescribed persons, or prescribed classes of persons, from payment of all or  any portion of the fees payable under this Chapter; 

(g) the communication of particulars of licences granted by one licensing authority to other  licensing authorities; 

(h) the duties, functions and conduct of such persons to whom licences to drive transport vehicles  are issued; 

(i) the exemption of drivers of road-rollers from all or any of the provisions of this Chapter or of  the rules made thereunder; 

3* * * * 

(k) any other matter which is to be, or may be, prescribed. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 14 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. The words, brackets and figure “sub-section (1) of” omitted by s. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. Clause (j) omitted by s. 15 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

25 

CHAPTER III 

LICENSING OF CONDUCTORS OF STAGE CARRIAGES 

  1. Necessity for conductor’s licence.—(1) No person shall act as a conductor of a stage carriage  unless he holds an effective conductor’s licence issued to him authorising him to act as such conductor;  and no person shall employ or permit any person who is not so licensed to act as a conductor of a stage  carriage. 

(2) A State Government may prescribe the conditions subject to which sub-section (1) shall not apply  to a driver of a stage carriage performing the functions of a conductor or to a person employed to act as a  conductor for a period not exceeding one month. 

  1. Grant of conductor’s licence.—(1) Any person who possesses such minimum educational  qualification as may be prescribed by the State Government and is not disqualified under sub-section (1)  of section 31 and who is not for the time being disqualified for holding or obtaining a conductor’s licence  may apply to the licensing authority having jurisdiction in the area in which he ordinarily resides or  carries on business for the issue to him of a conductor’s licence. 

(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be in such form and shall contain such information  as may be prescribed. 

(3) Every application for a conductor’s licence shall be accompanied by a medical certificate in such  form as may be prescribed, signed by a registered medical practitioner and shall also be accompanied by  two clear copies of a recent photograph of the applicant. 

(4) A conductor’s licence issued under this Chapter shall be in such form and contain such particulars  as may be prescribed and shall be effective throughout the State in which it is issued. 

(5) The fee for a conductor’s licence and for each renewal thereof shall be one-half of that for a  driving licence. 

  1. Disqualifications for the grant of conductor’s licence.—(1) No person under the age of  eighteen years shall hold, or be granted, a conductor’s licence. 

(2) The licensing authority may refuse to issue a conductor’s licence— 

(a) if the applicant does not possess the minimum educational qualification; 

(b) if the medical certificate produced by the applicant discloses that he is physically unfit to act  as a conductor; and 

(c) if any previous conductor’s licence held by the applicant was revoked. 

  1. Revocation of a conductor’s licence on grounds of disease or disability.—A conductor’s  licence may at any time be revoked by any licensing authority if that authority has reasonable grounds to  believe that the holder of the licence is suffering from any disease or disability which is likely to render  him permanently unfit to hold such a licence and where the authority revoking a conductor’s licence is  not the authority which issued the same, it shall intimate the fact of such revocation to the authority which  issued that licence: 

Provided that before revoking any licence, the licensing authority shall give the person holding such  licence a reasonable opportunity of being heard. 

  1. Orders refusing, etc., conductor’s licences and appeals therefrom.—(1) Where a licensing  authority refuses to issue or renew, or revokes any conductor’s licence, it shall do so by an order  communicated to the applicant or the holder, as the case may be, giving the reasons in writing for such  refusal or revocation. 

(2) Any person aggrieved by an order made under sub-section (1) may, within thirty days of the  service on him of the order, appeal to the prescribed authority which shall decide the appeal after giving  such person and the authority which made the order an opportunity of being heard and the decision of the  appellate authority shall be binding on the authority which made the order.

26 

  1. Power of licensing authority to disqualify.—(1) If any licensing authority is of opinion that it is  necessary to disqualify the holder of a conductor’s licence for holding or obtaining such a licence on  account of his previous conduct as a conductor, it may, for reasons to be recorded, make an order  disqualifying that person for a specified period, not exceeding one year, for holding or obtaining a  conductor’s licence: 

Provided that before disqualifying the holder of a licence, the licensing authority shall give the person  holding such licence a reasonable opportunity of being heard. 

(2) Upon the issue of any such order, the holder of the conductor’s licence shall forthwith surrender  the licence to the authority making the order, if the licence has not already been surrendered, and the  authority shall keep the licence until the disqualification has expired or has been removed. 

(3) Where the authority disqualifying the holder of a conductor’s licence under this section is not the  authority which issued the licence, it shall intimate the fact of such disqualification to the authority which  issued the same. 

(4) Any person aggrieved by an order made under sub-section (1) may, within thirty days of the  service on him of the order, appeal to the prescribed authority which shall decide the appeal after giving  such person and the authority which made the order an opportunity of being heard and the decision of the  appellate authority shall be binding on the authority which made the order. 

  1. Power of Court to disqualify.—(1) Where any person holding a conductor’s licence is convicted  of an offence under this Act, the Court by which such person is convicted may, in addition to imposing  any other punishment authorised by law, declare the person so convicted to be disqualified for such  period as the Court may specify for holding a conductor’s licence. 

(2) The Court to which an appeal lies from any conviction of an offence under this Act may set aside  or vary any order of disqualification made by the Court below, and the Court to which appeals ordinarily  lie from such Court, may set aside or vary any order of disqualification made by that Court,  notwithstanding that no appeal lies against the conviction in connection with which such order was made. 

  1. Certain provisions of Chapter II to apply to conductor’s licence.—The provisions of  sub-section (2) of section 6, sections 14, 15 and 23, sub-section (1) of section 24 and section 25 shall, so  far as may be, apply in relation to a conductor’s licence, as they apply in relation to a driving licence. 
  2. Savings.—If any licence to act as a conductor of a stage carriage (by whatever name called) has  been issued in any State and is effective immediately before the commencement of this Act, it shall  continue to be effective, notwithstanding such commencement, for the period for which it would have  been effective, if this Act had not been passed, and every such licence shall be deemed to be a licence  issued under this Chapter as if this Chapter had been in force on the date on which that licence was  granted. 
  3. Power of State Government to make rules.—(1) A State Government may make rules for the  purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Chapter. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for— 

(a) the appointment, jurisdiction, control and functions of licensing authorities and other  prescribed authorities under this Chapter; 

(b) the conditions subject to which drivers of stage carriages performing the functions of a  conductor and persons temporarily employed to act as conductors may be exempted from the  provisions of sub-section (1) of section 29; 

(c) the minimum educational qualifications of conductors; their duties and functions and the  conduct of persons to whom conductor’s licences are issued; 

(d) the form of application for conductor’s licences or for renewal of such licences and the  particulars it may contain; 

(e) the form in which conductor’s licences may be issued or renewed and the particulars it may  contain;

27 

(f) the issue of duplicate licences to replace licences lost, destroyed or mutilated, the replacement  of photographs which have become obsolete and the fees to be charged therefor; 

(g) the conduct and hearing of appeals that may be preferred under this Chapter, the fees to be  paid in respect of such appeals and the refund of such fees: 

Provided that no fee so fixed shall exceed twenty-five rupees; 

(h) the badges and uniform to be worn by conductors of stage carriages and the fees to be paid in  respect of such badges; 

(i) the grant of the certificates referred to in sub-section (3) of section 30 by registered medical  practitioners and the form of such certificates; 

(j) the conditions subject to which, and the extent to which, a conductor’s licence issued in  another State shall be effective in the State; 

(k) the communication of particulars of conductor’s licences from one authority to other  authorities; and 

(l) any other matter which is to be, or may be, prescribed. 

CHAPTER IV 

REGISTRATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

  1. Necessity for registration.—No person shall drive any motor vehicle and no owner of a motor  vehicle shall cause or permit the vehicle to be driven in any public place or in any other place unless the  vehicle is registered in accordance with this Chapter and the certificate of registration of the vehicle has  not been suspended or cancelled and the vehicle carries a registration mark displayed in the prescribed  manner: 

Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a motor vehicle in possession of a dealer subject to  such conditions as may be prescribed by the Central Government.  

  1. Registration, where to be made.—Subject to the provisions of section 42, section 43 and section  60, every owner of a motor vehicle shall cause the vehicle to be registered by 1[any registering authority  in the State] in whose jurisdiction he has the residence or place of business where the vehicle is normally  kept. 
  2. Registration, how to be made.—(1) An application by or on behalf of the owner of a motor  vehicle for registration shall be in such form and shall be accompanied by such documents, particulars  and information and shall be made within such period as may be prescribed by the Central Government: 

Provided that where a motor vehicle is jointly owned by more persons than one, the application shall  be made by one of them on behalf of all the owners and such applicant shall be deemed to be the owner of  the motor vehicle for the purposes of this Act. 

2[Provided further that in the case of a new motor vehicle, the application for registration in the State  shall be made by the dealer of such motor vehicle, if the new motor vehicle is being registered in the same  State in which the dealer is situated.] 

(2) An application referred to in sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by such fee as may be  prescribed by the Central Government. 

(3) The registering authority shall issue 3[a certificate of registration in the name of the owner] in such  form and containing such particulars and information and in such manner as may be prescribed by the  Central Government. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 16, for “a registering authority” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Ins. by s. 17, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).  
  3. Subs. by s. 17, ibid., for “to the owner of a motor vehicle registered by it a certificate of registration” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

28 

(4) In addition to the other particulars required to be included in the certificate of registration, it shall  also specify the type of the motor vehicle, being a type as the Central Government may, having regard to  the design, construction and use of the motor vehicle, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify. 

(5) The registering authority shall enter the particulars of the certificate referred to in sub-section (3)  in a register to be maintained in such form and manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(6) The registering authority shall assign to the vehicle, for display thereon, a distinguishing mark  (in this Act referred to as the registration mark) consisting of one of the groups of such of those letters  and followed by such letters and figures as are allotted to the State by the Central Government from time  to time by notification in the Official Gazette, and displayed and shown on the motor vehicle in such form  and in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

1[Provided that in case of a new motor vehicle, the application for the registration of which is made  under the second proviso to sub-section (1), such motor vehicle shall not be delivered to the owner until  such registration mark is displayed on the motor vehicle in such form and manner as may prescribed by  the Central Government.] 

(7) A certificate of registration issued under sub-section (3), whether before or after the  commencement of this Act, in respect of a motor vehicle, 2***, shall, subject to the provisions contained  in this Act, be valid only for a period of fifteen years from the date of issue of such certificate 1[or for  such period as may be prescribed by the Central Government] and shall be renewable. 

(8) An application by or on behalf of the owner of a motor vehicle, 2***, for the renewal of a  certificate of registration shall be made within such period and in such form, containing such particulars  and information as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(9) An application referred to in sub-section (8) shall be accompanied by such fee as may be  prescribed by the Central Government. 

(10) Subject to the provisions of section 56, the registering authority may, on receipt of an application  under sub-section (8), renew the certificate of registration 3[for such period, as may be prescribed by the  Central Government] and intimate the fact to the original registering authority, if it is not the original  registering authority. 

1[Provided that the Central Government may prescribe different period of renewal for different types  of motor vehicles.] 

4* * * * * 

(14) An application for the issue of a duplicate certificate of registration shall be made to the 5[last registering authority] in such form, containing such particulars and information along with such fee as  may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

STATE AMENDMENT 

Rajasthan 

Amendment of section 41, Central Act 59 of 1988.—In section 41 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988  (Central Act 59 of 1988),- 

(a) in sub-sections (7) and (8), the expression, “other than a transport vehicle,” shall be deleted; (b) after sub-section (7) so amended, the following proviso shall be inserted, namely:- 

“Provided that in the case of transport vehicles, State Government may require the transport vehicles  to be re-registered in the manner prescribed, subject to the age limit, if any, prescribed under section 59 of  the Act.”; and 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 17, (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. The words “other than a transport vehicle” omitted by s. 17, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  3. Subs. by s. 17, ibid., for “for a period of five years” (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).  
  4. Sub-sections (11), (12), (13) omitted by s. 17, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-7-2021).  
  5. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 11, for “original registering authority” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

29 

(c) in sub-section (10) after the words “for a period of five years” and before the words “and  intimate”, the expression “on payment of all taxes, penalties and interest, if any, levied by the State  Government” shall be inserted. 

[Vide Rajasthan Act 1 of 2002, s. 2] 

  1. Special provision for registration of motor vehicles of diplomatic officers, etc.—(1) Where an  application for registration of a motor vehicle is made under sub-section (1) of section 41 by or on behalf  of any diplomatic officer or consular officer, then, notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3)  or sub-section (6) of that section, the registering authority shall register the vehicle in such manner and in  accordance with such procedure as may be provided by rules made in this behalf by the Central  Government under sub-section (3) and shall assign to the vehicle for display thereon a special registration  mark in accordance with the provisions contained in those rules and shall issue a certificate (hereafter in  this section referred to as the certificate of registration) that the vehicle has been registered under this  section; and any vehicle so registered shall not, so long as it remains the property of any diplomatic  officer or consular officer, require to be registered otherwise under this Act. 

(2) If any vehicle registered under this section ceases to be the property of any diplomatic officer or  consular officer, the certificate of registration issued under this section shall also cease to be effective,  and the provisions of sections 39 and 40 shall thereupon apply. 

(3) The Central Government may make rules for the registration of motor vehicles belonging to  diplomatic officers and consular officers regarding the procedure to be followed by the registering  authority for registering such vehicles, the form in which the certificates of registration of such vehicles  are to be issued, the manner in which such certificates of registration are to be sent to the owners of the  vehicles and the special registration marks to be assigned to such vehicles. 

(4) For the purposes of this section, “diplomatic officer” or “consular officer” means any person who  is recognised as such by the Central Government and if any question arises as to whether a person is or is  not such an officer, the decision of the Central Government thereon shall be final. 

1[43. Temporary registration.— Notwithstanding anything contained in section 40, the owner of a  motor vehicle may apply to any registering authority or other authority as may be prescribed by the State  Government to have the motor vehicle temporarily registered and such authority shall issue a temporary  certificate of registration and temporary registration mark in accordance with such rules as may be made  by the Central Government: 

Provided that the State Government may register a motor vehicle that plies, temporarily, within the  State and issue a certificate of registration and registration mark for a period of one month in such manner  as may be prescribed by the State Government.] 

2[44. Production of vehicle at the time of registration.— (1) Subject to such terms and conditions as  may be prescribed by the Central Government in this behalf, a motor vehicle sold by an authorised dealer  shall not require production before a registering authority for the purposes of registration for the first  time. 

(2) Subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the State Government, a person in  whose name a certificate of registration has been issued shall not be required to produce the vehicle  registered or transferred before a registering authority.] 

  1. Refusal of registration or renewal of the certificate of registration.—The registering authority  may, by order, refuse to register any motor vehicle, or renew the certificate of registration in respect of a  motor vehicle (other than a transport vehicle), if in either case, the registering authority has reason to  believe that it is a stolen motor vehicle or the vehicle is mechanically defective or fails to comply with the  requirements of this Act or of the rules made thereunder, or if the applicant fails to furnish particulars of  any previous registration of the vehicle or furnishes inaccurate particulars in the application for  registration of the vehicle or, as the case may be, for renewal of the certificate or registration thereof and  the registering authority shall furnish the applicant whose vehicle is refused registration, or whose  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 18, for section 43 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by, s. 19, ibid., for section 44 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

30 

application for renewal of the certificate of registration is refused, a copy of such order, together with the  reasons for such refusal. 

  1. Effectiveness in India of registration.—Subject to the provisions of section 47, a motor vehicle  registered in accordance with this Chapter in any State shall not require to be registered elsewhere in  India and a certificate of registration issued or in force under this Act in respect of such vehicle shall be  effective throughout India. 
  2. Assignment of new registration mark on removal to another State.—(1) When a motor  vehicle registered in one State has been kept in another State, for a period exceeding twelve months, the  owner of the vehicle shall, within such period and in such form containing such particulars as may be  prescribed by the Central Government, apply to the registering authority, within whose jurisdiction the  vehicle then is, for the assignment of a new registration mark and shall present the certificate of  registration to that registering authority: 

Provided that an application under this sub-section shall be accompanied— 

(i) by the no objection certificate obtained under section 48, or 

(ii) in a case where no such certificate has been obtained, by— 

(a) the receipt obtained under sub-section (2) of section 48; or 

(b) the postal acknowledgement received by the owner of the vehicle if he has sent an  application in this behalf by registered post acknowledgement due to the registering authority  referred to in section 48, 

together with a declaration that he has not received any communication from such authority refusing to  grant such certificate or requiring him to comply with any direction subject to which such certificate may  be granted: 

Provided further that, in a case where a motor vehicle is held under a hire-purchase, lease or  hypothecation agreement, an application under this sub-section shall be accompanied by a no objection  certificate from the person with whom such agreement has been entered into, and the provisions of  section 51, so far as may be, regarding obtaining of such certificate from the person with whom such  agreement has been entered into, shall apply. 

(2) The registering authority, to which application is made under sub-section (1), shall after making  such verification, as it thinks fit, of the returns, if any, received under section 62, assign the vehicle a  registration mark as specified in sub-section (6) of section 41 to be displayed and shown thereafter on the  vehicle and shall enter the mark upon the certificate of registration before returning it to the applicant and  shall, in communication with the registering authority by whom the vehicle was previously registered,  arrange for the transfer of the registration of the vehicle from the records of that registering authority to  its own records. 

(3) Where a motor vehicle is held under a hire-purchase or lease or hypothecation agreement, the  registering authority shall, after assigning the vehicle a registration mark under sub-section (2), inform the  person whose name has been specified in the certificate of registration as the person with whom the  registered owner has entered into the hire-purchase or lease or hypothecation agreement (by sending to  such person a notice by registered post acknowledgement due at the address of such person entered in the  certificate of registration the fact of assignment of the said registration mark). 

(4) A State Government may make rules under section 65 requiring the owner of a motor vehicle not  registered within the State, which is brought into or is for the time being in the State, to furnish to the  prescribed authority in the State such information with respect to the motor vehicle and its registration as  may be prescribed. 

(5) If the owner fails to make an application under sub-section (1) within the period prescribed, the  registering authority may, having regard to the circumstances of the case, require the owner to pay, in lieu  of any action that may be taken against him under section 177, such amount not exceeding one hundred  rupees as may be prescribed under sub-section (7):

31 

Provided that action under section 177 shall be taken against the owner where the owner fails to pay  the said amount. 

(6) Where the owner has paid the amount under sub-section (5), no action shall be taken against him  under section 177. 

(7) For the purposes of sub-section (5), the State Government may prescribe different amounts having  regard to the period of delay on the part of the owner in making an application under sub-section (1). 48. No objection certificate.—(1) The owner of a motor vehicle when applying for the assignment of a  new registration mark under sub-section (1) of section 47, or where the transfer of a motor vehicle is to be  effected in a State other than the State of its registration, the transferor of such vehicle when reporting the  transfer under sub-section (1) of section 50, shall make an application in such form and in such manner as may  be prescribed by the Central Government to the registering authority by which the vehicle was registered for  the issue of a certificate (hereafter in this section referred to as the no objection certificate), to the effect that  the registering authority has no objection for assigning a new registration mark to the vehicle or, as the case  may be, for entering the particulars of the transfer of ownership in the certificate of registration. (2) The registering authority shall, on receipt of an application under sub-section (1), issue a receipt in  such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(3) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the registering authority may, after making such  inquiry and requiring the applicant to comply with such directions as it deems fit and within thirty days of the  receipt thereof, by order in writing, communicate to the applicant that it has granted or refused to grant the no  objection certificate: 

Provided that a registering authority shall not refuse to grant the no objection certificate unless it has  recorded in writing the reasons for doing so and a copy of the same has been communicated to the applicant. (4) Where within a period of thirty days referred to in sub-section (3), the registering authority does not  refuse to grant the no objection certificate or does not communicate the refusal to the applicant, the registering  authority shall be deemed to have granted the no objection certificate. 

(5) Before granting or refusing to grant the no objection certificate, the registering authority shall obtain a  report in writing from the police that no case relating to the theft of the motor vehicle concerned has been  reported or is pending, verify whether all the amounts due to Government including road tax in respect of that  motor vehicle have been paid and take into account such other factors as may be prescribed by the Central  Government. 

1[(6) The owner of the vehicle shall also inform at the earliest, in writing, the registering authority  about the theft of his vehicle together with the name of the police station where the theft report was  lodged, and the registering authority shall take into account such report while disposing of any application  for no objection certification, registration, transfer of ownership or issue of duplicate registration  certificate.] 

  1. Change of residence or place of business.—(1) If the owner of a motor vehicle ceases to reside or  have his place of business at the address recorded in the certificate of registration of the vehicle, he shall,  within thirty days of any such change of address, intimate in such form accompanied by such documents as  may be prescribed by the Central Government, his new address, to the registering authority by which the  certificate of registration was issued, or, if the new address is within the jurisdiction of another 2[State, to any  registering authority in that State], and shall at the same time forward the certificate of registration to the  registering authority or, as the case may be, to the other registering authority in order that the new address may  be entered therein. 

3[(1A) The intimation under sub-section (1) may be sent to the appropriate registering authority in  electronic form along with the electronic form of such documents, including proof of authentication in such  manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government.] 

(2) If the owner of a motor vehicle fails to intimate his new address to the concerned registering authority  within the period specified in sub-section (1), the registering authority may, having regard to the circumstances  of the case, require the owner to pay, in lieu of any action that may be taken against him under section 177  such amount not exceeding 4[five hundred rupees] as may be prescribed under  sub-section (4): 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 13 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 20, for “registering authority, to that other registering authority” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 3. Ins. by s. 20, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. Subs. by s. 20, ibid., for “one hundred rupees” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

32 

Provided that action under section 177 shall be taken against the owner where he fails to pay the said  amount. 

(3) Where a person has paid the amount under sub-section (2), no action shall be taken against him  under section 177. 

(4) For the purposes of sub-section (2), a State Government may prescribe different amounts having  regard to the period of delay in intimating his new address. 

(5) On receipt of intimation under sub-section (1), the registering authority may, after making such  verification as it may think fit, cause the new address to be entered in the certificate of registration. 

(6) A registering authority other than the original registering authority making any such entry shall  communicate the altered address to the original registering authority. 

(7) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply where the change of the address recorded in the certificate of registration is due to a temporary absence not intended to exceed six months in duration or where the  motor vehicle is neither used nor removed from the address recorded in the certificate of registration. 

  1. Transfer of ownership.—(1) Where the ownership of any motor vehicle registered under this  Chapter is transferred,— 

(a) the transferor shall,— 

(i) in the case of a vehicle registered within the same State, within fourteen days of the  transfer, report the fact of transfer, in such form with such documents and in such manner, as may  be prescribed by the Central Government to the registering authority within whose jurisdiction  the transfer is to be effected and shall simultaneously send a copy of the said report to the  transferee; and 

(ii) in the case of a vehicle registered outside the State, within forty-five days of the transfer,  forward to the registering authority referred to in sub-clause (i)— 

(A) the no objection certificate obtained under section 48; or 

(B) in a case where no such certificate has been obtained,— 

(I) the receipt obtained under sub-section (2) of section 48; or 

(II) the postal acknowledgement received by the transferred if he has sent an  application in this behalf by registered post acknowledgement due to the registering  authority referred to in section 48, 

together with a declaration that he has not received any communication from such authority  refusing to grant such certificate or requiring him to comply with any direction subject to which  such certificate may be granted; 

(b) the transferee shall, within thirty days of the transfer, report the transfer to the registering  authority within whose jurisdiction he has the residence or place of business where the vehicle is  normally kept, as the case may be, and shall forward the certificate of registration to that registering  authority together with the prescribed fee and a copy of the report received by him from the transferor  in order that particulars of the transfer of ownership may be entered in the certificate of registration. 

(2) Where— 

(a) the person in whose name a motor vehicle stands registered dies, or 

(b) a motor vehicle has been purchased or acquired at a public auction conducted by, or on behalf  of, Government, 

the person succeeding to the possession of the vehicle or, as the case may be, who has purchased or  acquired the motor vehicle, shall make an application for the purpose of transferring the ownership of the  vehicle in his name, to the registering authority in whose jurisdiction he has the residence or place of  business where the vehicle is normally kept, as the case may be, in such manner, accompanied with such  fee, and within such period as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

33 

(3) If the transferor or the transferee fails to report to the registering authority the fact of transfer  within the period specified in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1), as the case may be, or if the  person who is required to make an application under sub-section (2) hereafter in this section referred to as  the other person fails to make such application within the period prescribed, the registering authority may,  having regard to the circumstances of the case, require the transferor or the transferee, or the other person,  as the case may be, to pay, in lieu of any action that may be taken against him under section 177 such  amount not exceeding one hundred rupees as may be prescribed under sub-section (5): 

Provided that action under section 177 shall be taken against the transferor or the transferee or the  other person, as the case may be, where he fails to pay the said amount. 

(4) Where a person has paid the amount under sub-section (3), no action shall be taken against him  under section 177. 

(5) For the purposes of sub-section (3), a State Government may prescribe different amounts having  regard to the period of delay on the part of the transferor or the transferee in reporting the fact of transfer  of ownership of the motor vehicle or of the other person in making the application under sub-section (2). 

(6) On receipt of a report under sub-section (1), or an application under sub-section (2), the  registering authority may cause the transfer of ownership to be entered in the certificate of registration. 

(7) A registering authority making any such entry shall communicate the transfer of ownership to the  transferor and to the original registering authority, if it is not the original registering authority. 

  1. Special provisions regarding motor vehicle subject to hire-purchase agreement, etc.—(1)  Where an application for registration of a motor vehicle which is held under a hire-purchase, lease or  hypothecation agreement (hereafter in this section referred to as the said agreement) is made, the  registering authority shall make an entry in the certificate of registration regarding the existence of the  said agreement. 

(2) Where the ownership of any motor vehicle registered under this Chapter is transferred and the  transferee enters into the said agreement with any person, the 1[last registering authority] shall, on receipt  of an application in such form as the Central Government may prescribe from the parties to the said  agreement, make an entry as to the existence of the said agreement in the certificate of registration 2[and  an intimation in this behalf shall be sent to the original registering authority if the last registering  authority is not the original registering authority]. 

(3) Any entry made under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), may be cancelled by the 1[last registering  authority] on proof of the termination of the said agreement by the parties concerned on an application  being made in such form as the Central Government may prescribe2[and an intimation in this behalf  shall be sent to the original registering authority if the last registering authority is not the original  registering authority]. 

(4) No entry regarding the transfer of ownership of any motor vehicle which is held under the said  agreement shall be made in the certificate of registration except with the written consent of the person  whose name has been specified in the certificate of registration as the person with whom the registered  owner has entered into the said agreement. 

(5) Where the person whose name has been specified in the certificate of registration as the person  with whom the registered owner has entered into the said agreement, satisfies the registering authority  that he has taken possession of the vehicle3[from the registered owner] owing to the default of the  registered owner under the provisions of the said agreement and that the registered owner refuses to  deliver the certificate of registration or has absconded, such authority may, after giving the registered  owner an opportunity to make such representation as he may wish to make (by sending to him a notice by  registered post acknowledgement due at his address entered in the certificate of registration) and  notwithstanding that the certificate of registration is not produced before it, cancel the certificate and  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 14, for “original registering authority” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Added by s. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Ins. by s. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

34 

issuea fresh certificate of registration in the name of the person with whom the registered owner has  entered into the said agreement: 

Provided that a fresh certificate of registration shall not be issued in respect of a motor vehicle, unless  such person pays the prescribed fee:  

Provided further that a fresh certificate of registration issued in respect of a motor vehicle, other than  a transport vehicle, shall be valid only for the remaining period for which the certificate cancelled under  this sub-section would have been in force. 

(6) The registered owner shall, before applying to the appropriate authority, for the renewal of a  permit under section 81 or for the issue of duplicate certificate of registration under sub-section (14) of  section 41, or for the assignment of a new registration mark 1[under section 47, or removal of the vehicle  to another State, or at the time of conversion of the vehicle from one class to another, or for issue of no  objection certificate under section 48, or for change of residence or place of business under section 49, or  for the alteration of the vehicle under section 52, make an application] to the person with whom the  registered owner has entered into the said agreement (such person being hereafter in this section referred  to as the financier) for the issue of a no objection certificate (hereafter in this section referred to as the  certificate). 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section and sub-sections (8) and (9), “appropriate  authority”, in relation to any permit, means the authority which is authorised by this Act to renew such  permit and, in relation to registration, means the authority which is authorised by this Act to issue  duplicate certificate of registration or to assign a new registration mark. 

(7) Within seven days of the receipt of an application under sub-section (6), the financier may issue,  or refuse, for reasons which shall be recorded in writing and communicated to the applicant, to issue, the  certificate applied for, and where the financier fails to issue the certificate and also fails to communicate  the reasons for refusal to issue the certificate to the applicant within the said period of seven days, the  certificate applied for shall be deemed to have been issued by the financier. 

(8) The registered owner shall, while applying to the appropriate authority for the renewal of any  permit under section 81, or for the issue of a duplicate certificate of registration under sub-section (14) of  section 41, or while applying for assignment of a new registration mark under section 47, submit with  such application the certificate, if any, obtained under sub-section (7) or, where no such certificate has  been obtained, the communication received from the financier under that sub-section, or, as the case may  be, a declaration that he has not received any communication from the financier within the period of  seven days specified in that sub-section. 

(9) On receipt of an application for the renewal of any permit or for the issue of duplicate certificate  of registration or for assignment of a new registration mark in respect of a vehicle which is held under the  said agreement, the appropriate authority may, subject to the other provisions of this Act,— 

(a) in a case where the financier has refused to issue the certificate applied for, after giving the  applicant an opportunity of being heard, either— 

(i) renew or refuse to renew the permit, or 

(ii) issue or refuse to issue the duplicate certificate of registration, or 

(iii) assign or refuse to assign a new registration mark; 

(b) in any other case,— 

(i) renew the permit, or 

(ii) issue duplicate certificate of registration, or 

(iii) assign a new registration mark. 

(10) A registering authority making an entry in the certificate of registration regarding— (a) hire-purchase lease or hypothecation agreement of a motor vehicle, or 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 14, for “under section 47, make an application” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

35 

(b) the cancellation under sub-section (3) of an entry, or 

(c) recording transfer of ownership of motor vehicle, or 

(d) any alteration in a motor vehicle, or 

(e) suspension or cancellation of registration of a motor vehicle, or 

(f) change of address, 

shall communicate 1[by registered post acknowledgment due] to the financier that such entry has been  made. 

2[(11) A registering authority registering the new vehicle, or issuing the duplicate certificate of  registration or a no objection certificate or a temporary certificate of registration, or issuing or  renewing, a fitness certificate or substituting entries relating to another motor vehicle in the  permit, shall intimate the financier of such transaction. 

(12) The registering authority where it is not the original registering authority, when making  entry under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2),or cancelling the said entry under sub-section (3) or  issuing the fresh certificate of registration under sub-section (5) shall communicate the same to the  original registering authority.] 

3[52. Alteration in motor vehicle.— (1) No owner of a motor vehicle shall so alter the vehicle that  the particulars contained in the certificate of registration are at variance with those originally specified by  the manufacturer: 

Provided that where the owner of a motor vehicle makes modification of the engine, or any part  thereof, of a vehicle for facilitating its operation by different type of fuel or source of energy including  battery, compressed natural gas, solar power, liquid petroleum gas or any other fuel or source of energy,  by fitment of a conversion kit, such modification shall be carried out subject to such conditions as may be  prescribed: 

4[Provided further that the Central Government may prescribe specifications, conditions for approval,  retrofitment and other related matters for the alteration of motor vehicles and in such cases, the warranty  granted by the manufacturer shall not be considered as void for the purposes of such alteration or  retrofitment.]  

Provided also that the Central Government may grant exemption for alteration of vehicles in a  manner other than specified above, for any specific purpose. 

5[(1A) A manufacturer of a motor vehicle shall on the direction issued by the Central Government,  alter or retrofit safety equipment, or any other equipment in accordance with such standards and  specifications as may be specified by the Central Government.] 

6[(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), any person may, with the subsequent  approval of the registering authority, alter or cause to be altered any vehicle owned by him to be  converted into an adapted vehicle: 

Provided that such alteration complies with such conditions as may be prescribed by the Central  Government.] 

(3) Where any alteration has been made in motor vehicle without the approval of registering  authority 7***, the owner of the vehicle shall, within fourteen days of the making of the alteration, report  the alteration to the registering authority within whose jurisdiction he resides and shall forward the  

  

  1. Ins. by Act 54 of 1994, s.14 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by s.14, ibid., for sub-section (11) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Subs. by Act 27 of 2000, s. 2, for section 52 (w.e.f. 11-8-2000). 
  4. The Proviso subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 21, (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).  
  5. Ins. by s. 21, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  6. Subs. by s. 21, ibid., for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  7. The words “or by reason of replacement of its engine without such approval under sub-section (2)” omitted by s. 21, ibid.,  (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

36 

certificate of registration to that authority together with the prescribed fee in order that particulars of  registration may be entered therein. 

(4) A registering authority other than the original registering authority making any such entry shall  communicate the details of the entry to the original registering authority. 

(5) Subject to the provisions made under sub-sections (1), (2), (3) and (4), no person holding a vehicle  under a hire-purchase agreement shall make any alteration to the vehicle except with the written consent  of the registered owner. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, “alteration” means a change in the structure of a  vehicle which results in a change in its basic feature.] 

  1. Suspension of registration.—(1) If any registering authority or other prescribed authority has  reason to believe that any motor vehicle within its jurisdiction— 

(a) is in such a condition that its use in a public place would constitute a danger to the public, or  that it fails to comply with the requirements of this Act or of the rules made thereunder, or 

(b) has been, or is being, used for hire or reward without a valid permit for being used as such, 

the authority may, after giving the owner an opportunity of making any representation he may wish to  make (by sending to the owner a notice by registered post acknowledgement due at his address entered in  the certificate of registration), for reasons to be recorded in writing, suspend the certificate of registration  of the vehicle— 

(i) in any case falling under clause (a), until the defects are rectified to its satisfaction; and (ii) in any case falling under clause (b), for a period not exceeding four months. 

(2) An authority other than a registering authority shall, when making a suspension order under  sub-section (1),intimate in writing the fact of such suspension and the reasons therefor to the registering  authority within whose jurisdiction the vehicle is at the time of the suspension. 

(3) Where the registeration of a motor vehicle has been suspended under sub-section (1), for a  continuous period of not less than one month, the registering authority, within whose jurisdiction the  vehicle was when the registration was suspended, shall, if it is not the original registering authority,  inform that authority of the suspension. 

(4) The owner of a motor vehicle shall, on the demand of a registering authority or other prescribed  authority which has suspended the certificate of registration of the vehicle under this section, surrender  the certificate of registration. 

(5) A certificate of registration surrendered under sub-section (4) shall be returned to the owner when  the order suspending registration has been rescinded and not before. 

  1. Cancellation of registration suspended under section 53.—Where the suspension of  registration of a vehicle under section 53 has continued without interruption for a period of not less than  six months, the registering authority within whose jurisdiction the vehicle was when the registration was  suspended, may, if it is the original registering authority, cancel the registration, and if it is not the  original registering authority, shall forward the certificate of registration to that authority which may  cancel the registration. 
  2. Cancellation of registration.—(1) If a motor vehicle has been destroyed or has been rendered  permanently incapable of use, the owner shall, within fourteen days or as soon as may be, report the fact  to the registering authority within whose jurisdiction he has the residence or place of business where the  vehicle is normally kept, as the case may be, and shall forward to that authority the certificate of  registration of the vehicle. 

(2) The registering authority shall, if it is the original registering authority, cancel the registration and  the certificate of registration, or, if it is not, shall forward the report and the certificate of registration to  the original registering authority and that authority shall cancel the registration.

37 

(3) Any registering authority may order the examination of a motor vehicle within its jurisdiction by  such authority as the State Government may by order appoint and, if, upon such examination and after  giving the owner an opportunity to make any representation he may wish to make (by sending to the  owner a notice by registered post acknowledgement due at his address entered in the certificate of  registration), it is satisfied that the vehicle is in such a condition that it is incapable of being used or its  use in a public place would constitute a danger to the public and that it is beyond reasonable repair, may  cancel the registration. 

(4) If a registering authority is satisfied that a motor vehicle has been permanently removed out of  India, the registering authority shall cancel the registration. 

(5) If a registering authority is satisfied that the registration of a motor vehicle has been obtained on  the basis of documents which were, or by representation of facts which was, false in any material  particular, or the engine number or the chassis number embossed thereon are different from such number  entered in the certificate of registration, the registering authority shall after giving the owner an  opportunity to make such representation as he may wish to make (by sending to the owner a notice by  registered post acknowledgement due at his address entered in the certificate of registration), and for  reasons to be recorded in writing, cancel the registration. 

1[(5A) If any registering authority or other prescribed authority has reason to believe that any motor  vehicle within its jurisdiction has been used in the commission of an offence punishable under section  199A, the authority may, after giving the owner an opportunity of making a representation in writing,  cancel the certificate of registration of the vehicle for a period of one year: 

Provided that the owner of the motor vehicle may apply for fresh registration in accordance with the  provisions of section 40 and section 41.] 

(6) A registering authority cancelling the registration of a motor vehicle under section 54 or under this  section shall communicate such fact in writing to the owner of the vehicle, and the owner of the vehicle  shall forthwith surrender to that authority the certificate of registration of the vehicle. 

(7) A registering authority making an order of cancellation under section 54 or under this section  shall, if it is the original registering authority, cancel the certificate of registration and the entry relating to  the vehicle in its records, and, if it is not the original registering authority, forward the certificate of  registration to that authority, and that authority shall cancel the certificate of registration and the entry  relating to the motor vehicle in its records. 

(8) The expression “original registering authority” in this section and in sections 41, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53  and 54 means the registering authority in whose records the registration of the vehicle is recorded. (9) In this section, “certificate of registration” includes a certificate of registration renewed under the  provisions of this Act. 

  1. Certificate of fitness of transport vehicles.—(1) Subject to the provisions of sections 59 and 60,  a transport vehicle shall not be deemed to be validly registered for the purposes of section 39, unless it  carries a certificate of fitness in such form containing such particulars and information as may be  prescribed by the Central Government, issued by the prescribed authority, or by an authorised testing  station mentioned in sub-section (2), to the effect that the vehicle complies for the time being with all the  requirements of this Act and the rules made thereunder: 

Provided that where the prescribed authority or the authorised testing station refuses is issue such  certificate, it shall supply the owner of the vehicle with its reasons in writing for such refusal. 2[Provided further that no certificate of fitness shall be granted to a vehicle, after such date as may be  notified by the Central Government, unless such vehicle has been tested at an automated testing station.] 3[(2) The “authorised testing station” referred to in sub-section (1) means any facility, including  automated testing facilities, authorised by the State Government, where fitness testing may be conducted  in accordance with the rules made by the Central Government for recognition, regulation and control of  such stations.] 

(3) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (4), a certificate of fitness shall remain effective for such  period as may be prescribed by the Central Government having regard to the objects of this Act. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 22 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Ins. by, s. 23, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  3. Subs. by s. 23, ibid., for “sub-section (2)” (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

38 

(4) The prescribed authority may for reasons to be recorded in writing cancel a certificate of fitness at  any time, if satisfied that the vehicle to which it relates no longer complies with all the requirements of  this Act and the rules made thereunder; and on such cancellation the certificate of registration of the  vehicle and any permit granted in respect of the vehicle under Chapter V shall be deemed to be suspended  until a new certificate of fitness has been obtained: 

1[Provided that no such cancellation shall be made by the prescribed authority unless, — (a) such prescribed authority holds such technical qualification as may be prescribed by the  Central Government and where the prescribed authority does not hold the technical qualification, such  cancellation is made on the basis of the report of an officer having such qualification; and (b) the reasons recorded in writing cancelling a certificate of fitness are confirmed by an  authorised testing station chosen by the owner of the vehicle whose certificate of fitness is sought to be  cancelled: 

Provided further that if the cancellation is confirmed by the authorised testing station, the cost of  undertaking the test shall be borne by the owner of the vehicle being tested and in the alternative by the  prescribed authority.] 

(5) A certificate of fitness issued under this Act shall, while it remains effective, be valid throughout  India. 

2[(6) All transport vehicles with a valid certificate of fitness issued under this section shall carry, on  their bodies, in a clear and visible manner such distinguishing mark as may be prescribed by the Central  Government. 

(7) Subject to such conditions as the Central Government may prescribe, the provisions of this section  may be extended to non-transport vehicles.] 

  1. Appeals.—3[(1) Any person aggrieved by an order of the registering authority under section  41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55 or 56 may, within thirty days of the date on which he has  received notice of such order, appeal against the order to the prescribed authority.] 

(2) The appellate authority shall give notice of the appeal to the original authority and after giving an  opportunity to the original authority and the appellant to be heard in the appeal pass such orders as it  thinks fit.  

  1. Special provisions in regard to transport vehicles.—(1) The Central Government may, having  regard to the number, nature and size of the tyres attached to the wheels of a transport vehicle, (other than  a motor cab), and its make and model and other relevant considerations, by notification in the Official  Gazette, specify, in relation to each make and model of a transport vehicle, the 4[maximum gross vehicle  weight] of such vehicle and the maximum safe axle weight of each axle of such vehicle. 

(2) A registering authority, when registering a transport vehicle, other than a motor cab shall enter in  the record of registration and shall also enter in the certificate of registration of the vehicle the following  particulars, namely:— 

(a) the unladen weight of the vehicle; 

(b) the number, nature and size of the tyres attached to each wheel; 

(c) the gross vehicle weight of the vehicle and the registered axle weights pertaining to the several  axles thereof; and 

(d) if the vehicle is used or adapted to be used for the carriage of passengers solely or in addition  to goods, the number of passengers for whom accommodation is provided, 

and the owner of the vehicle shall have the same particulars exhibited in the prescribed manner on the  vehicle. 

  

  1. The proviso subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 23, (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by s. 23, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  3. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s.17, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  4. Subs. by s. 18, ibid., for “maximum safe laden weight” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

39 

(3) There shall not be entered in the certificate of registration of any such vehicle any gross vehicle  weight or a registered axle weight of any of the axles different from that specified in the notification  under sub-section (1) in relation to the make and model of such vehicle and to the number, nature and size  of the tyres attached to its wheels: 

Provided that where it appears to the Central Government that heavier weights than those specified in  the notification under sub-section (1) may be permitted in a particular locality for vehicles of a particular  type, the Central Government may, by order in the Official Gazette direct that the provisions of this  sub-section shall apply with such modifications as may be specified in the order. 

1* * * * * 

(5) In order that the gross vehicle weight entered in the certificate of registration of a vehicle may be  revised in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3), the registering authority may require the  owner of transport vehicle in accordance with such procedure as may be prescribed to produce the  certificate of registration within such time as may be specified by the registering authority. 

  1. Power to fix the age limit of motor vehicle.—(1) The Central Government may, having regard  to the public safety, convenience and objects of this Act, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify  the life of a motor vehicle reckoned from the date of its manufacture, after the expiry of which the motor  vehicle shall not be deemed to comply with the requirements of this Act and the rules made thereunder: 

Provided that the Central Government may specify different ages for different classes or different  types of motor vehicles. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the Central Government may, having  regard to the purpose of a motor vehicle, such as, display or use for the purposes of a demonstration in  any exhibition, use for the purposes of technical research or taking part in a vintage car rally, by  notification in the Official Gazette, exempt, by a general or special order, subject to such conditions as  may be specified in such notification, any class or type of motor vehicle from the operation of  sub-section (1) for the purpose to be stated in the notification. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 56, no prescribed authority or authorised testing  station shall grant a certificate of fitness to a motor vehicle in contravention of the provisions of any  notification issued under sub-section (1). 

2[(4) The Central Government may, having regard to the public safety, convenience, protection of the  environment and the objects of this Act, make rules prescribing the manner of recycling of motor vehicles  and parts thereof which have exceeded their life.] 

  1. Registration of vehicles belonging to the Central Government.—(1) Such authority as the  Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, may register any motor vehicle  which is the property or for the time being under the exclusive control of the Central Government and is  used for Government purposes relating to the defence of the country and unconnected with any  commercial enterprise and any vehicle so registered shall not, so long as it remains the property or under  the exclusive control of the Central Government, require to be registered otherwise under this Act. 

(2) The authority registering a vehicle under sub-section (1) shall assign a registration mark in  accordance with the provisions contained in the rules made in this behalf by the Central Government and  shall issue a certificate in respect of that vehicle to the effect that such vehicle complies for the time being  with all the requirements of this Act and the rules made thereunder and that the vehicle has been 

registered under this section. 

(3) A vehicle registered under this section shall carry the certificate issued under sub-section (2). 

(4) If a vehicle registered under this section ceases to be the property or under the exclusive control of  the Central Government, the provisions of sections 39 and 40 shall thereupon apply. 

  

  1. Sub-section (4) omitted by Act 27 of 2000, s. 3 (w.e.f. 11-8-2000). 
  2. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 24 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

40 

(5) The authority registering a vehicle under sub-section (1) shall furnish to any State Government all such information regarding the general nature, overall dimensions and axle weights of the vehicle as the  State Government may at any time require. 

  1. Application of Chapter to trailers.—(1) The provisions of this Chapter shall apply to the  registration of trailers as they apply to the registration of any other motor vehicle. 

(2) The registration mark assigned to a trailer shall be displayed in such manner on the side of the  drawing vehicle, as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(3) No person shall drive a motor vehicle to which a trailer is or trailers are attached unless the  registration mark of the motor vehicle so driven is displayed on the trailer or on the last trailer in the train,  as the case may be, in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

  1. Information regarding stolen and recovered motor vehicles to be furnished by the police to the State Transport Authority.—The State Government may, if it thinks necessary or expedient so to do  in the public interest, direct the submission by the Inspector General of Police (by whatever designation  called) and such other police officers as the State Government may specify in this behalf, of such returns  containing the information regarding vehicles which have been stolen and stolen vehicles which have  been recovered of which the police are aware, to the State Transport Authority, and may prescribe the  form in which and the period within which such returns shall be made. 

1[62A. Prohibition of registration and issuance of certificate of fitness to oversized vehicles.—(1)  No registering authority shall register any motor vehicle that contravenes any rule made under clause (a)  of sub-section (1) of section 110. 

(2) No prescribed authority or authorised testing station shall issue a certificate of fitness under  section 56 to any motor vehicle that contravenes any rule made under section 110.] 

62B. National Register of Motor Vehicles. —(1) The Central Government shall maintain a National  Register of Motor Vehicles in such form and manner as may be prescribed by it: 

Provided that all State Registers of Motor Vehicles shall be subsumed under the National Register of  Motor Vehicles by such date as may be notified in the Official Gazette by the Central Government. 

(2) No certificate of registration issued, or renewed, under this Act shall be valid unless it has been  issued a unique registration number under the National Register of Motor Vehicles 

(3) In order to maintain the National Register of Motor Vehicles, all State Governments and  registering authorities under this Act shall transmit all information and data in the State Register of Motor  Vehicles to the Central Government in such form and manner as may be prescribed by the Central  Government. 

(4) State Governments shall be able to access the National Register of Motor Vehicles and update  records in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made by the Central Government  thereunder.] 

2[63. Maintenance of State Registers of Motor Vehicles.— (1) Each State Government shall  maintain in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government a register to be known as the  State Register of Motor Vehicles, in respect of the motor vehicles in that State, containing the particulars  including— 

(a) registration numbers;  

(b) years of manufacture;  

(c) classes and types;  

(d) names and addresses of registered owners; and  

(e) such other particulars as may be prescribed by the Central Government.] 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 25 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Subs. by s. 26, ibid., for section 63 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

41 

(2) Each State Government shall supply to the Central Government 1[if so desired by it] a printed  copy of the State Register of Motor Vehicles and shall also inform the Central Government without delay  of all additions to and other amendments in such register made from time to time. 

(3) The State Register of Motor Vehicles shall be maintained in such manner as may be prescribed by  the State Government. 

  1. Power of Central Government to make rules.—The Central Government may make rules to  provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) the period within which and the form in which an application shall be made and the  documents, particulars and information it shall accompany under sub-section (1) of section 41; 

(b) the form in which the certificate of registration shall be made and the particulars and  information it shall contain and the manner in which it shall be issued under sub-section (3) of  section 41; 

(c) the form and manner in which the particulars of the certificate of registration shall be entered  in the records of the registering authority under sub-section (5) of section 41; 

(d) the manner in which and the form in which the registration mark, the letters and figures and  other particulars referred to in sub-section (6) of section 41 shall be displayed and shown; 

2[(da) providing for the period of validity of a certificate of registration under sub-section (7) of  section 41;] 

(e) the period within which and the form in which the application shall be made and the  particulars and information it shall contain under sub-section (8) of section 41; 

2[(ea) the period of renewal of certificate of registration of different types of motor vehicles under  sub-section (10) of section 41;] 

(f) the form in which the application referred to in sub-section (14) of section 41 shall be made,  the particulars and information it shall contain and the fee to be charged; 

2[(fa) the issue of temporary certificate of registration and temporary registration mark under  section 43; 

(fb) the terms and conditions under which a motor vehicle sold by an authorised dealer shall not  require production before a registering authority under sub-section (1) of section 44;] 

(g) the form in which the period within which the application referred to in sub-section (1) of  section 47 shall be made and the particulars it shall contain; 

(h) the form in which and the manner in which the application for “No Objection Certificate” shall be made under sub-section (1) of section 48 and the form of receipt to be issued under  sub-section (2) of section 48; 

(i) the matters that are to be complied with by an applicant before no objection certificate may be  issued under section 48; 

(j) the form in which the intimation of change of address shall be made under sub-section (1) of  section 49 and the documents to be submitted along with the application; 

3[(ja) the form and manner for the electronic submission of the intimation of change of address,  documents to be submitted along with such intimation including proof of authentication under  sub-section (1A) of section 49;] 

(k) the form in which and the manner in which the intimation of transfer of ownership shall be  made under sub-section (1) of section 50 or under sub-section (2) of section 50 and the document to  be submitted along with the application; 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 19 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. Ins. by, s. 27, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

42 

(l) the form in which the application under sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of section 51 shall  be made; 

1[(la) specifications, conditions for approval, retrofitment and other related matters for the  alteration of motor vehicles under sub-section (1) of section 52; 

(lb) the conditions for the alteration of any motor vehicle into an adapted vehicle under  sub-section (2) of section 52;] 

(m) the form in which the certificate of fitness shall be issued under sub-section (1) of section 56  and the particulars and information it shall contain; 

(n) the period for which the certificate of fitness granted or renewed under section 56 shall be  effective; 

1[(na) the distinguishing mark to be carried on the body of transport vehicles under sub-section  (6) of section 56; 

(nb) the conditions under which the application of section 56 may be extended to non-transport  vehicles under sub-section (7) of section 56; 

(nc) the recycling of motor vehicles and parts thereof which have exceeded their life under  sub-section (4) of section 59;] 

(o) the fees to be charged for the issue or renewal or alteration of certificates of registration, for  making an entry regarding transfer of ownership on a certificate of registration, for making or  cancelling an endorsement in respect of agreement of hire-purchase or lease or hypothecation on a  certificate of registration, for certificates of fitness for registration marks, and for the examination or  inspection of motor vehicles, and the refund of such fees. 

1[(oa) all or any of the matters under sub-section (1) of section 62B; 

(ob) all or any of the matters under sub-section (1) and sub-section (2) of section 63;] (p) any other matter which is to be, or may be, prescribed by the Central Government.  

  1. Power of State Government to make rules.—(1) A State Government may make rules for the  purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Chapter other than the matters specified in  section 64. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for— 

(a) the conduct and hearing of appeals that may be preferred under this Chapter (the fees to be  paid in respect of such appeals and the refund of such fees); 

(b) the appointment, functions and jurisdiction of registering and other prescribed authorities; 

(c) the exemption of road-rollers, graders and other vehicles designed and used solely for the  construction, repair and cleaning of roads from all or any of the provisions of this Chapter and the  rules made thereunder and the conditions governing such exemption; 

(d) the issue or renewal of certificates of registration and fitness and duplicates of such  certificates to replace the certificates lost, destroyed or mutilated; 

(e) the production of certificates of registration before the registering authority for the revision of  entries therein of particulars relating to the gross vehicle weight; 

(f) the temporary registration of motor vehicles, and the issue of temporary certificate of  registration and marks 2[under the proviso to section 43]; 

(g) the manner in which the particulars referred to in sub-section (2) of section 58 and other  prescribed particulars shall be exhibited; 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 27 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Ins. by s. 28, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

43 

(h) the exemption of prescribed persons or prescribed classes of persons from payment of all or  any portion of the fees payable under this Chapter; 

(i) the forms, other than those prescribed by the Central Government, to be used for the purpose  of this Chapter; 

(j) the communication between registering authorities of particulars of certificates of registration  and by owners of vehicles registered outside the State of particulars of such vehicles and of their  registration; 

(k) the amount or amounts under sub-section (13) of section 41 or sub-section (7) of section 47 or  sub-section (4) of section 49 or sub-section (5) of section 50; 

(l) the extension of the validity of certificates of fitness pending consideration of applications for  their renewal; 

(m) the exemption from the provisions of this Chapter, and the conditions and fees for exemption,  of motor vehicles in the possession of dealers; 

(n) the form in which and the period within which the return under section 62 shall be sent; 1* * * * * (p) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed.  

CHAPTER V 

CONTROL OF TRANSPORT VEHICLES 

  1. Necessity for permits.—(1) No owner of a motor vehicle shall use or permit the use of the  vehicle as a transport vehicle in any public place whether or not such vehicle is actually carrying any  passengers or goods save in accordance with the conditions of a permit granted or countersigned by a  Regional or State Transport Authority or any prescribed authority authorising him the use of the vehicle  in that place in the manner in which the vehicle is being used: 

Provided that a stage carriage permit shall, subject to any conditions that may be specified in the  permit, authorise the use of the vehicle as a contract carriage: 

Provided further that a stage carriage permit may, subject to any conditions that may be specified in  the permit, authorise the use of the vehicle as a goods carriage either when carrying passengers or not: 

Provided also that a goods carriage permit shall, subject to any conditions that may be specified in the  permit, authorise the use of the vehicle for the carriage of goods for or in connection with a trade or  business carried on by him. 

2[Provided also that where a transport vehicle has been issued any permit or permits, as well as a  licence under this Act, such vehicle may be used either under the permit, or permits, so issued to it, or  under such licence, at the discretion of the vehicle owner.] 

(2) The holder of a goods carriage permit may use the vehicle, for the drawing of any public or semi trailer not owned by him, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed. 

3[Provided that the holder of a permit of any articulated vehicle may use the prime-mover of that  articulated vehicle for any other semi-trailor.] 

(3) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply— 

(a) to any transport vehicle owned by the Central Government or a State Government and used  for Government purposes unconnected with any commercial enterprise; 

(b) to any transport vehicle owned by a local authority or by a person acting under contract with a  local authority and used solely for road cleansing, road watering or conservancy purposes;   

  1. Clause (o) omitted by Act 32 of 2019, s. 28 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by s. 29, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  3. Added by Act 54 of 1994, s. 20 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

44 

(c) to any transport vehicle used solely for police, fire brigade or ambulance purposes; 

(d) to any transport vehicle used solely for the conveyance of corpses and the mourners  accompanying the corpses; 

(e) to any transport vehicle used for towing a disabled vehicle or for removing goods from a  disabled vehicle to a place of safety; 

(f) to any transport vehicle used for any other public purpose as may be prescribed by the State  Government in this behalf; 

(g) to any transport vehicle used by a person who manufactures or deals in motor vehicles or  builds bodies for attachment to chassis, solely for such purposes and in accordance with such  conditions as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this  behalf; 

1* * * * * (i) to any goods vehicle, the gross vehicle weight of which does not exceed 3,000 kilograms; 

(j) subject to such conditions as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official  Gazette, specify, to any transport vehicle purchased in one State and proceeding to a place, situated in  that State or in any other State, without carrying any passenger or goods; 

(k) to any transport vehicle which has been temporarily registered under section 43 while  proceeding empty to any place for the purpose of registration of the vehicle; 

2* * * * * 

(m) to any transport vehicle which, owing to flood, earthquake or any other natural calamity,  obstruction on road, or unforeseen circumstances is required to be diverted through any other route,  whether within or outside the State, with a view to enabling it to reach its destination; 

(n) to any transport vehicle used for such purposes as the Central or State Government may, by  order, specify; 

(o) to any transport vehicle which is subject to a hire-purchase, lease or hypothecation agreement  and which owing to the default of the owner has been taken possession of by or on behalf of, the  person with whom the owner has entered into such agreement, to enable such motor vehicle to reach  its destination; or 

(p) to any transport vehicle while proceeding empty to any place for purpose of repair. 

3[(q) to any transport vehicle having been issued a licence under a scheme, under sub-section (3)  of section 67 or sub-section (1) of section 88A, or plying under such orders as may be issued by the  Central Government or by the State Government.] 

(4) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3), sub-section (1) shall if the State Government by rule  made under section 96 so prescribes, apply to any motor vehicle adapted to carry more than nine persons  excluding the driver. 

4[66A. National Transportation Policy.—The Central Government may develop a National  Transportation Policy consistent with the objects of this Act in concurrence with the State Governments  and other agencies with a view to— 

(i) establish a planning framework for passengers and goods transportation within which transport  bodies are to operate; 

  

  1. Cl. (h) omitted by Act 27 of 2000, s. 4 (w.e.f. 11-8-2000). 
  2. Cl. (l) omitted by Act 39 of 2001, s. 2 (w.e.f. 27-9-2001). 
  3. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 29 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Ins. by, s. 30, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

45 

(ii) establish a medium and long term planning framework for all forms of road transport, identify  areas for the development of transport improvement infrastructure across India in consultation with  the authorities and agencies related to ports, railways and aviation as well as with local and State level  planning, land holding and regulatory authorities for the delivery of an integrated multimodal  transport system; 

(iii) establish the framework of grant of permits and schemes; 

(iv) establish strategic policy for transport by road and its role as a link to other means of  transport; 

(v) identify strategic policies and specify priorities for the transport system that address current  and future challenges; 

(vi) provide medium to long term strategic directions, priorities and actions; 

(vii) promote competition, innovation, increase in capacity, seamless mobility and greater  efficiency in transport of goods or livestock or passengers, and economical use of resources; 

(viii) safeguard the interest of the public and promote equity, while seeking to enhance private  participation and public-private partnership in the transport sector; 

(ix) demonstrate an integrated approach to transport and land use planning; 

(x) identify the challenges that the National Transportation Policy seeks to address; and (xi) address any other matter deemed relevant by the Central Government. 

66B. No bar against permit holders to apply and hold licences under schemes.—No person who  holds the permit issued under this Act shall— 

(a) be disqualified from applying for a licence under the scheme made under sub-section (3) of  section 67 or sub-section (1) of section 88A by reason of holding such permit; and 

(b) be required to get such permit cancelled on being issued a licence under any scheme made  under this Act.] 

  1. Power to State Government to control road transport.—1[(1) A State Government, having  regard to— 

(a) the advantages offered to the public, trade and industry by the development of motor  transport; 

(b) the desirability of co-ordinating road and rail transport; 

(c) the desirability of preventing the deterioration of the road system, and 

(d) promoting effective competition among the transport service providers, 

may, from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette issue directions both to the State Transport  Authority and Regional Transport Authority regarding the passengers’ convenience, economically  competitive fares, prevention of overcrowding and road safety.] 

(2) Any direction under sub-section (1) regarding the fixing of fares and freights for stage carriages,  contract carriages and goods carriages may provide that such fares or freights shall be inclusive of the tax  payable by the passengers or the consignors of the goods, as the case may be, to the operators of the stage  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019 s. 31, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

46 

carriages, contract carriages or goods carriages under any law for the time being in force relating to tax on  passengers and goods: 

1[Provided that the State Government may subject to such conditions as it may deem fit, and with a  view to achieving the objectives specified in clause (d) of sub-section (1), relax all or any of the  provisions made under this Chapter.] 

1[(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the State Government may, by notification in  the Official Gazette, modify any permit issued under this Act or make schemes for the transportation of  goods and passengers and issue licences under such scheme for the promotion of development and  efficiency in transportation— 

(a) last mile connectivity; 

(b) rural transport; 

(c) reducing traffic congestion; 

(d) improving urban transport; 

(e) safety of road users; 

(f) better utilisation of transportation assets; 

(g) the enhancement of economic vitality of the area, through competitiveness, productivity and  efficiency; 

(h) the increase in the accessibility and mobility of people; 

(i) the protection and enhancement of the environment; 

(j) the promotion of energy conservation; 

(k) improvement of the quality of life; 

(l) enhance integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes  of transport; and 

(m) such other matters as the Central Government may deem fit. 

(4) The scheme framed under sub-section (3), shall specify the fees to be charged, form of application  and grant of a licence including the renewal, suspension, cancellation or modification of such licence.] 

  1. Transport Authorities.—(1) The State Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette,  constitute for the State a State Transport Authority to exercise and discharge the powers and functions  specified in sub-section (3), and shall in like manner constitute Regional Transport Authorities to exercise  and discharge throughout such areas (in this Chapter referred to as regions) as may be specified in the  notification, in respect of each Regional Transport Authority; the powers and functions conferred by or  under this Chapter on such Authorities: 

Provided that in the Union territories, the Administrator may abstain from constituting any Regional  Transport Authority. 

(2) A State Transport Authority or a Regional Transport Authority shall consist of a Chairman who  has had judicial experience or experience as an appellate or a revisional authority or as an adjudicating  authority competent to pass any order or take any decision under any law and in the case of a State  Transport Authority, such other persons (whether officials or not), not being more than four and, in the  case of a Regional Transport Authority, such other persons (whether officials or not), not being more than  two, as the State Government may think fit to appoint; but no person who has any financial interest  whether as proprietor, employee or otherwise in any transport undertaking shall be appointed, or continue  

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 31 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

47 

to be, a member of a State or Regional Transport Authority, and, if any person being a member of any  such Authority acquires a financial interest in any transport undertaking, he shall within four weeks of so  doing, give notice in writing to the State Government of the acquisition of such interest and shall vacate  office: 

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall prevent any of the members of the State Transport  Authority or a Regional Transport Authority, as the case may be, to preside over a meeting of such  Authority during the absence of the Chairman, notwithstanding that such member does not possess  judicial experience or experience as an appellate or a revisional authority or as an adjudicating authority  competent to pass any order or take any decision under any law: 

Provided further that the State Government may,— 

(i) where it considers necessary or expedient so to do, constitute the State Transport Authority or  a Regional Transport Authority for any region so as to consist of only one member who shall be an  official with judicial experience or experience as an appellate or a revisional authority or as an  adjudicating authority competent to pass any order or take any decision under any law; 

(ii) by rules made in this behalf, provide for the transaction of business of such authorities in the  absence of the Chairman or any other member and specify the circumstances under which, and the  manner in which, such business could be so transacted: 

Provided also that nothing in this sub-section shall be construed as debarring an official (other than an  official connected directly with the management or operation of a transport undertaking) from being  appointed or continuing as a member of any such authority merely by reason of the fact that the  Government employing the official has, or acquires, any financial interest in a transport undertaking. 

(3) The State Transport Authority and every Regional Transport Authority shall give effect to any  directions issued under section 67 and the State Transport Authority shall, subject to such directions and  save as otherwise provided by or under this Act, exercise and discharge throughout the State the  following powers and functions, namely:— 

(a) to co-ordinate and regulate the activities and policies of the Regional Transport Authorities, if  any, of the State; 

(b) to perform the duties of a Regional Transport Authority where there is no such Authority and,  if it thinks fit or if so required by a Regional Transport Authority, to perform those duties in respect  of any route common to two or more regions; 

(c) to settle all disputes and decide all matters on which differences of opinion arise between  Regional Transport Authorities; and 

1[(ca) Government to formulate routes for plying stage carriages;] 

(d) to discharge such other functions as may be prescribed. 

(4) For the purpose of exercising and discharging the powers and functions specified in  sub-section (3), a State Transport Authority may, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, issue  directions to any Regional Transport Authority, and the Regional Transport Authority shall, in the  discharge of its functions under this Act, give effect to and be guided by such directions. 

(5) The State Transport Authority and any Regional Transport Authority, if authorised in this behalf  by rules made under section 96, may delegate such of its powers and functions to such authority or person  subject to such restrictions, limitations and conditions as may be prescribed by the said rules.  

  1. General provision as to applications for permits.—(1) Every application for a permit shall be  made to the Regional Transport Authority of the region in which it is proposed to use the vehicle or  vehicles: 

Provided that if it is proposed to use the vehicle or vehicles in two or more regions lying within the  same State, the application shall be made to the Regional Transport Authority of the region in which the    

  1. Ins. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 22 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

48 

major portion of the proposed route or area lies, and in case the portion of the proposed route or area in  each of the regions is approximately equal, to the Regional Transport Authority of the region in which it  is proposed to keep the vehicle or vehicles: 

Provided further that if it is proposed to use the vehicle or vehicles in two or more regions lying in  different States, the application shall be made to the Regional Transport Authority of the region in which  the applicant resides or has his principal place of business. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the State Government may, by notification  in the Official Gazette, direct that in the case of any vehicle or vehicles proposed to be used in two or  more regions lying in different States, the application under that sub-section shall be made to the State  Transport Authority of the region in which the applicant resides or has his principal place of business. 

  1. Application for stage carriage permit.—(1) An application for a permit in respect of a stage  carriage (in this Chapter referred to as a stage carriage permit) or as a reserve stage carriage shall, as far  as may be, contain the following particulars, namely:— 

(a) the route or routes or the area or areas to which the application relates; 

(b) the type and seating capacity of each such vehicle; 

(c) the minimum and maximum number of daily trips proposed to be provided and the time-table  of the normal trips. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, section 72, section 80 and section 102, “trip” means a single journey from one point to another, and every return journey shall be deemed to be a  separate trip; 

(d) the number of vehicles intended to be kept in reserve to maintain the service and to provide  for special occasions; 

(e) the arrangements intended to be made for the housing, maintenance and repair of the vehicles,  for the comfort and convenience of passengers and for the storage and safe custody of luggage; 

(f) such other matters as may be prescribed. 

(2) An application referred to in sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by such documents as may be  prescribed. 

  1. Procedure of Regional Transport Authority in considering application for stage carriage  permit.— (1) A Regional Transport Authority shall, while considering an application for a stage carriage  permit, have regard to the objects of this Act: 

1* * * * * 

(2) A Regional Transport Authority shall refuse to grant a stage carriage permit if it appears from any  time-table furnished that the provisions of this Act relating to the speed at which vehicles may be driven  are likely to be contravened: 

Provided that before such refusal an opportunity shall be given to the applicant to amend the time table so as to conform to the said provisions. 

(3) (a) The State Government shall, if so directed by the Central Government having regard to the  number of vehicles, road conditions and other relevant matters, by notification in the Official Gazette,  direct a State Transport Authority and a Regional Transport Authority to limit the number of stage  carriages generally or of any specified type, as may be fixed and specified in the notification, operating on  city routes in towns with a population of not less than five lakhs. 

(b) Where the number of stage carriages are fixed under clause (a), the Government of the State shall  reserve in the State certain percentage of stage carriage permits for the scheduled castes and the scheduled  tribes in the same ratio as in the case of appointments made by direct recruitment to public services in the  State. 

  

  1. Proviso omitted by Act 54 of 1994, s. 23 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

49 

(c) Where the number of stage carriages are fixed under clause (a), the Regional Transport Authority  shall reserve such number of permits for the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes as may be fixed by  the State Government under sub-clause (b).  

(d) After reserving such number of permits as is referred to in clause (c), the Regional Transport  Authority shall in considering an application have regard to the following matters, namely:— (i) financial stability of the applicant; 

(ii) satisfactory performance as a stage carriage operator including payment of tax if the applicant  is or has been an operator of stage carriage service; and 

(iii) such other matters as may be prescribed by the State Government: 

Provided that, other conditions being equal, preference shall be given to applications for permits  from— 

(i) State transport undertakings; 

(ii) co-operative societies registered or deemed to have been registered under any enactment for  the time being in force; 1*** 

(iii) ex-servicemen; 2[or] 

2[(iv) any other class or category of persons, as the State Government may, for reasons to be  recorded in writing consider necessary.] 

3* * * * * Explanation.—For the purposes of this section “company” means any body corporate, and includes a  firm or other association of individuals; and “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm. STATE AMENDMENT 

Kerala 

Amendment of section 71.—In section 71 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (Central Act 59 of 1988),  (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act), in sub-section (4).— 

(i) for the words “five” and “ten”, the words “ten” and “fifty” shall, respectively, be substituted; (ii) for the words “any company”, the words “any co-operative society or to any company” shall be  substituted. 

[Vide Kerala Act 12 of 1993, sec. 2.] 

  1. Grant of stage carriage permits.—(1) Subject to the provisions of section 71, a Regional  Transport Authority may, on an application made to it under section 70, grant a stage carriage permit in  accordance with the application or with such modifications as it deems fit or refuse to grant such a permit: 

Provided that no such permit shall be granted in respect of any route or area not specified in the  application. 

(2) The Regional Transport Authority, if it decides to grant a stage carriage permit, may grant the  permit for a stage carriage of a specified description and may, subject to any rules that may be made  under this Act, attach to the permit any one or more of the following conditions, namely:— 

(i) that the vehicles shall be used only in a specified area, or on a specified route or routes; (ii) that the operation of the stage carriage shall be commenced with effect from a specified date; (iii) the minimum and maximum number of daily trips to be provided in relation to any route or  area generally or on specified days and occasions; 

(iv) that copies of the time-table of the stage carriage approved by the Regional Transport  Authority shall be exhibited on the vehicles and at specified stands and halts on the route or within  the area; 

(v) that the stage carriage shall be operated within such margins of deviation from the approved  time-table as the Regional Transport Authority may from time to time specify; 

(vi) that within municipal limits and such other areas and places as may be prescribed, passengers  or goods shall not be taken up or set down except at specified points; 

  

  1. The word “or” omitted by Act 54 of 1994, s. 23 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by s. 23, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Sub-sections (4) and (5) omitted by s. 23, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

50 

(vii) the maximum number of passengers and the maximum weight of luggage that may be  carried on the stage carriage, either generally or on specified occasions or at specified times and  seasons; 

(viii) the weight and nature of passengers; luggage that shall be carried free of charge, the total  weight of luggage that may be carried in relation to each passenger, and the arrangements that shall  be made for the carriage of luggage without causing inconvenience to passengers; 

(ix) the rate of charge that may be levied for passengers’ luggage in excess of the free allowance; 

(x) that vehicles of a specified type fitted with body conforming to approved specifications shall  be used: 

Provided that the attachment of this condition to a permit shall not prevent the continued use, for  a period of two years from the date of publication of the approved specifications, of any vehicle  operating on that date; 

(xi) that specified standards of comfort and cleanliness shall be maintained in the vehicles; 

(xii) the conditions subject to which goods may be carried in the stage carriage in addition to or to  the exclusion of passengers; 

(xiii) that fares shall be charged in accordance with the approved fare table; 

(xiv) that a copy of, or extract from, the fare table approved by the Regional Transport Authority  and particulars of any special fares or rates of fares so approved for particular occasions shall be  exhibited on the stage carriage and at specified stands and halts; 

(xv) that tickets bearing specified particulars shall be issued to passengers and shall show the  fares actually charged and that records of tickets issued shall be kept in a specified manner; 

(xvi) that mails shall be carried on the vehicle subject to such conditions (including conditions as  to the time in which mails are to be carried and the charges which may be levied) as may be specified; 

(xvii) the vehicles to be kept as reserve by the holder of the permit to maintain the operation and  to provide for special occasions; 

(xviii) the conditions subject to which vehicle may be used as a contract carriage; 

(xix) that specified arrangements shall be made for the housing, maintenance and repair of  vehicle; 

(xx) that any specified bus station or shelter maintained by Government or a local authority shall  be used and that any specified rent or fee shall be paid for such use; 

(xxi) that the conditions of the permit shall not be departed from, save with the approval of the  Regional Transport Authority; 

(xxii) that the Regional Transport Authority may, after giving notice of not less than one  month,— 

(a) vary the conditions of the permit; 

(b) attach to the permit further conditions: 

Provided that the conditions specified in pursuance of clause (i) shall not be varied so as to alter  the distance covered by the original route by more than 24 kilometers, and any variation within such  limits shall be made only after the Regional Transport Authority is satisfied that such variation will  serve the convenience of the public and that it is not expedient to grant a separate permit in respect of  the original route as so varied or any part thereof; 

(xxiii) that the holder of a permit shall furnish to the Regional Transport Authority such periodical  returns, statistics and other information as the State Government may from time to time prescribe; 

(xxiv) any other conditions which may be prescribed.

51 

1[Provided that the Regional Transport Authority may waive any such condition for a stage carriage  permit operating in a rural area, as it deems fit.] 

  1. Application for contract carriage permit.—An application for a permit in respect of a contract  carriage (in this Chapter referred to as a contract carriage permit) shall contain the following particulars,  namely:— 

(a) the type and seating capacity of the vehicle; 

(b) the area for which the permit is required; 

(c) any other particulars which may be prescribed. 

  1. Grant of contract carriage permit.—(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3), a Regional  Transport Authority may, on an application made to it under section 73, grant a contract carriage permit  in accordance with the application or with such modifications as it deems fit or refuse to grant such a  permit: 

Provided that no such permit shall be granted in respect of any area not specified in the application.  

(2) The Regional Transport Authority, if it decides to grant a contract carriage permit, may, subject to  any rules that may be made under this Act, attach to the permit any one or more of the following  conditions, namely:— 

(i) that the vehicles shall be used only in a specified area or on a specified route or routes; 

(ii) that except in accordance with specified conditions, no contract of hiring, other than an  extension or modification of a subsisting contract, may be entered into outside the specified area; 

(iii) the maximum number of passengers and the maximum weight of luggage that may be carried  on the vehicles, either generally or on specified occasions or at specified times and seasons; 

(iv) the conditions subject to which goods may be carried in any contract carriage in addition to,  or to the exclusion of, passengers; 

(v) that, in the case of motor cabs, specified fares or rates of fares shall be charged and a copy of  the fare table shall be exhibited on the vehicle; 

(vi) that, in the case of vehicles other than motor cabs, specified rates of hiring not exceeding  specified maximum shall be charged; 

(vii) that, in the case of motor cabs, a special weight of passengers’ luggage shall be carried free  of charge, and that the charge, if any, for any luggage in excess thereof shall be at a specified rate; 

(viii) that, in the case of motor cabs, a taximeter shall be fitted and maintained in proper working  order, if prescribed; 

(ix) that the Regional Transport Authority may, after giving, notice of not less than one month,— (a) vary the conditions of the permit; 

(b) attach to the permit further conditions; 

(x) that the conditions of permit shall not be departed from save with the approval of the Regional  Transport Authority; 

(xi) that specified standards of comfort and cleanliness shall be maintained in the vehicles; 

(xii) that, except in the circumstances of exceptional nature, the plying of the vehicle or carrying  of the passengers shall not be refused; 

(xiii) any other conditions which may be prescribed. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 32 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

52 

1[Provided that the Regional Transport Authority may in the interests of last mile connectivity waive  any such condition in respect of any such types of vehicles as may be specified by the Central  Government.] 

(3) (a) The State Government shall, if so directed by the Central Government, having regard to the  number of vehicles, road conditions and other relevant matters, by notification in the Official Gazette,  direct a State Transport Authority and a Regional Transport Authority to limit the number of contract  carriages generally or of any specified type, as may be fixed and specified in the notification, operating on  city routes in towns with a population of not less than five lakhs. 

(b) Where the number of contract carriages are fixed under clause (a), the Regional Transport  Authority shall, in considering an application for the grant of permit in respect of any such contract  carriage, have regard to the following matters, namely:— 

(i) financial stability of the applicant; 

(ii) satisfactory performance as a contract carriage operator including payment of tax if the  applicant is or has been an operator of contract carriages; and 

(iii) such other matters as may be prescribed by the State Government: 

Provided that, other conditions being equal, preference shall be given to applications for permits  from— 

(i) the India Tourism Development Corporation; 

(ii) State Tourism Development Corporations; 

(iii) State Tourism Departments; 

(iv) State transport undertakings; 

(v) co-operative societies registered or deemed to have been registered under any enactment for  the time being in force; 

(vi) ex-servicemen; 

1[(vii) self-help groups.] 

  1. Scheme for renting of motor cabs.—(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the  Official Gazette, make a scheme for the purpose of regulating the business of renting of 2[motor cabs or  motor cycles to persons desiring to drive either by themselves or through drivers, motor cabs or motor  cycles] for their own use and for matters connected therewith. 

(2) A scheme made under sub-section (1) may provide for all or any of the following matters,  namely:— 

(a) licensing of operators under the scheme including grant, renewal and revocation of such  licences; 

(b) form of application and form of licences and the particulars to be contained therein; (c) fee to be paid with the application for such licences; 

(d) the authorities to which the application shall be made; 

(e) condition subject to which such licences may be granted, renewed or revoked; 

(f) appeals against orders of refusal to grant or renew such licences and appeals against orders  revoking such licences; 

(g) conditions subject to which motor cabs may be rented; 

(h) maintenance of records and inspection of such records; 

(i) such other matters as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section. 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 33 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 24, for “motor cabs to persons desiring to drive the cabs” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

53 

  1. Application for private service vehicle permit.—(1) A Regional Transport Authority may, on  an application made to it, grant a private service vehicle permit in accordance with the application or with  such modification as it deems fit or refuse to grant such permit: 

Provided that no such permit shall be granted in respect of any area or route not specified in the  application. 

(2) An application for a permit to use a motor vehicle as a private service vehicle shall contain the  following particulars, namely:— 

(a) type and seating capacity of the vehicle; 

(b) the area or the route or routes to which the application relates; 

(c) the manner in which it is claimed that the purpose of carrying persons otherwise than for hire  or reward or in connection with the trade or business carried on by the applicant will be served by the  vehicle; and 

(d) any other particulars which may be prescribed. 

(3) The Regional Transport Authority if it decides to grant the permit may, subject to any rules that  may be made under this Act, attach to the permit any one or more of the following conditions, namely:— 

(i) that the vehicle be used only in a specified area or on a specified route or routes; (ii) the maximum number of persons and the maximum weight of luggage that may be carried; (iii) that the Regional Transport Authority may, after giving notice of not less than one month— (a) vary the conditions of the permit; 

(b) attach to the permit further conditions; 

(iv) that the conditions of permit shall not be departed from, save with the approval of the  Regional Transport Authority; 

(v) that specified standards of comforts and cleanliness shall be maintained in the vehicle; 

(vi) that the holder of the permit shall furnish to the Regional Transport Authority such periodical  returns, statistics and other information as the State Government may, from time to time, specify; and 

(vii) such other conditions as may be prescribed. 

  1. Application for goods carriage permit.—An application for a permit to use a motor vehicle for  the carriage of goods for hire or reward or for the carriage of goods for or in connection with a trade or  business carried on by the applicant (in this Chapter referred to as a goods carriage permit) shall, as far as  may be, contain the following particulars, namely:— 

(a) the area or the route or routes to which the application relates; 

(b) the type and capacity of the vehicle; 

(c) the nature of the goods it is proposed to carry; 

(d) the arrangements intended to be made for the housing, maintenance and repair of the vehicle  and for the storage and safe custody of the goods; 

(e) such particulars as the Regional Transport Authority may require with respect to any business  as a carrier of goods for hire or reward carried on by the applicant at any time before the making of  the application, and of the rates charged by the applicant; 

(f) particulars of any agreement, or arrangement, affecting in any material respect the provision  within the region of the Regional Transport Authority of facilities for the transport of goods for hire  or reward, entered into by the applicant with any other person by whom such facilities are provided,  whether within or without the region; 

(g) any other particulars which may be prescribed.

54 

  1. Consideration of application for goods carriage permit.—A Regional Transport Authority  shall, in considering an application for a goods carriage permit, have regard to the following matters,  namely:— 

(a) the nature of the goods to be carried with special reference to their dangerous or hazardous  nature to human life; 

(b) the nature of the chemicals or explosives to be carried with special reference to the safety to  human life. 

  1. Grant of goods carriage permit.—(1) A Regional Transport Authority may, on an application  made to it under section 77, grant a goods carriage permit to be valid throughout the State or in  accordance with the application or with such modifications as it deems fit or refuse to grant such a permit: 

Provided that no such permit shall be granted in respect of any area or route not specified in the  application. 

(2) The Regional Transport Authority, if it decides to grant a goods carriage permit, may grant the  permit and may, subject to any rules that may be made under this Act, attach to the permit any one or  more of the following conditions, namely:— 

(i) that the vehicle shall be used only in a specified area or on a specified route or routes; (ii) that the gross vehicle weight of any vehicle used shall not exceed a specified maximum; (iii) that goods of a specified nature shall not be carried; 

(iv) that goods shall be carried at specified rates; 

(v) that specified arrangement shall be made for the housing, maintenance and repair of the  vehicle and the storage and safe custody of the goods carried; 

(vi) that the holder of the permit shall furnish to the Regional Transport Authority such periodical  returns, statistics and other information as the State Government may, from time to time, prescribe; 

(vii) that the Regional Transport Authority may, after giving notice of not less than one month,— (a) vary the conditions of the permit; 

(b) attach to the permit further conditions; 

(viii) that the conditions of the permit shall not be departed from, save with the approval of the  Regional Transport Authority; 

(ix) any other conditions which may be prescribed. 

(3) The conditions referred to in sub-section (2) may include conditions relating to the packaging and  carriage of goods of dangerous or hazardous nature to human life. 

  1. Procedure in applying for and granting permits.—(1) An application for a permit of any kind  may be made at any time. 

(2) A 1[Regional Transport Authority, State Transport Authority or any prescribed authority referred  to in sub-section (1) of section 66] shall not ordinarily refuse to grant an application for permit of any  kind made at any time under this Act: 

Provided that the 1[Regional Transport Authority, State Transport Authority or any prescribed  authority referred to in sub-section (1) of section 66] may summarily refuse the application if the grant of  any permit in accordance with the application would have the effect of increasing the number of stage  carriages as fixed and specified in a notification in the Official Gazette under clause (a) of sub-section (3)  of section 71 or of contract carriages as fixed and specified in a notification in the Official Gazette under  clause (a) of sub-section (3) of section 74: 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 25, for “Regional Transport Authority” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

55 

Provided further that where a 1[Regional Transport Authority, State Transport Authority or any  prescribed authority referred to in sub-section (1) of section 66] refuses an application for the grant of a  permit of any kind under this Act, it shall give to the applicant in writing its reasons for the refusal of the  same and an opportunity of being heard in the matter. 

(3) An application to vary the conditions of any permit, other than a temporary permit, by the  inclusion of a new route or routes of a new area or by altering the route or routes or area covered by it, or  in the case of a stage carriage permit by increasing the number of trips above the specified maximum or  by the variation, extension or curtailment of the route or routes or the area specified in the permit shall be  treated as an application for the grant of a new permit: 

Provided that it shall not be necessary so to treat an application made by the holder of stage carriage  permit who provides the only service on any route to increase the frequency of the service so provided  without any increase in the number of vehicles:  

Provided further that,— 

(i) in the case of variation, the termini shall not be altered and the distance covered by the  variation shall not exceed twenty-four kilometres; 

(ii) in the case of extension, the distance covered by extension shall not exceed twenty-four  kilometres from the termini, 

and any such variation or extension within such limits shall be made only after the transport authority is  satisfied that such variation will serve the convenience of the public and that it is not expedient to grant a  separate permit in respect of the original route as so varied or extended or any part thereof. 

(4) A 1[Regional Transport Authority, State Transport Authority or any prescribed authority referred  to in sub-section (1) of section 66] may, before such date as may be specified by it in this behalf, replace  any permit granted by it before the said date by a fresh permit conforming to the provisions of section 72  or section 74 or section 76 or section 79, as the case may be, and the fresh permit shall be valid for the  same route or routes or the same area for which the replaced permit was valid: 

Provided that no condition other than a condition which was already attached to the replaced permit  or which could have been attached thereto under the law in force when that permit was granted shall be  attached to the fresh permit except with the consent in writing of the holder of the permit. 

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 81, a permit issued under the provisions of  sub-section (4) shall be effective without renewal for the remainder of the period during which the  replaced permit would have been so effective. 

  1. Duration and renewal of permits.—(1) A permit other than a temporary permit issued under  section 87 or a special permit issued under sub-section (8) of section 88 shall be effective 2[from the date  of issuance or renewal thereof] for a period of five years: 

Provided that where the permit is countersigned under sub-section (1) of section 88, such  countersignature shall remain effective without renewal for such period so as to synchronise with the  validity of the primary permit. 

(2) A permit may be renewed on an application made not less than fifteen days before the date of its  expiry. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Regional Transport Authority or the  State Transport Authority, as the case may be, may entertain an application for the renewal of a permit  after the last date specified in that sub-section if it is satisfied that the applicant was prevented by good  and sufficient cause from making an application within the time specified. 

(4) The Regional Transport Authority or the State Transport Authority, as the case may be, may reject  an application for the renewal of a permit on one or more of the following grounds, namely:— 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 25, for “Regional Transport Authority” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by s. 26, ibid., for “without renewal” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

56 

(a) the financial condition of the applicant as evidenced by insolvency, or decrees for payment of  debts remaining unsatisfied for a period of thirty days, prior to the date of consideration of the  application; 

(b) the applicant had been punished twice or more for any of the following offences within twelve  months reckoned from fifteen days prior to the date of consideration of the application committed as a  result of the operation of a stage carriage service by the applicant, namely:— 

(i) plying any vehicle— 

(1) without payment of tax due on such vehicle; 

(2) without payment of tax during the grace period allowed for payment of such tax and  then stop the plying of such vehicle; 

(3) on any unauthorised route; 

(ii) making unauthorised trips: 

Provided that in computing the number of punishments for the purpose of clause (b), any punishment  stayed by the order of an appellate authority shall not be taken into account: 

Provided further that no application under this sub-section shall be rejected unless an opportunity of  being heard is given to the applicant. 

(5) Where a permit has been renewed under this section after the expiry of the period thereof, such  renewal shall have effect from the date of such expiry irrespective of whether or not a temporary permit  has been granted under clause (d) of section 87, and where a temporary permit has been granted, the fee  paid in respect of such temporary permit shall be refunded. 

  1. Transfer of permit.—(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), a permit shall not be transferable  from one person to another except with the permission of the transport authority which granted the permit  and shall not, without such permission, operate to confer on any person to whom a vehicle covered by the  permit is transferred any right to use that vehicle in the manner authorised by the permit. 

(2) Where the holder of a permit dies, the person succeeding to the possession of the vehicle covered  by the permit may, for a period of three months, use the permit as if it had been granted to himself: 

Provided that such person has, within thirty days of the death of the holder, informed the transport  authority which granted the permit of the death of the holder and of his own intention to use the permit: 

Provided further that no permit shall be so used after the date on which it would have ceased to be  effective without renewal in the hands of the deceased holder. 

(3) The transport authority may, on application made to it within three months of the death of the  holder of a permit, transfer the permit to the person succeeding to the possession of the vehicles covered  by the permit: 

Provided that the transport authority may entertain an application made after the expiry of the said  period of three months if it is satisfied that the applicant was prevented by good and sufficient cause from  making an application within the time specified. 

  1. Replacement of vehicles.—The holder of a permit may, with the permission of the authority by  which the permit was granted, replace any vehicle covered by the permit by any other vehicle of the same  nature. 
  2. General conditions attaching to all permits.—The following shall be conditions of every  permit— 

(a) that the vehicle to which the permit relates carries valid certificate of fitness issued under  section 56 and is at all times so maintained as to comply with the requirements of this Act and the  rules made thereunder; 

(b) that the vehicle to which the permit relates is not driven at a speed exceeding the speed  permitted under this Act;

57 

(c) that any prohibition or restriction imposed and any fares or freight fixed by notification made  under section 67 are observed in connection with the vehicle to which the permit relates; 

(d) that the vehicle to which the permit relates is not driven in contravention of the provisions of  section 5 or section 113; 

(e) that the provisions of this Act limiting the hours of work of drivers are observed in connection  with any vehicle or vehicles to which the permit relates; 

(f) that the provisions of Chapters X, XI and XII so far as they apply to the holder of the permit  are observed; and 

(g) that the name and address of the operator shall be painted or otherwise firmly affixed to every  vehicle to which the permit relates on the exterior of the body of that vehicle on both sides thereof in  a colour or colours vividly contrasting to the colour of the vehicle centered as high as practicable  below the window line in bold letters. 

  1. General form of permits.—Every permit issued under this Act shall be complete in itself and  shall contain all the necessary particulars of the permit and the conditions attached thereto. 
  2. Cancellation and suspension of permits.—(1) The transport authority which granted a permit  may cancel the permit or may suspend it for such period as it thinks fit— 

(a) on the breach of any condition specified in section 84 or of any condition contained in the  permit, or  

(b) if the holder of the permit uses or causes or allows a vehicle to be used in any manner not  authorised by the permit, or 

(c) if the holder of the permit ceases to own the vehicle covered by the permit, or (d) if the holder of the permit has obtained the permit by fraud or misrepresentation, or 

(e) if the holder of the goods carriage permit, fails without reasonable cause, to use the vehicle for  the purposes for which the permit was granted, or 

(f) if the holder of the permit acquires the citizenship of any foreign country: 

Provided that no permit shall be suspended or cancelled unless an opportunity has been given to the  holder of the permit to furnish his explanation. 

(2) The transport authority may exercise the powers conferred on it under sub-section (1) in relation  to a permit granted by any authority or person to whom power in this behalf has been delegated under  sub-section (5) of section 68 as if the said permit was a permit granted by the transport authority. 

(3) Where a transport authority cancels or suspends a permit, it shall give to the holder in writing its  reasons for the action taken. 

(4) The powers exercisable under sub-section (1) (other than the power to cancel a permit) by the  transport authority which granted the permit may be exercised by any authority or person to whom such  powers have been delegated under sub-section (5) of section 68. 

(5) Where a permit is liable to be cancelled or suspended under clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (e)  of sub-section (1) and the transport authority is of opinion that having regard to the circumstances of the  case, it would not be necessary or expedient so to cancel or suspend the permit if the holder of the permit  agrees to pay a certain sum of money, then, notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the  transport authority may, instead of cancelling or suspending the permit, as the case may be, recover from  the holder of the permit the sum of money agreed upon. 

(6) The powers exercisable by the transport authority under sub-section (5) may, where an appeal has  been preferred under section 89, be exercised also by the appellate authority. 

(7) In relation to a permit referred to in sub-section (9) of section 88, the powers exercisable under  sub-section (1) (other than the power to cancel a permit) by the transport authority which granted the  permit, may be exercised by any transport authority and any authority or persons to whom power in this 

58 

behalf has been delegated under sub-section (5) of section 68, as if the said permit was a permit granted  by any such authority or persons. 

  1. Temporary permits.—(1) A Regional Transport Authority and the State Transport Authority  may without following the procedure laid down in section 80, grant permits, to be effective for a limited  period which shall, not in any case exceed four months, to authorise the use of a transport vehicle  temporarily— 

(a) for the conveyance of passengers on special occasions such as to and from fairs and religious  gatherings, or  

(b) for the purposes of a seasonal business, or 

(c) to meet a particular temporary need, or 

(d) pending decision on an application for the renewal of a permit,  

and may attach to any such permit such condition as it may think fit: 

Provided that a Regional Transport Authority or, as the case may be, State Transport Authority may,  in the case of goods carriages, under the circumstances of an exceptional nature, and for reasons to be  recorded in writing, grant a permit for a period exceeding four months, but not exceeding one year. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a temporary permit may be granted  thereunder in respect of any route or area where— 

(i) no permit could be issued under section 72 or section 74 or section 76 or section 79 in respect  of that route or area by reason of an order of a court or other competent authority restraining the issue  of the same, for a period not exceeding the period for which the issue of the permit has been so  restrained; or 

(ii) as a result of the suspension by a court or other competent authority of the permit of any  vehicle in respect of that route or area, there is no transport vehicle of the same class with a valid  permit in respect of that route or area, or there is no adequate number of such vehicles in respect of  that route or area, for a period not exceeding the period of such suspension: 

Provided that the number of transport vehicles in respect of which temporary permits are so granted  shall not exceed the number of vehicles in respect of which the issue of the permits have been restrained  or, as the case may be, the permit has been suspended. 

  1. Validation of permits for use outside region in which granted.—(1) Except as may be  otherwise prescribed, a permit granted by the Regional Transport Authority of any one region shall not be  valid in any other region, unless the permit has been countersigned by the Regional Transport Authority  of that other rigion, and a permit granted in any one State shall not be valid in any other State unless  countersigned by the State Transport Authority of that other State or by the Regional Transport Authority  concerned: 

Provided that a goods carriage permit, granted by the Regional Transport Authority of any one  region, for any area in any other region or regions within the same State shall be valid in that area without  the countersignature of the Regional Transport Authority of the other region or of each of the other  regions concerned: 

Provided further that where both the starting point and the terminal point of a route are situate within  the same State, but part of such route lies in any other State and the length of such part does not exceed  sixteen kilometres, the permit shall be valid in the other State in respect of that part of the route which is  in that other State notwithstanding that such permit has not been countersigned by the State Transport  Authority or the Regional Transport Authority of that other State: 

Provided also that— 

(a) where a motor vehicle covered by a permit granted in one State is to be used for the purposes  of defence in any other State, such vehicle shall display a certificate, in such form, and issued by such  Authority, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, to the 

59 

effect that the vehicle shall be used for the period specified therein exclusively for the purposes of  defence; and 

(b) any such permit shall be valid in that other State notwithstanding that such permit has not  been countersigned by the State Transport Authority or the Regional Transport Authority of that other  State. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a permit granted or countersigned by a  State Transport Authority shall be valid in the whole State or in such regions within the State as may be  specified in the permit. 

(3) A Regional Transport Authority when countersigning the permit may attach to the permit any  condition which it might have imposed if it had granted the permit and may likewise vary any condition  attached to the permit by the authority by which the permit was granted. 

(4) The provisions of this Chapter relating to the grant, revocation and suspension of permits shall  apply to the grant, revocation and suspension of countersignatures of permits: 

Provided that it shall not be necessary to follow the procedure laid down in section 80 for the grant of  countersignatures of permits, where the permits granted in any one State are required to be countersigned  by the State Transport Authority of another State or by the Regional Transport Authority concerned as a  result of any agreement arrived at between the States after complying with the requirements of  sub-section (5). 

(5) Every proposal to enter into an agreement between the States to fix the number of permits which  is proposed to be granted or countersigned in respect of each route or area, shall be published by each of  the State Governments concerned in the Official Gazette and in any one or more of the newspapers in  regional language circulating in the area or route proposed to be covered by the agreement together with a  notice of the date before which representations in connection therewith may be submitted, and the date  not being less than thirty days from the date of publication in the Official Gazette, on which, and the  authority by which, and the time and place at which, the proposal and any representation received in  connection therewith will be considered. 

(6) Every agreement arrived at between the States shall, in so far as it relates to the grant of  countersignature of permits, be published by each of the State Governments concerned in the Official  Gazette and in any one or more of the newspapers in the regional language circulating in the area or route  covered by the agreement and the State Transport Authority of the State and the Regional Transport  Authority concerned shall give effect to it. 

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a Regional Transport Authority of one  region may issue a temporary permit under section 87 to be valid in another region or State with the  concurrence, given generally or for the particular occasion, of the Regional Transport Authority of that  other region or of the State Transport Authority of that other State, as the case may be. 

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), but subject to any rules that may be made  under this Act by the Central Government, the Regional Transport Authority of any one region or, as the  case may be, the State Transport Authority, may, for the convenience of the public, 1[grant a special  permit to any public service vehicle including any vehicle covered] by a permit issued under section 72  (including a reserve stage carriage) or under section 74 or under sub-section (9) of this section for  carrying a passenger or passengers for hire or reward under a contract, express or implied, for the use of  the vehicle as a whole without stopping to pick up or set down along the line of route passengers not  included in the contract, and in every case where such special permit is granted, the Regional Transport  Authority shall assign to the vehicle, for display thereon, a special distinguishing mark in the form and  manner specified by the Central Government and such special permit shall be valid in any other region or  State without the countersignature of the Regional Transport Authority of the other region or of the State  Transport Authority of the other State, as the case may be. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 27, for “grant a special permit in relation to a vehicle covered” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

60 

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) but subject to any rules that may be made  by the Central Government under sub-section (14), any State Transport Authority may, for the purpose of  promoting tourism, grant permits in respect of tourist vehicles valid for the whole of India, or in such  contiguous States not being less than three in number including the State in which the permit is issued as  may be specified in such permit in accordance with the choice indicated in the application and the  provisions of sections 73, 74, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 861[clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 87 and  section 89] shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to such permits. 

2* * * * * (11) The following shall be conditions of every permit granted under sub-section (9), namely:— 

(i) every motor vehicle in respect of which such permit is granted shall conform to such  description, requirement regarding the seating capacity, standards of comforts, amenities and other  matters, as the Central Government may specify in this behalf; 

(ii) every such motor vehicle shall be driven by a person having such qualifications and satisfying  such conditions as may be specified by the Central Government; and 

(iii) such other conditions as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 

(12) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), but, subject to the rules that may be made  by the Central Government under sub-section (14), the appropriate authority may, for the purpose of  encouraging long distance inter-State road transport, grant in a State, national permits in respect of goods  carriages and the provisions of sections 69, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86 1[clause (d) of  sub-section (1) of section 87 and section 89] shall, as far as may be, apply to or in relation to the grant of  national permits. 

3* * * * * (14) (a) The Central Government may make rules for carrying out the provisions of this section.  

(b) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may  provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(i) the authorisation fee payable for the issue of a permit referred to in sub-sections (9) and (12); (ii) the fixation of the laden weight of the motor vehicle; 

(iii) the distinguishing particulars or marks to be carried or exhibited in or on the motor vehicle; (iv) the colour or colours in which the motor vehicle is to be painted; 

(v) such other matters as the appropriate authority shall consider in granting a national permit. Explanation.—In this section,— 

(a) “appropriate authority”, in relation to a national permit, means the authority which is  authorised under this Act to grant a goods carriage permit; 

(b) “authorisation fee” means the annual fee, not exceeding one thousand rupees, which may be  charged by the appropriate authority of a State to enable a motor vehicle, covered by the permit  referred to in sub-sections (9) and (12) to be used in other States subject to the payment of taxes or  fees, if any, levied by the States concerned; 

(c) “national permit” means a permit granted by the appropriate authority to goods carriages to  operate throughout the territory of India or in such contiguous States, not being less than four in  number, including the State in which the permit is issued as may be specified in such permit in  accordance with the choice indicated in the application. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 27 for “and 89” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Sub-section (10) omitted by s. 27, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Sub-section (13) omitted by s. 27, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

61 

1[88A. Power of Central Government to make schemes for national, multimodal and inter-State  transport of passengers and goods.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the Central  Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, modify any permit issued under this Act or  make schemes for national, multimodal and inter-State transportation of goods or passengers, and issue or  modify licences under, such scheme for the following purposes, namely:— 

(a) last mile connectivity; 

(b) rural transport; 

(c) improving the movement of freight, and logistics; 

(d) better utilisation of transportation assets; 

(e) the enhancement to the economic vitality of the area, especially by enabling competitiveness,  productivity and efficiency; 

(f) the increase in the accessibility and mobility of people; 

(g) the protection and enhancement of the environment; 

(h) the promotion of energy conservation; 

(i) improvement of the quality of life; 

(j) enhancement of the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and  between modes of transport; and 

(k) such other matters as the Central Government may deem fit: 

Provided that the Central Government may, before taking any action under this sub-section seek  concurrence of the State Governments. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), two or more States may make schemes for  the operation within such States for the inter-State transportation of goods or passengers: 

Provided that in the event of any repugnancy between the schemes made by the Central Government  under sub-section (1) and schemes made by two or more States under this sub-section, the schemes made  under sub-section (1) shall prevail.] 

  1. Appeals.—(1) Any person— 

(a) aggrieved by the refusal of the State or a Regional Transport Authority to grant a permit, or by  any condition attached to a permit granted to him, or 

(b) aggrieved by the revocation or suspension of the permit or by any variation of the conditions  thereof, or 

(c) aggrieved by the refusal to transfer the permit under section 82, or 

(d) aggrieved by the refusal of the State or a Regional Transport Authority to countersign a  permit, or by any condition attached to such countersignature, or 

(e) aggrieved by the refusal of renewal of a permit, or  

(f) aggrieved by the refusal to grant permission under section 83, or 

(g) aggrieved by any other order which may be prescribed,  

may, within the prescribed time and in the prescribed manner, appeal to the State Transport Appellate  Tribunal constituted under sub-section (2), who shall, after giving such person and the original authority  an opportunity of being heard, give a decision thereon which shall be final. 

2[(2) The State Government shall constitute such number of Transport Appellate Tribunals as  it thinks fit and each such Tribunal shall consist of a judicial officer who is not below the rank of a    

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 34 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 28, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

62 

District Judge or who is qualified to be a Judge of the High Court and it shall exercise jurisdiction  within such area as may be notified by that Government.] 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), every appeal pending at  the commencement of this Act, shall continue to be proceeded with and disposed of as if this Act had not  been passed. 

Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that when any order is made by the  State Transport Authority or the Regional Transport Authority in pursuance of a direction issued by the  Inter-State Transport Commission under clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 63A of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939 (4 of 1939),as it stood immediately before the commencement of this Act, and any  person feels aggrieved by such order on the ground that it is not in consonance with such direction, he  may appeal under sub-section (1) to the State Transport Appellate Tribunal against such order but not  against the direction so issued. 

  1. Revision.—The State Transport Appellate Tribunal may, on an application made to it, call for the  record of any case in which an order has been made by a State Transport Authority or Regional Transport  Authority against which no appeal lies, and if it appears to the State Transport Authority Appellate  Tribunal that the order made by the State Transport Authority or Regional Transport Authority is  improper or illegal, the State Transport Appellate Tribunal may pass such order in relation to the case as it  deems fit and every such order shall be final: 

Provided that the State Transport Appellate Tribunal shall not entertain any application from a person  aggrieved by an order of a State Transport Authority or Regional Transport Authority, unless the  application is made within thirty days from the date of the order: 

Provided further that the State Transport Appellate Tribunal may entertain the application after the  expiry of the said period of thirty days, if it is satisfied that the applicant was prevented by good and  sufficient cause from making the application in time: 

Provided also that the State Transport Appellate Tribunal shall not pass an order under this section  prejudicial to any person without giving him a reasonable opportunity of being heard. 

  1. Restriction of hours of work of drivers.—1[(1) The hours of work of any person engaged for  operating a transport vehicle shall be such as provided in the Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961  (27 of 1961).] 

(2) A State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, grant such exemptions from the  provisions of sub-section (1) as it thinks fit, to meet cases of emergency or of delays by reason of  circumstances which could not be foreseen. 

(3) A State Government or, if authorised in this behalf by the State Government by rules made under  section 96, the State or a Regional Transport Authority may require persons employing any person whose  work is subject to any of the provisions of sub-section (1) to fix beforehand the hours of work of such  persons so as to conform to those provisions, and may provide for the recording of the hours so fixed. 

(4) No person shall work or shall cause or allow any other person to work outside the hours fixed or  recorded for the work of such persons under sub-section (3). 

(5) A State Government may prescribe the circumstances under which and the period during which  the driver of a vehicle although not engaged in work is required to remain on or near the vehicle may be  deemed to be an interval for rest within the meaning of sub-section (1).  

  1. Voidance of contracts restrictive of liability.—Any contract for the conveyance of a passenger  in a 2[transport vehicle, in respect of which a permit or licence] has been issued under this Chapter, shall,  so far as it purports to negative or restrict the liability of any person in respect of any claim made against  that person in respect of the death of, or bodily injury to, the passenger while being carried in, entering or  

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 29, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 35, for “stage carriage or contract carriage, in respect of which a permit” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

63 

alighting from the vehicle, or purports to impose any conditions with respect to the enforcement of any  such liability, be void. 

  1. 1[Agent or canvasser or aggregator to obtain licence.]— (1) No person shall engage himself— 

(i) as an agent or a canvasser, in the sale of tickets for travel by public service vehicles or in  otherwise soliciting custom for such vehicles, or 

(ii) as an agent in the business of collecting, forwarding or distributing goods carried by goods  carriages,  

2[(iii) as an aggregator,] 

unless he has obtained a licence from such authority and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed  by the State Government. 

2[Provided that while issuing the licence to an aggregator the State Government may follow such  guidelines as may be issued by the Central Government:  

Provided further that every aggregator shall comply with the provisions of the Information  Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000) and the rules and regulations made thereunder.] 

(2) The conditions referred to in sub-section (1) may include all or any of the following matters,  namely:— 

(a) the period for which a licence may be granted or renewed; 

(b) the fee payable for the issue or renewal of the licence; 

(c) the deposit of security— 

(i) of a sum not exceeding rupees fifty thousand in the case of an agent in the business of  collecting, forwarding or distributing goods carried by goods carriages; 

(ii) of a sum not exceeding rupees five thousand in the case of any other agent or canvasser,  and the circumstances under which the security may be forfeited; 

(d) the provision by the agent of insurance of goods in transit; 

(e) the authority by which and the circumstances under which the licence may be suspended or  revoked; 

(f) such other conditions as may be prescribed by the State Government. 

(3) It shall be a condition of every licence that no agent or canvasser to whom the licence is granted  shall advertise in any newspaper, book, list, classified directory or other publication unless there is  contained in such advertisement appearing in such newspapers, book, list, classified directory or other  publication the licence number, the date of expiry of licence and the particulars of the authority which  granted the licence. 

  1. Bar on jurisdiction of Civil Courts.—No Civil Court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any  question relating to the grant of a permit 3[or licence issued under any scheme] under this Act, and no  injunction in respect of any action taken or to be taken by the duly constituted authorities under this Act  with regard to the grant of a permit 3[or licence issued under any scheme], shall be entertained by any  Civil Court. 
  2. Power of State Government to make rules as to stage carriages and contract carriages.—(1)  A State Government may make rules to regulate, in respect of stage carriages and contract carriages and  the conduct of passengers in such vehicles. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, such rules may— 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 36, for the marginal heading “Agent or canvasser to obtain licence” (w.e.f. 27-11-2020). 2. Ins. by s. 36, ibid., (w.e.f. 27-11-2020). 
  2. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 37 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

64 

(a) authorise the removal from such vehicle of any person contravening the rules by the driver or  conductor of the vehicle, or, on the request of the driver or conductor, or any passenger, by any police  officer; 

(b) require a passenger who is reasonably suspected by the driver or conductor of contravening  the rules to give his name and address to a police officer or to the driver or conductor on demand; 

(c) require a passenger to declare, if so demanded by the driver or conductor, the journey he  intends to take or has taken in the vehicle and to pay the fare for the whole of such journey and to  accept any ticket issued therefor; 

(d) require, on demand being made for the purpose by the driver or conductor or other person  authorised by the owners of the vehicle, production during the journey and surrender at the end of the  journey by the holder thereof of any ticket issued to him; 

(e) require a passenger, if so requested by the driver or conductor, to leave the vehicle on the  completion of the journey the fare for which he has paid; 

(f) require the surrender by the holder thereof on the expiry of the period for which it is issued of  a ticket issued to him; 

(g) require a passenger to abstain from doing anything which is likely to obstruct or interfere with  the working of the vehicle or to cause damage to any part of the vehicle or its equipment or to cause  injury or discomfort to any other passenger; 

(h) require a passenger not to smoke in any vehicle on which a notice prohibiting smoking is  exhibited; 

(i) require the maintenance of complaint books in stage carriages and prescribe the conditions  under which passengers can record any complaints in the same. 

  1. Power of State Government to make rules for the purposes of this Chapter.—(1) A State  Government may make rules for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Chapter. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, rules under this section may be made  with respect to all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(i) the period of appointment and the terms of appointment of and the conduct of business by  Regional and State Transport Authorities and the reports to be furnished by them; 

(ii) the conduct of business by any such authority in the absence of any member (including the  Chairman) thereof and the nature of business which, the circumstances under which and the manner  in which, business could be so conducted; 

(iii) the conduct and hearing of appeals that may be preferred under this Chapter, the fees to be  paid in respect of such appeals and the refund of such fees; 

(iv) the forms to be used for the purposes of this Chapter, including the forms of permits; (v) the issue of copies of permits in place of permits lost, destroyed or multilated; 

(vi) the documents, plates and marks to be carried by transport vehicles, the manner in which they  are to be carried and the languages in which any such documents are to be expressed; 

(vii) the fees to be paid in respect of applications for permits, duplicate permits and plates; 

(viii) the exemption of prescribed persons or prescribed classes of persons from payment of all or  any or any portion of the fees payable under this Chapter; 

(ix) the custody, production and cancellation on revocation or expiration of permits, and the  return of permits which have been cancelled; 

(x) the conditions subject to which, and the extent to which, a permit granted in another State  shall be valid in the State without countersignature;

65 

(xi) the conditions subject to which, and the extent to which, a permit granted in one region shall  be valid in another region within the State without countersignature; 

(xii) the conditions to be attached to permits for the purpose of giving effect to any agreement  such as is referred to in clause (iii) of sub-section (1) of section 67; 

(xiii) the authorities to whom, the time within which and the manner in which appeals may be  made; 

(xiv) the construction and fittings of, and the equipment to be carried by, stage and contract  carriage, whether generally or in specified areas; 

(xv) the determination of the number of passengers a stage or contract carriage is adapted to carry  and the number which may be carried; 

(xvi) the conditions subject to which goods may be carried on stage and contract carriages partly  or wholly in lieu of passengers; 

(xvii) the safe custody and disposal of property left in a stage or contract carriage; 

(xviii) regulating the painting or marking of transport vehicles and the display of advertising  matter thereon, and in particular prohibiting the painting or marking of transport vehicles in such  colour or manner as to induce any person to believe that the vehicle is used for the transport of mails; 

(xix) the conveyance in stage or contract carriages of corpses or persons suffering from any  infectious or contagious disease or goods likely to cause discomfort or injury to passengers and the  inspection and disinfection of such carriage; if used for such purposes; 

(xx) the provision of taxi meters on motor cabs requiring approval or standard types of taxi meters  to be used and examining testing and sealing taxi meters; 

(xxi) prohibiting the picking up or setting down of passengers by stage or contract carriages at  specified places or in specified areas or at places other than duly notified stands or halting places and  requiring the driver of a stage carriage to stop and remain stationary for a reasonable time when so  required by a passenger desiring to board or alight from the vehicle at a notified halting place; 

(xxii) the requirements which shall be complied with in the construction or use of any duly  notified stand or halting place, including the provision of adequate equipment and facilities for the  convenience of all users thereof; the fees, if any, which may be charged for the use of such facilities,  the records which shall be maintained at such stands or places, the staff to be employed thereat, and  the duties and conduct of such staff, and generally for maintaining such stands and places in a  serviceable and clean condition; 

(xxiii) the regulation of motor cab ranks; 

(xxiv) requiring the owners of transport vehicles to notify any change of address or to report the  failure of or damage to any vehicle used for the conveyance of passengers for hire or reward; 

(xxv) authorising specified persons to enter at all reasonable times and inspect all premises used  by permit holders for the purposes of their business; 

(xxvi) requiring the person in charge of a stage carriage to carry any person tendering the legal or  customary fare; 

(xxvii) the conditions under which and the types of containers or vehicles in which animals or  birds may be carried and the seasons during which animals or birds may or may not be carried; 

(xxviii) the licensing of and the regulation of the conduct of agents or canvassers who engage in  the sale of tickets for travel by public service vehicles or otherwise solicit custom for such vehicles; 

(xxix) the licensing of agents engaged in the business of collecting for forwarding and distributing  goods carried by goods carriages; 

(xxx) the inspection of transport vehicles and their contents and of the permits relating to them; (xxxi) the carriage of persons other than the driver in goods carriages;

66 

(xxxii) the records to be maintained and the returns to be furnished by the owners of transport  vehicles; and 

1[(xxxiia) framing of schemes under sub-section (3) of section 67; 

(xxxiib) the promotion of effective competition, passenger convenience and safety, competitive  fares and prevention of overcrowding;] 

(xxxiii) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed. 

CHAPTER VI 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO STATE TRANSPORT UNDERTAKINGS 

  1. Definition.—In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, “road transport service” means a service of motor vehicles carrying passengers or goods or both by road for hire or reward. 
  2. Chapter to override Chapter V and other laws.—The provisions of this Chapter and the rules  and orders made thereunder shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained  in Chapter V or in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument having effect by virtue of  any such law. 
  3. Preparation and publication of proposal regarding road transport service of a State  transport undertaking.2[(1)] Where any State Government is of opinion that for the purpose of  providing an efficient, adequate, economical and properly co-ordinated road transport service, it is  necessary in the public interest that road transport services in general or any particular class of such  service in relation to any area or route or portion thereof should be run and operated by the State transport  undertaking, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of other persons or otherwise, the State  Government may formulate a proposal regarding a scheme giving particulars of the nature of the services  proposed to be rendered, the area or route proposed to be covered and other relevant particulars respecting  thereto and shall publish such proposal in the Official Gazette of the State formulating such proposal and  in not less than one newspaper in the regional language circulating in the area or route proposed to be  covered by such scheme and also in such other manner as the State Government formulating such  proposal deem fit. 

3[(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), when a proposal is published under that  sub-section, then from the date of publication of such proposal, no permit shall be granted to any person,  except a temporary permit during the pendency of the proposal and such temporary permit shall be valid  only for a period of one year from the date of its issue of till the date of final publication of the scheme 

under section 100, whichever is earlier.] 

  1. Objection to the proposal.—(1) On the publication of any proposal regarding a scheme in the  Official Gazette and in not less than one newspaper in the regional language circulating in the area or  route which is to be covered by such proposal any person may, within thirty days from the date of its  publication in the Official Gazette, file objections to it before the State Government. 

(2) The State Government may, after considering the objections and after giving an opportunity to the  objector or his representatives and the representatives of the State transport undertaking to be heard in the  matter, if they so desire, approve or modify such proposal. 

(3) The scheme relating to the proposal as approved or modified under sub-section (2) shall then be  published in the Official Gazette by the State Government making such scheme and in not less than one  newspaper in the regional language circulating in the area or route covered by such scheme and the same  shall thereupon become final on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette and shall be called the  approved scheme and the area or route to which it relates shall be called the notified area or notified  route: 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 38 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Section 99 renumbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act of 54 of 1994, s. 30 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 3. Ins. by s. 30, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

67 

Provided that no such scheme which relates to any inter-State route shall be deemed to be an  approved scheme unless it has the previous approval of the Central Government. 

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, where a scheme is not published as an  approved scheme under sub-section (3) in the Official Gazette within a period of one year from the date  of publication of the proposal regarding the scheme in the Official Gazette under sub-section (1), the  proposal shall be deemed to have lapsed. 

Explanation.—In computing the period of one year referred to in this sub-section, any period or  periods during which the publication of the approved scheme under sub-section (3) was held up on  account of any stay or injunction by the order of any court shall be excluded. 

  1. Operation of additional services by a State transport undertaking in certain  circumstances.—Notwithstanding anything contained in section 87, a State transport undertaking may, in  the public interest operate additional services for the conveyance of the passengers on special occasions  such as to and from fairs and religious gatherings: 

Provided that the State transport undertaking shall inform about the operation of such additional  services to the concerned Transport Authority without delay. 

  1. Cancellation or modification of scheme.—(1) The State Government may, at any time, if it  considers necessary, in the public interest so to do, modify any approved scheme after giving— (i) the State transport undertaking; and 

(ii) any other person who, in the opinion of the State Government, is likely to be affected by the  proposed modification, 

an opportunity of being heard in respect of the proposed modification. 

(2) The State Government shall publish any modification proposed under sub-section (1) in the  Official Gazette and in one of the newspapers in the regional languages circulating in the area in which it  is proposed to be covered by such modification, together with the date, not being less than thirty days  from such publication in the Official Gazette, and the time and place at which any representation received  in this behalf will be heard by the State Government. 

  1. Issue of permits to State transport undertakings.—(1) Where, in pursuance of an approved  scheme, any State transport undertaking applies in such manner as may be prescribed by the State  Government in this behalf for a stage carriage permit or a goods carriage permit or a contract carriage  permit in respect of a notified area or notified route, the State Transport Authority in any case where the  said area or route lies in more than one region and the Regional Transport Authority in any other case  shall issue such permit to the State transport undertaking, notwithstanding anything to the contrary  contained in Chapter V. 

(2) For the purpose of giving effect to the approved scheme in respect of a notified area or notified  route, the State Transport Authority or, as the case may be, the Regional Transport Authority concerned  may, by order,— 

(a) refuse to entertain any application for the grant or renewal of any other permit or reject any  such application as may be pending; 

(b) cancel any existing permit; 

(c) modify the terms of any existing permit so as to— 

(i) render the permit ineffective beyond a specified date; 

(ii) reduce the number of vehicles authorised to be used under the permit; 

(iii) curtail the area or route covered by the permit in so far as such permit relates to the  notified area or notified route. 

(3) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no appeal shall lie against any action taken, or  order passed, by the State Transport Authority or any Regional Transport Authority under sub-section (1)  or sub-section (2). 

STATE AMENDMENTS 

Karnataka 

Amendment of section 103.—In section 103 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (Central Act 59 of  1988), after sub-section (1), the following shall be inserted, namely:—

68 

“(1A) It shall be lawful for the State Transport undertaking to operate on any route as stage carriage  under any permit issued therefor to such undertaking under sub-section (1), any vehicle placed at the  disposal and under the control of such undertaking by the owner of such vehicle under any arrangement  entered into between such owner and the undertaking for the use of the said vehicle by the undertaking.] 

[Vide Karnataka Act 11 of 1996, sec. 2]. 

  1. Restriction on grant of permits in respect of a notified area or notified route.—Where a  scheme has been published under sub-section (3) of section 100 in respect of any notified area or notified  route, the State Transport Authority or the Regional Transport Authority, as the case may be, shall not  grant any permit except in accordance with the provisions of the scheme: 

Provided that where no application for a permit has been made by the State transport undertaking in  respect of any notified area or notified route in pursuance of an approved scheme, the State Transport  Authority or the Regional Transport Authority, as the case may be, may grant temporary permits to any  person in respect of such notified area or notified route subject to the condition that such permit shall  cease to be effective on the issue of a permit to the State transport undertaking in respect of that area or  route.  

  1. Principles and method of determining compensation and payment thereof.—(1) Where, in  exercise of the powers conferred by clause (b) or clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 103, any existing  permit is cancelled or the terms thereof are modified, there shall be paid by the State transport  undertaking to the holder of the permit, compensation, the amount of which shall be determined in  accordance with the provisions of sub-section (4) or sub-section (5), as the case may be. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), no compensation shall be payable on  account of the cancellation of any existing permit or any modification of the terms thereof, when a permit  for an alternative route or area in lieu thereof has been offered by the State Transport Authority or the  Regional Transport Authority, as the case may be and accepted by the holder of the permit. 

(3) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no compensation shall be payable on account  of the refusal to renew a permit under clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 103. (4) Where, in exercise of the powers conferred by clause (b) or sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii) of  clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 103, any existing permit is cancelled or the terms thereof are  modified so as to prevent the holder of the permit from using any vehicle authorised to be used thereunder  for the full period from which the permit, would otherwise have been effective, the compensation  payableto the holder of the permit for each vehicle affected by such cancellation or modification shall be  computed as follows:— 

(a) for every complete month or part of a month exceeding  

fifteen days of the unexpired period of the permit Two hundred rupees;  

(b) for part of a month not exceeding fifteen days of the unexpired period of the permit 

  

One hundred rupees: 

Provided that the amount of compensation shall, in no case, be less than four hundred rupees. (5) Where, in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-clause (iii) of clause (c) of sub-section (2) of  section 103, the terms of an existing permit are modified so as to curtail the area or route of any vehicle  authorised to be used thereunder, the compensation payable to the holder of the permit on account of such  curtailment shall be an amount computed in accordance with the following formula, namely:— YA 

Explanation.—In this formula,— 

(i) “Y” means the length or area by which the route or area covered by the permit is curtailed; (ii) “A” means the amount computed in accordance with sub-section (4); 

(iii) “R” means the total length of the route or the total area covered by the permit. (6) The amount of compensation payable under this section shall be paid by the State transport  undertaking to the person or persons entitled thereto within one month from the date on which the  cancellation or modification of the permit becomes effective:

69 

Provided that where the State transport undertaking fails to make the payment within the said period  of one month, it shall pay interest at the rate of seven per cent. per annum from the date on which it falls  due. 

  1. Disposal of article found in vehicles.—Where any article found in any transport vehicle  operated by the State transport undertaking is not claimed by its owner within the prescribed period, the  State transport undertaking may sell the article in the prescribed manner and the sale proceeds thereof,  after deducting the costs incidental to sale, shall be paid to the owner on demand. 
  2. Power of State Government to make rules.—(1) The State Government may make rules for  the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Chapter. 

(2) Inparticular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may  provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) the form in which any proposal regarding a scheme may be published under section 99; (b) the manner in which objections may be filed under sub-section (1) of section 100; (c) the manner in which objections may be considered and disposed of under sub-section (2) of  section 100; 

(d) the form in which any approved scheme may be published under sub-section (3) of  section 100;  

(e) the manner in which application under sub-section (1) of section 103 may be made; (f) the period within which the owner may claim any article found left in any transport vehicle  under section 106 and the manner of sale of such article; 

(g) the manner of service of orders under this Chapter; 

(h) any other matter which has to be, or may be, prescribed. 

  1. Certain powers of State Government exercisable by the Central Government.—The powers  conferred on the State Government under this Chapter shall, in relation to a corporation or company  owned or controlled by the Central Government or by the Central Government and one or more State  Governments, be exercisable only by the Central Government in relation to an inter-State route or area. 

CHAPTER VII 

CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF MOTOR VEHICLES 

  1. General provision regarding construction and maintenance of vehicles.—(1) Every motor  vehicle shall be so constructed and so maintained as to be at all times under the effective control of the  person driving the vehicle. 

(2) Every motor vehicle shall be so constructed as to have right hand steering control unless it is  equipped with a mechanical or electrical signalling device of a prescribed nature. 1[(3) If the Central Government is of the opinion that it is necessary or expedient so to do  in the public interest, it may by order published in the Official Gazette, notify that any article or  process used by a manufacturer shall conform to such standard as may be specified in that order.] 110. Power of Central Government to make rules.—(1) The Central Government may make rules  regulating the construction, equipment and maintenance of motor vehicles and trailers with respect to all  or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) the width, height, length and overhang of vehicles and of the loads carried; 

2[(b) the size, nature, maximum retail price and condition of tyres, including embossing thereon  of date and year of manufacture and the maximum load carrying capacity;] 

(c) brakes and steering gear; 

(d) the use of safety glasses including prohibition of the use of tinted safety glasses; (e) signalling appliances, lamps and reflectors; 

(f) speed governors; 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 31 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by s. 32, ibid., for clause (b) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

70 

(g) the emission of smoke, visible vapour, sparks, ashes, grit or oil; 

(h) the reduction of noise emitted by or caused by vehicles; 

(i) the embossment of chassis number and engine number and the date of manufacture; 

(j) safety belts, handle bars of motor cycles, auto-dippers and other equipments essential for  safety of drivers, passengers and other road users; 

(k) standards of the components 1[including software] used in the vehicle as inbuilt safety  devices; 

(l) provision for transportation of goods of dangerous or hazardous nature to human life; (m) standardsfor emission of air pollutants; 

2[(n) installation of catalytic convertors in the class of vehicles to be prescribed; 

(o) the placement of audio-visual or radio or tape recorder type of device in public vehicles; (p) warranty after sale of vehicle and norms therefor:] 

Provided that any rules relating to the matters dealing with the protection of environment, so far as  may be, shall be made after consultation with the Ministry of the Government of India dealing with  environment. 

(2) Rules may be made under sub-section (1) governing the matters mentioned therein, including the  manner of ensuring the compliance with such matters and the maintenance of motor vehicles in respect of  such matters, either generally in respect of motor vehicles or trailers or in respect of motor vehicles or  trailers of a particular class or in particular circumstances 1[and such rules may lay down the procedure  for investigation, the officers empowered to conduct such investigations, the procedure for hearing of  such matters and the penalties to be levied thereunder.] 

1[(2A) Persons empowered under sub-section (2) to conduct investigations referred to in  sub-section (2) shall have all the powers of a civil court, while trying a suit under the Code of Civil  Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) in respect of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;  (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document;  

(c) receiving evidence on affidavit; and  

(d) any other matter as may be prescribed.] 

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section,— 

(a) the Central Government may exempt any class of motor vehicles from the provisions of this  Chapter; 

(b) a State Government may exempt any motor vehicle or any class or description of motor  vehicles from the rules made under sub-section (1) subject to such conditions as may be prescribed by  the Central Government. 

3[110A. Recall of motor vehicles.—(1) The Central Government may, by order, direct a  manufacturer to recall motor vehicles of a particular type or its variants, if— 

(a) a defect in that particular type of motor vehicle may cause harm to the environment or to the  driver or occupants of such motor vehicle or other road users; and 

(b) a defect in that particular type of motor vehicle has been reported to the Central Government  by— 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 39 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021). 
  2. Ins. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 32. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 40 (w.e.f. 1-4-2021).

71 

(i) such percentage of owners, as the Central Government, may by notification in the Official  Gazette, specify; or 

(ii) a testing agency; or 

(iii) any other source. 

(2) Where the defect referred to in sub-section (1) lies in a motor vehicle component, the Central  Government may, by order, direct a manufacturer to recall all motor vehicles which contain such  component, regardless of the type or variants of such motor vehicle. 

(3) A manufacturer whose vehicles are recalled under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), shall— 

(a) reimburse the buyers for the full cost of the motor vehicle, subject to any hire-purchase or  lease-hypothecation agreement; or 

(b) replace the defective motor vehicle with another motor vehicle of similar or better  specifications which complies with the standards specified under this Act or repair it; and 

(c) pay such fines and other dues in accordance with sub-section (6). 

(4) Where a manufacturer notices a defect in a motor vehicle manufactured by him, he shall inform  the Central Government of the defect and initiate recall proceedings and in such case the manufacturer  shall not be liable to pay fine under sub-section (3). 

(5) The Central Government may authorise any officer to conduct investigation under this section  who shall have all the powers of a civil court, while trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908  (5 of 1908) in respect of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; 

(c) receiving evidence on affidavit; and 

(d) any other matter as may be prescribed. 

(6) The Central Government may make rules for regulating the recall of motor vehicles, of a  particular type or its variants, for any defect which in the opinion of the Central Government, may cause  harm to the environment or to the driver or occupants of such motor vehicle or to other road users. 

110B. Type approval certificate and testing agencies.— (1) No motor vehicle, including a trailer or  semi-trailer or modular hydraulic trailer or side car shall be sold or delivered or offered for sale or  delivery or used in a public place in India unless a type-approval certificate referred to in sub-section (2)  has been issued in respect of such vehicle: 

Provided that the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, extend the  requirement of type-approval certificate to other vehicles drawn or intended to be drawn by a motor  vehicle: 

Provided further that such certificate shall not be required for vehicles which are— (a) intended for export or display or demonstration or exhibition; or 

(b) used by a manufacturer of motor vehicles or motor vehicle components or a research and  development centre or a test by agency for testing and validation or for data collection, inside factory  premises or in a non-public place; or 

(c) exempted by the Central Government. 

(2) The manufacturer or importer of motor vehicles including trailers, semi-trailers, modular  hydraulic trailers and side cars shall submit the prototype of the vehicle to be manufactured or imported  for test to a testing agency for obtaining a type-approval certificate by such agency. 

(3) The Central Government shall make rules for the accreditation, registration and regulation of  testing agencies.

72 

(4) The testing agencies shall conduct tests on vehicles drawn from the production line of the  manufacturer or obtained otherwise to verify the conformity of such vehicles to the provisions of this  Chapter and the rules and regulations made thereunder. 

(5) Where the motor vehicle having a type-approval certificate is recalled under section 110A, the  testing agency which granted the certificate to such motor vehicle shall be liable for its accreditation and  registration to be cancelled.] 

  1. Power of State Government to make rules.—(1) A State Government may make rules  regulating the construction, equipment and maintenance of motor vehicles and trailers with respect to all  matters other than the matters specified in sub-section (1) of section 110. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, rules may be made under this section  governing all or any of the following matters either generally in respect of motor vehicles or trailers or in  respect of motor vehicles or trailers of a particular class or description or in particular circumstances,  namely:— 

(a) seating arrangements in public service vehicles and the protection of passengers against the  weather; 

(b) prohibiting or restricting the use of audible signals at certain times or in certain places; (c) prohibiting the carrying of appliances likely to cause annoyance or danger; 

(d) the periodical testing and inspection of vehicles by prescribed authorities 1[and fees to be  charged for such test]; 

(e) the particulars other than registration marks to be exhibited by vehicles and the manner in which they shall be exhibited; 

(f) the use of trailers with motor vehicles; and 

2* * * * * CHAPTER VIII 

CONTROL OF TRAFFIC 

  1. Limits of speed.—(1) No person shall drive a motor vehicle or cause or allow a motor vehicle to  be driven in any public place at a speed exceeding the maximum speed or below the minimum speed  fixed for the vehicle under this Act or by or under any other law for the time being in force: 

Provided that such maximum speed shall in no case exceed the maximum fixed for any motor vehicle  or class or description of motor vehicles by the Central Government by notification in the Official  Gazette. 

(2) The State Government or any authority authorised in this behalf by the State Government may, if  satisfied that it is necessary to restrict the speed of motor vehicles in the interest of public safety or  convenience or because of the nature of any road or bridge, by notification in the Official Gazette, and by  causing appropriate traffic signs to be placed or erected under section 116 at suitable places, fix such  maximum speed limits or minimum speed limits as it thinks fit for motor vehicles or any specified class  or description of motor vehicles or for motor vehicles to which a trailer is attached, either generally or in  a particular area or on a particular road or roads: 

Provided that no such notification is necessary if any restriction under this section is to remain in  force for not more than one month. 

(3) Nothing in this section shall apply to any vehicle registered under section 60 while it is being used  in the execution of military manoeuvres within the area and during the period specified in the notification  under sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Manoeuvres, Field Firing and Artillery Practice Act, 1938  (5 of 1938). 

  

  1. Ins. by s. 33, Act 54 of 1994 (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Clause (g) omitted by s. 33, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

73 

  1. Limits of weight and limitations on use.—(1) The State Government may prescribe the  conditions for the issue of permits for 1[transport vehicles] by the State or Regional Transport Authorities  and may prohibit or restrict the use of such vehicles in any area or route. 

(2) Except as may be otherwise prescribed, no person shall drive or cause or allow to be driven in any  public place any motor vehicle which is not fitted with pneumatic tyres. 

(3) No person shall drive or cause or allow to be driven in any public place any motor vehicle or  trailer— 

(a) the unladen weight of which exceeds the unladen weight specified in the certificate of  registration of the vehicle, or 

(b) the laden weight of which exceeds the gross vehicle weight specified in the certificate of  registration. 

(4) Where the driver or person in charge of a motor vehicle or trailer driven in contravention of  sub-section (2) or clause (a) of sub-section (3) is not the owner, a Court may presume that the offence  was committed with the knowledge of or under the orders of the owner of the motor vehicle or trailer. 

  1. Power to have vehicle weighed.—(1) 2[Any officer of the Motor Vehicles Department 3[or any  other person authorised in this behalf by the State Government] shall, if he has reason to believe that a  goods vehicle or trailor is being used in contravention of section 113] require the driver to convey the  vehicle to a weighing device, if any, within a distance of ten kilometres from any point on the forward  route or within a distance of twenty kilometres from the destination of the vehicle for weighment; and if  on such weighment the vehicle is found to contravene in any respect the provisions of section 113  regarding weight, he may, by order in writing, direct the driver to off-load the excess weight at his own  risk and not to remove the vehicle or trailer from that place until the laden weight has been reduced or the  vehicle or trailer has otherwise been dealt with so that it complies with section 113 and on receipt of such  notice, the driver shall comply with such directions. 

(2) Where the person authorised under sub-section (1) makes the said order in writing, he shall also  endorse the relevant details of the overloading on the goods carriage permit and also intimate the fact of  such endorsement to the authority which issued that permit. 

  1. Power to restrict the use of vehicles.—The State Government or any authority authorised in  this behalf by the State Government, if satisfied that it is necessary in the interest of public safety or  convenience, or because of the nature of any road or bridge, may by notification in the Official Gazette,  prohibit or restrict, subject to such exceptions and conditions as may be specified in notification, the  driving of motor vehicles or of any specified class or description of motor vehicles or the use of trailers  either generally in a specified area or on a specified road and when any such prohibition or restriction is  imposed, shall cause appropriate traffic signs to be placed or erected under section 116 at suitable places: 

Provided that where any prohibition or restriction under this section is to remain in force for not more  than one month, notification thereof in the Official Gazette shall not be necessary, but such local publicity  as the circumstances may permit, shall be given of such prohibition or restriction. 

  1. Power to erect traffic signs.—(1) (a) The State Government or any authority authorised in this  behalf by the State Government may cause or permit traffic signs to be placed or erected in any public  place for the purpose of bringing to public notice any speed limits fixed under sub-section (2) of  section 112 or any prohibitions or restrictions imposed under section 115 or generally for the purpose of  regulating motor vehicle traffic. 

(b) A State Government or any authority authorised in this behalf by the State Government may, by  notification in the Official Gazette or by the erection at suitable places of the appropriate traffic sign  referred to in Part A of the Schedule, designate certain roads as main roads for the purposes of the driving  regulations made by the Central Government. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 34, for “heavy goods vehicles or heavy passenger motor vehicles” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 2. Subs. by s. 35, ibid., for certain words and figures (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 41, for “authorised in this behalf by the State Government” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

74 

1[(1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the National Highways Authority of  India constituted under the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988 (68 of 1988) or any other  agency authorised by the Central Government, may cause or permit traffic signs, as provided in the First  Schedule, to be placed or erected or removed on national highways for the purpose of regulating motor  vehicle traffic and may order the removal of any sign or advertisement which in its opinion is so placed as  to obscure any traffic sign from view or is so similar in appearance to a traffic sign as to mislead or is  likely to distract the attention or concentration of the driver: 

Provided that for the purposes of this sub-section, the National Highway Authority of India or any  other agency authorised by the Central Government may seek assistance from the authorities of the State  Government and the said State Government shall provide such assistance.] 

(2) Traffic signs placed or erected under sub-section (1) for any purpose for which provision is made  in the Schedule shall be of the size, colour and type and shall have the meanings set forth in the Schedule,  but the State Government or any authority empowered in this behalf by the State Government may make  or authorise the addition to any sign set forth in the said Schedule, of transcriptions of the words, letters or  figures thereon in such script as the State Government may think fit, provided that the transcriptions shall  be of similar size and colour to the words, letters or figures set forth in the Schedule. 

(3) Except as provided by sub-section (1)1[or sub-section (1A)], no traffic sign shall, after the  commencement of this Act, be placed or erected on or near any road; but all traffic signs placed or erected  prior to the commencement of this Act by any competent authority shall for the purpose of this Act be  deemed to be traffic signs placed or erected under the provisions of sub-section (1). 

(4) A State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, empower any police officer not  below the rank of a Superintendent of Police to remove or cause to be removed any sign or advertisement  which is so placed in his opinion as to obscure any traffic sign from view or any sign or advertisement  which is in his opinion so similar in appearance to a traffic sign as to be misleading or which in his  opinion is likely to distract the attention or concentration of the driver. 

(5) No person shall wilfully remove, alter, deface, or in any way tamper with, any traffic signs placed or erected under this section. 

(6) If any person accidentally causes such damage to a traffic sign as renders it useless for the purpose  for which it is placed or erected under this section, he shall report the circumstances of the occurrence to a  police officer or at a police station as soon as possible, and in any case within twenty-four hours of the  occurrence. 

(7) For the purpose of bringing the signs set forth in 2[the First Schedule] in conformity with any  International Convention relating to motor traffic to which the Central Government is for the time being a  party, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make any addition or  alteration to any such sign and on the issue of any such notification,1[the First Schedule] shall be deemed to be amended accordingly. 

  1. Parking places and halting stations.—The State Government or any authority authorised in  this behalf by the State Government may, in consultation with the local authority having jurisdiction in  the area concerned, determine places at which motor vehicles may stand either indefinitely or for a specified period of time, and may determine the places at which public service vehicles may stop for a  longer time than is necessary for the taking up and setting down of passengers. 

3[Provided that the State Government or the authorised authority shall, give primacy to the safety of  road users and the free flow of traffic in determining such places: 

Provided further that for the purpose of this section the National Highways Authority of India,  constituted under the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988 (68 of 1988) or any other agency  authorised by the Central Government, may also determine such places.] 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 42 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 36, for “the Schedule” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 43 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

75 

  1. Driving regulations.—The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,  make regulations for the driving of motor vehicles. 
  2. Duty to obey traffic signs.—(1) Every driver of a motor vehicle shall drive the vehicle in  conformity with any indication given by mandatory traffic sign and in conformity with the driving  regulations made by the Central Government, and shall comply with all directions given to him by any  police officer for the time being engaged in the regulation of traffic in any public place. 

(2) In this section “mandatory traffic sign” means a traffic sign included in Part A of the Schedule, or  any traffic sign of similar form (that is to say, consisting of or including a circular disc diplaying a device,  word or figure and having a red ground or border) placed or erected for the purpose of regulating motor  vehicle traffic under sub-section (1) of section 116. 

  1. Vehicles with left hand control.—No person shall drive or cause or allow to be driven in any  public place any motor vehicle with a left-hand steering control unless it is equipped with a mechanical or  electrical signalling device of a prescribed nature and in working order. 
  2. Signals and signalling devices.—The driver of a motor vehicle shall make such signals and on  such occasions as may be prescribed by the Central Government: 

Provided that the signal of an intention to turn to the right or left or to stop— 

(a) in the case of a motor vehicle with a right-hand steering control, may be given by a  mechanical or electrical device of a prescribed nature affixed to the vehicle; and 

(b) in the case of a motor vehicle with a left-hand steering control, shall be given by a mechanical  or electrical device of a prescribed nature affixed to the vehicle: 

Provided further that the State Government may, having regard to the width and condition of the  roads in any area or route, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt subject to such conditions as  may be specified therein any motor vehicle or class or description of motor vehicles from the operation of  this section for the purpose of plying in that area or route. 

  1. Leaving vehicle in dangerous position.—No person in charge of a motor vehicle shall cause or  allow the vehicle or any trailer to be abandoned or to remain at rest on any public place in such a position  or in such a condition or in such circumstances as to cause or likely to cause danger, obstruction or undue  inconvenience to other users of the public place or to the passengers. 
  2. Riding on running board, etc.—(1) No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall  carry any person or permit any person to be carried on the running board or otherwise than within the  body of the vehicle. 

(2) No person shall travel on the running board or on the top or on the bonnet of a motor vehicle. 

  1. Prohibition against travelling without pass or ticket.—No person shall enter or remain in any  stage carriage for the purposes of travelling therein unless he has with him a proper pass or ticket: 

Provided that where arrangements for the supply of tickets are made in the stage carriage by which a  person has to travel, a person may enter such stage carriage but as soon as may be after his entry therein,  be shall make the payment of his fare to the conductor or the driver who performs the functions of a  conductor and obtain from such conductor or driver, as the case may be, a ticket for his journey. 

Explanation.—In this section,— 

(a) “pass” means a duty, privilege or courtesy pass entitling the person to whom it is given to  travel in a stage carriage gratuitously and includes a pass issued on payment for travel in a stage  carriage for the period specified therein; 

(b) “ticket” includes a single ticket, a return ticket or a season ticket. 

  1. Obstruction of driver.—No person driving a motor vehicle shall allow any person to stand or  sit or to place anything in such a manner or position as to hamper the driver in his control of the vehicle.

76 

  1. Stationary vehicles.—No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall cause or allow the  vehicle to remain stationary in any public place, unless there is in the driver’s seat a person duly licensed  to drive the vehicle or unless the mechanism has been stopped and a brake or brakes applied or such other  measures taken as to ensure that the vehicle cannot accidentally be put in motion in the absence of the  driver. 
  2. Removal of motor vehicles abandoned or left unattended on a public place.—1[(1) Where  any motor vehicle is abandoned, or left unattended, on a public place for ten hours or more or is parked in  a place where parking is legally prohibited, its removal by a towing service or its immobilisations by any  means including wheel clamping may be authorised by a police officer in uniform having jurisdiction.] 

(2) Where an abandoned, unattended, wrecked, burnt or partially dismantled vehicle is creating a  traffic hazard, because of its position in relation to the 2[public place], or its physical appearance is  causing the impediment to the traffic, its immediate removal from the 1[public place] by a towing service  may be authorised by a police officer having jurisdiction. 

(3) Where a vehicle is authorised to be removed under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) by a police  officer, the owner of the vehicle shall be responsible for all towing costs, besides any other penalty.  

  1. Safety measures for drivers and pillion riders.—(1) No driver of a two-wheeled motorcycle  shall carry more than one person in addition to himself on the motorcycle and no such person shall be  carried otherwise than sitting on a proper seat securely fixed to the motorcycle behind the driver’s seat  with appropriate safety measures. 

(2) In addition to the safety measures mentioned in sub-section (1), the Central Government may,  prescribe other safety measures for the drivers of two-wheeled motorcycles and pillion riders thereon. 

3[129. Wearing of protective headgear.— Every person, above four years of age, driving or riding  or being carried on a motorcycle of any class or description shall, while in a public place, wear protective  headgear conforming to such standards as may be prescribed by the Central Government:  

Provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply to a person who is a Sikh, if, while driving  or riding on the motorcycle, in a public place, he is wearing a turban:  

Provided further that the Central Government may by rules provide for measures for the safety of  children below four years of age riding or being carried on a motorcycle. 

Explanation.— “Protective headgear” means a helmet which,— 

(a) by virtue of its shape, material and construction, could reasonably be expected to afford to the  person driving or riding on a motorcycle a degree of protection from injury in the event of an  accident; and  

(b) is securely fastened to the head of the wearer by means of straps or other fastenings provided  on the headgear.] 

  1. Duty to produce licence and certificate of registration.—(1) The driver of a motor vehicle in  any public place shall, on demand by any police officer in uniform, produce his licence for examination: 

Provided that the driver may, if his licence has been submitted to, or has been seized by, any officer  or authority under this or any other Act, produce in lieu of the licence a receipt or other acknowledgment  issued by such officer or authority in respect thereof and thereafter produce the licence within such  period, in such manner as the Central Government may prescribe to the police officer making the  demand. 

4[(2) The conductor, if any, of a motor vehicle on any public place shall on demand by any officer of  the Motor Vehicles Department authorised in this behalf, produce the licence for examination.] 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 37, for sub-section (1) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by s. 37, ibid., for “highway” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Subs. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 44, for section 129 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 39, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

77 

1[(3) The owner of a motor vehicle (other than a vehicle registered under section 60), or in his  absence the driver or other person in charge of the vehicle, shall, on demand by a registering authority or  any other officer of the Motor Vehicles Department duly authorised in this behalf, produce the certificate  of insurance of the vehicle and, where the vehicle is a transport vehicle, also the certificate of fitness  referred to in section 56 and the permit; and if any or all of the certificates or the permit are not in his  possession, he shall, within fifteen days from the date of demand, submit photo copies of the same, duly  attested in person or send the same by registered post to the officer who demanded it. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section, “certificate of insurance” means the certificate  issued under sub-section (3) of section 147.] 

(4) If the licence referred to in sub-section (2) or the certificates or permit referred to in  sub-section (3), as the case may be, are not at the time in the possession of the person to whom demand is  made, it shall be a sufficient compliance with this section if such person produces the licence or  certificates or permit within such period in such manner as the Central Government may prescribe, to the  police officer or authority making the demand: 

Provided that, except to such extent and with such modifications as may be prescribed, the provisions  of this sub-section shall not apply to any person required to produce the certificate of registration or the  certificate of fitness of a transport vehicle. 

  1. Duty of the driver to take certain precautions at unguarded railway level crossing.—Every  driver of a motor vehicle at the approach of any unguarded railway level crossing shall cause the vehicle  to stop and the driver of the vehicle shall cause the conductor or cleaner or attendant or any other person  in the vehicle to walk up to the level crossing and ensure that no train or trolley is approaching from  either side and then pilot the motor vehicle across such level crossing, and where no conductor or cleaner  or attendant or any other person is available in the vehicle, the driver of the vehicle shall get down from  the vehicle himself to ensure that no train or trolley is approaching from either side before the railway  track is crossed. 
  2. Duty of driver to stop in certain cases.—(1) The driver of a motor vehicle shall cause the  vehicle to stop and remain stationary so long as 2[may for such reasonable time as may be necessary, but not exceeding twenty-four hours]—

3[(a) when required to do so by any police officer not below the rank of a Sub-Inspector in  uniform, in the event of the vehicle being involved in the occurrence of an accident to a person,  animal or vehicle or of damage to property, or] 

(b) when required to do so by any person in charge of an animal if such person apprehends that  the animal is, or being alarmed by the vehicle will become, unmanageable, or 

4* * * * * 

and he shall give his name and address and the name and address of the owner of the vehicle to any  person affected by any such accident or damage who demands it provided such person also furnishes his  name and address. 

(2) The driver of a motor vehicle shall, on demand by a person giving his own name and address and  alleging that the driver has committed an offence punishable under section 184 give his name and address  to that person. 

(3) In this section the expression “animal” means any horse, cattle, elephant, camel, ass, mule, sheep  or goat. 

  1. Duty of owner of motor vehicle to give information.—The owner of a motor vehicle, the  driver or conductor of which is accused of any offence under this Act shall, on the demand of any police  officer authorised in this behalf by the State Government, give all information regarding the name and  address of, and the licence held by, the driver or conductor which is in his possession or could by  reasonable diligence be ascertained by him. 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 39, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Subs. by s. 40, ibid., for “may reasonably be necessary” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Subs. by s. 40, ibid., for clause (a) (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  4. Clause (c) omitted by s. 40, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994).

78 

  1. Duty of driver in case of accident and injury to a person.—When any person is injured or any  property of a third party is damaged, as a result of an accident in which a motor vehicle is involved, the  driver of the vehicle or other person in charge of the vehicle shall— 

(a) unless it is not practicable to do so on account of mob fury or any other reason beyond his  control, take all reasonable steps to secure medical attention for the injured person, 1[by conveying  him to the nearest medical practitioner or hospital, and it shall be the duty of every registered medical  practitioner or the doctor on the duty in the hospital immediately to attend to the injured person and  render medical aid or treatment without waiting for any procedural formalities], unless the injured  person or his guardian, in case he is a minor, desires otherwise; 

(b) give on demand by a police officer any information required by him, or, if no police officer is  present, report the circumstances of the occurrence, including the circumstances, if any, for not taking  reasonable steps to secure medical attention as required under clause (a), at the nearest police station  as soon as possible, and in any case within twenty-four hours of the occurrence. 

2[(c) give the following information in writing to the insurer, who has issued the certificates of  insurance, about the occurrence of the accident, namely:— 

(i) insurance policy number and period of its validity; 

(ii) date, time and place of accident; 

(iii) particulars of the persons injured or killed in the accident; 

(iv) name of the driver and the particulars of his driving licence. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression “driver” includes the owner of the  vehicle.] 

3[134A. Protection of Good Samaritans. —(1) A Good Samaritan shall not be liable for any civil or  criminal action for any injury to or death of the victim of an accident involving a motor vehicle, where  such injury or death resulted from the Good Samaritan’s negligence in acting or failing to act while  rendering emergency medical or non-medical care or assistance.  

(2) The Central Government may by rules provide for the procedure for questioning or examination  of the Good Samaritan, disclosure of personal information of the Good Samaritan and such other related  matters. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, “Good Samaritan” means a person, who in good  faith, voluntarily and without expectation of any reward or compensation renders emergency medical or  non-medical care or assistance at the scene of an accident to the victim or transports such victim to the  hospital.] 

  1. Schemes to be framed for the investigation of accident cases and wayside amenities, etc.— (1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make one or more schemes to  provide for— 

(a) an in depth study on causes and analysis of motor vehicle accidents; 

(b) wayside amenities on highways; 

(c) traffic aid posts on highways; 4*** 

(d) truck parking complexes along 5[highways; and]. 

6[(e) any other amenities in the interests of the safety and the convenience of the public.] 

  

  1. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 41, for “and if necessary, convey him to the nearest hospital” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 2. Ins. by s. 41, ibid. (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  2. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 45 (w.e.f. 1-10-2020). 
  3. The word “and” omitted by, s. 46, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  4. Subs. by s. 46, ibid., for “highways” (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  5. Ins. by s. 46, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

79 

(2) Every scheme made under this section by any State Government shall be laid, as soon as may be  after it is made, before the State Legislature. 

1[(3) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make one or more  schemes to conduct in-depth studies on the causes and analysis of road accidents.] 

  1. Inspection of vehicle involved in accident.—When any accident occurs in which a motor  vehicle is involved, any person authorised in this behalf by the State Government may, on production if  so required of his authority, inspect the vehicle and for that purpose may enter at any reasonable time any  premises where the vehicle may be, and may remove the vehicle for examination: 

Provided that the place to which the vehicle is so removed shall be intimated to the owner of the  vehicle and the vehicle shall be returned 2[after completion of the formalities to the owner, driver or the  person in charge of the vehicle within twenty-four hours]. 

3[136A. Electronic monitoring and enforcement of road safety. —(1) The State Government shall  ensure electronic monitoring and enforcement of road safety in the manner provided under sub-section (2)  on national highways, state highways, roads or in any urban city within a State which has a population up  to such limits as may be prescribed by the Central Government.  

(2) The Central Government shall make rules for the electronic monitoring and enforcement of road  safety including speed cameras, closed-circuit television cameras, speed guns, body wearable cameras  and such other technology.  

Explanation.—For the purpose of this section the expression “body wearable camera” means a  mobile audio and video capture device worn on the body or uniform of a person authorised by the State  Government.] 

  1. Power of Central Government to make rules.—The Central Government may make rules to  provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:— 

(a) the occasions on which signals shall be made by drivers of motor vehicles and such signals  under section 121; 

4[(aa) providing for the standards of protective headgear and measures for the safety of children  below the age of four years riding under section 129;] 

(b) the manner in which the licences and certificates may be produced to the police officer under  section 130. 

4[(c) providing for limits of urban city by the State Governments under sub-section (1) of section  136A; and 

(d) providing for electronic monitoring and enforcement under sub-section (2) of section 136A.] 

  1. Power of State Government to make rules.—(1) The State Government may make rules for  the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Chapter other than the matters specified in  section 137. 

5[(1A) The State Government may, in the interest of road safety, make rules for the purposes of  regulating the activities and access of non-mechanically propelled vehicles and pedestrians to public  places and national highways: 

Provided that in the case of national highways, such rules shall be framed in consultation with the  National Highways Authority of India.] 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for— 

  

  1. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 45 (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  2. Subs. by Act 54 of 1994, s. 42, for “without unnecessary delay” (w.e.f. 14-11-1994). 
  3. Ins. by Act 32 of 2019, s. 47 (w.e.f. 15-7-2021). 
  4. Ins. by, s. 48, ibid., (w.e.f. 1-9-2019). 
  5. Ins. by s. 49, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-9-2019).

80