Bare Act

THE 

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE 

CONSTITUTION 

OF INDIA 

(As on 9th November, 2015) 

Published by 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE (LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT)

Published by 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

MINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE (LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT) NEW DELHI – 110

Printed by JAINCO ART INDIA 

13/10, W.E.A., Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110 005.

PREFACE 

Constitution is a living document, an instrument which makes the government system work. Its flexibility lies in its amendments. In this edition, the text of the Constitution of India has been brought up-to-date by incorporating therein all amendments made by Parliament up to and including the Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015 which contains details of acquired and transferred territories between the Governments of India and Bangladesh and the same has been included in Annexure. 

The Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir with certain exceptions and modifications as provided in article 370 and the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954. This Order has been included in Appendix I for facility of reference. Appendix II contains a re-statement of the exceptions and modifications. 

The text of the constitutional amendments relating to the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978 and the Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003, which have not yet come into force, have been provided in the text at the appropriate places. 

 NEW DELHI; DR. G. NARAYANA RAJU, 9th November, 2015. Secretary to the Government of India.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED 

Art., arts. …………………………………………………….. for Article, articles. Cl., cls. …………………………………………………….. ” Clause, clauses. C.O. …………………………………………………….. ” Constitution Order. Ins. …………………………………………………….. ” Inserted. P., pp. …………………………………………………….. ” Page, pages. Pt. …………………………………………………….. ” Part. Rep. …………………………………………………….. ” Repealed. Sec., ss. …………………………………………………….. ” Section, sections. Sch. …………………………………………………….. ” Schedule. Subs. …………………………………………………….. ” Substituted. w.e.f. …………………………………………………….. ” with effect from.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a 1[SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and to secure to all its citizens: 

JUSTICE, social, economic and political; 

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; 

EQUALITY of status and of 

opportunity; 

and to promote among them all 

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the 2[unity and integrity of the Nation]; 

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. 

Preamble. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 2, for “SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 

2Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for “unity of the Nation” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).

Name and territory of the Union. 

Admission or estab lishment of new States. 

Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. 

PART I 

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY 

  1. (1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. 

1[(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.] 

(3) The territory of India shall comprise— (a) the territories of the States; 

2[(b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and] 

(c) such other territories as may be acquired. 

  1. Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit. 

32A. [Sikkim to be associated with the Union.] Rep. by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5 (w.e.f. 26-4-1975). 

  1. Parliament may by law— 

(a) form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State; 

(b) increase the area of any State; 

(c) diminish the area of any State; 

(d) alter the boundaries of any State; 

(e) alter the name of any State: 

4[Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 2, for cl. (2). 2Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for sub-clause (b). 

3Ins. by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-3-1975). 4Subs. by the Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955, s. 2, for the proviso.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(Part I.—The Union and its territory.—Arts. 3-4.

or name of any of the States 1***, the Bill has been referred 

by the President to the Legislature of that State for 

expressing its views thereon within such period as may 

be specified in the reference or within such further period 

as the President may allow and the period so specified 

or allowed has expired.] 

2[Explanation I.— In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), 

Stateincludes a Union territory, but in the proviso, 

Statedoes not include a Union territory. 

Explanation II.— The power conferred on Parliament 

by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or 

Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union 

territory to any other State or Union territory.] 

  1. (1) Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary. 

(2) No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368. 

Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, inci dental and conse quential matters. 

1The words and letters “specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule” omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. 

2Ins. by the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966, s. 2.

Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution. 

Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.

PART II 

CITIZENSHIP 

  1. At the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and— 

(a) who was born in the territory of India; or 

(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or 

(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, 

shall be a citizen of India. 

  1. Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if— 

(a) he or either of his parents or any of his grand parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and 

(b) (i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or 

(ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government: 

Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application. 


THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 5 (Part II.—Citizenship.—Arts. 7—11.

  1. Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India: 

Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948. 

  1. Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India. 
  2. No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State. 
  3. Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen. 
  4. Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship. 

Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan. 

Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India. 

Persons voluntarily acquiring citizen ship of a foreign State not to be citizens. 

Continuance of the rights of citizenship. 

Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

Definition. 

Laws inconsistent with or in deroga tion of the funda mental rights.

Equality before law. 

PART III 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 

General 

  1. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the Stateincludes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India. 
  2. (1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void. 

(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void. 

(3) In this article, unless the context otherwise requires,— 

(a) lawincludes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage having in the territory of India the force of law; 

(b) laws in forceincludes laws passed or made by a Legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed, notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation either at all or in particular areas. 

1[(4) Nothing in this article shall apply to any amendment of this Constitution made under article 368.] 

Right to Equality 

  1. The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 7 (Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 15-16.) 

  1. (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. 

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to— 

(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or 

(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. 

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children. 1[(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.] 

2[(5) Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30.] 

  1. (1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. 

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State. 

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office 

1Added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 2. 

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. 

Equality of oppor tunity in matters of public employment.

2Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-third Amendment) Act, 2005, s. 2, (w.e.f. 20-1-2006). 

8 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 16-18.

1[under the Government of, or any local or other authority 

within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to 

residence within that State or Union territory] prior to 

such employment or appointment. 

(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from 

making any provision for the reservation of appointments 

or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, 

in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented 

in the services under the State. 

2[(4A) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State 

from making any provision for reservation 3[in matters 

of promotion, with consequential seniority, to any class] 

or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour 

of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, 

in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented 

in the services under the State.] 

4[(4B) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State 

from considering any unfilled vacancies of a year which 

are reserved for being filled up in that year in accordance 

with any provision for reservation made under clause (4) 

or clause (4A) as a separate class of vacancies to be filled 

up in any succeeding year or years and such class of 

vacancies shall not be considered together with the 

vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up for 

determining the ceiling of fifty per cent. reservation on 

total number of vacancies of that year.] 

(5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of 

any law which provides that the incumbent of an office 

in connection with the affairs of any religious or 

denominational institution or any member of the 

governing body thereof shall be a person professing a 

particular religion or belonging to a particular 

denomination. 

Abolition of Untouchability. 

Abolition of titles.

  1. Untouchabilityis abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of Untouchabilityshall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. 
  2. (1) No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. (2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch., for “under any State specified in the First Schedule or any local or other authority within its territory, any requirement as to residence within that State”. 

2Ins. by the Constitution (Seventy-seventh Amendment) Act, 1995, s. 2. 

3Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2001, s. 2, for certain words (w.e.f. 17-6-1995). 4Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000, s. 2 (w.e.f. 9-6-2000). 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 18-19.) 

(3) No person who is not a citizen of India shall, 

while he holds any office of profit or trust under the 

State, accept without the consent of the President any 

title from any foreign State. 

(4) No person holding any office of profit or trust 

under the State shall, without the consent of the President, 

accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind 

from or under any foreign State. 

Right to Freedom 

  1. (1) All citizens shall have the right— 

(a) to freedom of speech and expression; 

(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms; (c) to form associations or unions 1[or co-operative societies]; 

(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India; (e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; 2[and] 

3** * * * (g) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. 

4[(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of 5[the sovereignty and integrity of India,] the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.] 

(3) Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of 5[the sovereignty and integrity of India or] public order, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause. 

(4) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of 5[the sovereignty and 

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

1Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-seventh Amendment) Act, 2011, s. 2 (w.e.f. 8-2-2012). 2Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 2 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 3Sub-clause (f) omitted by s. 2, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

4Subs. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 3, for cl. (2) (with retrospective effect). 5Ins. by the Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, s. 2. 

10 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 19-21.) 

integrity of India or] public order or morality, reasonable 

restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the 

said sub-clause. 

(5) Nothing in 1[sub-clauses (d) and (e)] of the said 

clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so 

far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any 

law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of 

any of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses either 

in the interests of the general public or for the protection 

of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe. 

(6) Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shall 

affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it 

imposes, or prevent the State from making any law 

imposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonable 

restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the 

said sub-clause, and, in particular, 2[nothing in the said 

sub-clause shall affect the operation of any existing law 

in so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from making 

any law relating to,— 

(i) the professional or technical qualifications 

necessary for practising any profession or carrying 

on any occupation, trade or business, or 

(ii) the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation 

owned or controlled by the State, of any trade, 

business, industry or service, whether to the 

exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or 

otherwise]. 

Protection in respect of conviction for offences. 

Protection of life and personal liberty.

  1. (1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence. 

(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once. 

(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. 

  1. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 2, for “sub-clauses (d), (e) and (f)” (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

2Subs. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 3, for certain words. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 11 (Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 21A-22.) 

1[21A. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.] 

  1. (1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice. 

(2) Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of twenty-four hours of such arrest excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the court of the magistrate and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate. 

(3) Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply— 

(a) to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien; or 

(b) to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention. *(4) No law providing for preventive detention shall 

authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than three months unless— 

(a) an Advisory Board consisting of persons who are, or have been, or are qualified to be appointed 

Right to education.

Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-4-2010). 

*Cl. (4) shall stand substituted by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 3 (date yet to be notified) as— 

“(4) No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than two months unless an Advisory Board constituted in accordance with the recommendations of the Chief Justice of the appropriate High Court has reported before the expiration of the said period of two months that there is in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention: 

Provided that an Advisory Board shall consist of a Chairman and not less than two other members, and the Chairman shall be a serving Judge of the appropriate High Court and the other members shall be serving or retired Judges of any High Court: 

Provided further that nothing in this clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament under sub-clause (a) of clause (7). 

Explanation.—In this clause, “appropriate High Court” means,— 

(i) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detention made by the Government of India or an officer or authority subordinate to that Government, the High Court for the Union territory of Delhi; 

(ii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detention made by the Government of any State (other than a Union territory), the High Court for that State; and 

(iii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detention made by the administrator of a Union territory or an officer or authority subordinate to such administrator, such High Court as may be specified by or under any law made by Parliament in this behalf”. 

12 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Art. 22) 

as, Judges of a High Court has reported before the 

expiration of the said period of three months that 

there is in its opinion sufficient cause for such 

detention: 

Provided that nothing in this sub-clause shall 

authorise the detention of any person beyond the 

maximum period prescribed by any law made by 

Parliament under sub-clause (b) of clause (7); or 

(b) such person is detained in accordance with the 

provisions of any law made by Parliament under sub 

clauses (a) and (b) of clause (7). 

(5) When any person is detained in pursuance of an 

order made under any law providing for preventive 

detention, the authority making the order shall, as soon 

as may be, communicate to such person the grounds on 

which the order has been made and shall afford him the 

earliest opportunity of making a representation against 

the order. 

(6) Nothing in clause (5) shall require the authority 

making any such order as is referred to in that clause to 

disclose facts which such authority considers to be against 

the public interest to disclose. 

(7) Parliament may by law prescribe— 

*(a) the circumstances under which, and the class 

or classes of cases in which, a person may be detained 

for a period longer than three months under any law 

providing for preventive detention without obtaining 

the opinion of an Advisory Board in accordance with 

the provisions of sub-clause (a) of clause (4); 

**(b) the maximum period for which any person 

may in any class or classes of cases be detained under 

any law providing for preventive detention; and 

(c) the procedure to be followed by an Advisory 

Board in an inquiry under ***[sub-clause (a) of clause 

(4)]. 

*Sub-clause (a) shall stand omitted by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 3 (which is yet not in force, date to be notified later on). 

**Sub-clause (b) shall stand relettered as sub-clause (a) by s. 3, ibid. (date yet to be notified). ***The words, letter and figure in brackets shall stand substituted as “clause 4” by s. 3, ibid. (date yet to be notified).

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 13 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 23-26.) 

Right against Exploitation 

  1. (1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. 

(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them. 

  1. No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. 

Right to Freedom of Religion 

  1. (1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion. 

(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law— 

(a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice; 

(b) providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus. 

Explanation I.—The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion. 

Explanation II.—In sub-clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly. 

  1. Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right— 

(a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes; 

(b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion; 

Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour. 

Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. 

Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.

Freedom to manage religious affairs. 

14 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 26—30.) 

(c) to own and acquire movable and immovable 

property; and 

(d) to administer such property in accordance with 

law. 

Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion. 

Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions. 

Protection of interests of minorities.

Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. 

  1. No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious denomination. 
  2. (1) No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. 

(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution. 

(3) No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto. 

Cultural and Educational Rights 

  1. (1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same. 

(2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them. 

  1. (1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. 

1[(1A) In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 4 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 15 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 3031A.

referred to in clause (1), the State shall ensure that the 

amount fixed by or determined under such law for the 

acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict 

or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause.] 

(2) The State shall not, in granting aid to educational 

institutions, discriminate against any educational 

institution on the ground that it is under the management 

of a minority, whether based on religion or language. 

1* * * 

  1. [Compulsory acquisition of property.] Rep. by the 

Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 6 (w.e.f. 

20-6-1979). 

2[Saving of Certain Laws

3[31A. 4[(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law providing for— 

(a) the acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the extinguishment or modification of any such rights, or 

(b) the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or 

(c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or 

(d) the extinguishment or modification of any rights of managing agents, secretaries and treasurers, managing directors, directors or managers of corporations, or of any voting rights of shareholders thereof, or 

Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc. 

1The sub-heading “Right to Property” omitted by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 5 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

2Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 3 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 3Ins. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 4 (with retrospective effect). 4Subs. by the Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955, s. 3, for cl. (1) (with retrospective effect).

16 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Art. 31A.) 

(e) the extinguishment or modification of any 

rights accruing by virtue of any agreement, lease or 

licence for the purpose of searching for, or winning, 

any mineral or mineral oil, or the premature 

termination or cancellation of any such agreement, 

lease or licence, 

shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is 

inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the 

rights conferred by 1[article 14 or article 19]: 

Provided that where such law is a law made by the 

Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall 

not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved 

for the consideration of the President, has received his 

assent:] 

2[Provided further that where any law makes any 

provision for the acquisition by the State of any estate 

and where any land comprised therein is held by a person 

under his personal cultivation, it shall not be lawful for 

the State to acquire any portion of such land as is within 

the ceiling limit applicable to him under any law for the 

time being in force or any building or structure standing 

thereon or appurtenant thereto, unless the law relating 

to the acquisition of such land, building or structure, 

provides for payment of compensation at a rate which 

shall not be less than the market value thereof.] 

(2) In this article,— 

3[(a) the expression estateshall, in relation to 

any local area, have the same meaning as that 

expression or its local equivalent has in the existing 

law relating to land tenures in force in that area and 

shall also include— 

(i) any jagir, inam or muafi or other similar grant 

and in the States of 4[Tamil Nadu] and Kerala, 

any janmam right; 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 7, for “article 14, article 19 or article 31” (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

2Ins. by the Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964, s. 2. 

3Subs. by s. 2, ibid., for sub-clause (a) (with retrospective effect). 

4Subs. by the Madras State (Alteration of Name) Act, 1968 (53 of 1968), s. 4, for “Madras” (w.e.f. 14-1-1969).

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 17 

(Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 31A—31C.) 

(ii) any land held under ryotwari settlement; 

(iii) any land held or let for purposes of 

agriculture or for purposes ancillary thereto, 

including waste land, forest land, land for pasture 

or sites of buildings and other structures occupied 

by cultivators of land, agricultural labourers and 

village artisans;] 

(b) the expression rights, in relation to an estate, 

shall include any rights vesting in a proprietor, sub 

proprietor, under-proprietor, tenure-holder, 1[raiyat, 

under-raiyat] or other intermediary and any rights or 

privileges in respect of land revenue.] 

2[31B. Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provisions thereof shall be deemed to be void, or ever to have become void, on the ground that such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any provisions of this Part, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court or Tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts and Regulations shall, subject to the power of any competent Legislature to repeal or amend it, continue in force.] 

3[31C. Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing 4[all or any of the principles laid down in Part IV] shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by 5[article 14 or article 19]; 6and no 

Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.

Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles. 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955, s. 3 (with retrospective effect). 2Ins. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 5. 

3Ins. by the Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 3 (w.e.f. 20-4-1972). 4Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 4, for “the principles specified in clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39” (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and Others vs. Union of India and Others (1980) 2 S.C.C. 591. 

5Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 8, for “article 14, article 19 or article 31” (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

6In Kesavananda Bharati vs. The State of Kerala, (1973) Supp. S.C.R. 1, the Supreme Court held the provision in italics to be invalid. 

18 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 31C—32A.) 

law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such 

policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground 

that it does not give effect to such policy: 

Provided that where such law is made by the 

Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall 

not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved 

for the consideration of the President, has received his 

assent.] 

131D. [Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities.

Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977

  1. 2 (w.e.f. 13-4-1978). 

Right to Constitutional Remedies 

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part. 

  1. (1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed. 

(2) The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part. 

(3) Without prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by clauses (1) and (2), Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause (2). 

(4) The right guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution. 

232A. [Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 32.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 3 (w.e.f. 13-4-1978). 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 5 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 2Ins. by s. 6, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 19 (Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Arts. 33—35.) 

1[33. Parliament may, by law, determine to what extent any of the rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to,— 

(a) the members of the Armed Forces; or 

(b) the members of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order; or 

(c) persons employed in any bureau or other organisation established by the State for purposes of intelligence or counter intelligence; or 

(d) persons employed in, or in connection with, the telecommunication systems set up for the purposes of any Force, bureau or organisation referred to in clauses (a) to (c), 

be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them.] 

  1. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the Union or of a State or any other person in respect of any act done by him in connection with the maintenance or restoration of order in any area within the territory of India where martial law was in force or validate any sentence passed, punishment inflicted, forfeiture ordered or other act done under martial law in such area. 
  2. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,— 

(a) Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws— 

(i) with respect to any of the matters which under clause (3) of article 16, clause (3) of article 32, article 33 and article 34 may be provided for by law made by Parliament; and 

(ii) for prescribing punishment for those acts which are declared to be offences under this Part; 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984, s. 2, for art. 33.

Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc. 

Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area. 

Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part. 

20 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part III.—Fundamental Rights.—Art. 35.

and Parliament shall, as soon as may be after the 

commencement of this Constitution, make laws 

for prescribing punishment for the acts referred 

to in sub-clause (ii); 

(b) any law in force immediately before the 

commencement of this Constitution in the territory 

of India with respect to any of the matters referred to 

in sub-clause (i) of clause (a) or providing for 

punishment for any act referred to in sub-clause (ii

of that clause shall, subject to the terms thereof and 

to any adaptations and modifications that may be 

made therein under article 372, continue in force until 

altered or repealed or amended by Parliament. 

Explanation.—In this article, the expression law in 

forcehas the same meaning as in article 372.

PART IV 

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY 

  1. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the Statehas the same meaning as in Part III. 
  2. The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws. 
  3. 1[(1)] The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life. 

2[(2) The State shall, in particular, strive to minimise the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations.] 

  1. The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing— 

(a) that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood; 

(b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good; 

(c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment; 

(d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women; 

Definition. 

Application of the principles contained in this Part. 

State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. 

Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State. 

1Art. 38 renumbered as cl. (1) thereof by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 9 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

2Ins. by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).

21 

22 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part IV.—Directive Principles of State Policy.— 

Arts. 39—43.

(e) that the health and strength of workers, men 

and women, and the tender age of children are not 

abused and that citizens are not forced by economic 

necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or 

strength; 

1[(f) that children are given opportunities and 

facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in 

conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood 

and youth are protected against exploitation and 

against moral and material abandonment.] 

Equal justice and free legal aid.

Organisation of village panchayats. 

Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases. 

Provision for just and humane condi tions of work and maternity relief. 

Living wage, etc., for workers. 

2[39A. The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.] 

  1. The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-Government. 
  2. The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want. 
  3. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. 
  4. The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 7, for cl. (f) (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 2Ins. by s. 8, ibid. (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 23 

(Part IV.—Directive Principles of State Policy.— 

Arts. 43—48A.

standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social 

and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State 

shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an 

individual or co-operative basis in rural areas. 

1[43A. The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.] 

2[43B. The State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies.] 

  1. The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. 

3[45. The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.] 

  1. The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 
  2. The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. 
  3. The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. 

Participation of workers in management of industries. 

Promotion of co operative societies.

Uniform civil code for the citizens. 

Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. 

Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. 

Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. 

Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 9 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 2Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-seventh Amendment) Act, 2011, s. 3, (w.e.f. 15-2-2012). 3Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 3, for art. 45 (w.e.f. 1-4-2010). 

24 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part IV.—Directive Principles of State Policy.— 

Arts. 48A—51.

Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.

Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. 

Separation of judiciary from executive. 

Promotion of international peace and security. 

1[48A. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.] 

  1. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest, 2[declared by or under law made by Parliament] to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be. 
  2. The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. 
  3. The State shall endeavour to— 

(a) promote international peace and security; 

(b) maintain just and honourable relations between nations; 

(c) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another; and 

(d) encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 10 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 2Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 27, for “declared by Parliament by law”. 

1[PART IVA 

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES 

51A. It shall be the duty of every citizen of India— 

(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; 

(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; 

(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; 

(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; 

(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; 

(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; 

(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures; 

(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; 

(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence; 

(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;] 

2[(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.] 

Fundamental duties. 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 11 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 2Ins. by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002, s. 4 (w.e.f. 1-4-2010).

25 

The President of India. 

Executive power of the Union. 

Election of President. 

PART V 

THE UNION 

CHAPTER I.—THE EXECUTIVE 

The President and Vice-President 

  1. There shall be a President of India. 
  2. (1) The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution. 

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union shall be vested in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law. 

(3) Nothing in this article shall— 

(a) be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any State or other authority; or 

(b) prevent Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President. 

  1. The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of— 

(a) the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; and 

(b) the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. 

1[Explanation.—In this article and in article 55, Stateincludes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union territory of Pondicherry*.] 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Seventieth Amendment) Act, 1992, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1-6-1995). *Now Puducherry vide the Pondicherry (Alteration of Name) Act, 2006 (w.e.f. 1-10-2006).

26 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 27 (Part V.—The Union.—Art. 55.

  1. (1) As far as practicable, there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of the different States at the election of the President. 

(2) For the purpose of securing such uniformity among the States inter se as well as parity between the States as a whole and the Union, the number of votes which each elected member of Parliament and of the Legislative Assembly of each State is entitled to cast at such election shall be determined in the following manner:— 

(a) every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the State by the total number of the elected members of the Assembly; 

(b) if, after taking the said multiples of one thousand, the remainder is not less than five hundred, then the vote of each member referred to in sub-clause (a) shall be further increased by one; 

(c) each elected member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded. 

(3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. 

1[Explanation.—In this article, the expression populationmeans the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: 

Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have 

Manner of election of President.

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 12, for the Explanation (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 

28 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 55—58.

been published shall, until the relevant figures for the 

first census taken after the year 1[2026] have been 

published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.] 

Term of office of President. 

Eligibility for re election. 

Qualifications for election as President.

  1. (1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: 

Provided that— 

(a) the President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-President, resign his office; 

(b) the President may, for violation of the Constitution, be removed from office by impeachment in the manner provided in article 61; 

(c) the President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office. 

(2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People. 

  1. A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office. 
  2. (1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he— 

(a) is a citizen of India, 

(b) has completed the age of thirty-five years, and 

(c) is qualified for election as a member of the House of the People. 

(2) A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001, s. 2, for “2000”. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 29 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 58—60.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this article, a person 

shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason 

only that he is the President or Vice-President of the 

Union or the Governor 1*** of any State or is a Minister 

either for the Union or for any State. 

  1. (1) The President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as President. 

(2) The President shall not hold any other office of profit. 

(3) The President shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residences and shall be also entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. 

(4) The emoluments and allowances of the President shall not be diminished during his term of office. 

  1. Every President and every person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice of India or, in his absence, the senior-most Judge of the Supreme Court available, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say— 

I, A.B., do swear in the name of God 

solemnly affirmthat I will faith 

fully execute the office of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the 

Conditions of President’s office. 

Oath or affirmation by the President. 

1The words “or Rajpramukh or Uparajpramukh” omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

30 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 60—62.

Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to 

the service and well-being of the people of India

Procedure for impeachment of the President. 

Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. 

  1. (1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament. 

(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless— 

(a) the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days’ notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the House has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and 

(b) such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House. 

(3) When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation. 

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed. 

  1. (1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. 

(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56,

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 31 (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 62—66.

be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years 

from the date on which he enters upon his office. 

  1. There shall be a Vice-President of India. 
  2. The Vice-President shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: 

Provided that during any period when the Vice President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97. 

  1. (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office. 

(2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties. 

(3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. 

  1. (1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the 1[members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament] in accordance 

The Vice-President of India. 

The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States. 

The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President. 

Election of Vice President. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961, s. 2, for “members of both Houses of Parliament assembled at a joint meeting”.

32 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 66-67.) 

with the system of proportional representation by means 

of the single transferable vote and the voting at such 

election shall be by secret ballot. 

(2) The Vice-President shall not be a member of either 

House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of 

any State, and if a member of either House of Parliament 

or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected 

Vice-President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his 

seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon 

his office as Vice-President. 

(3) No person shall be eligible for election as 

Vice-President unless he— 

(a) is a citizen of India; 

(b) has completed the age of thirty-five years; and 

(c) is qualified for election as a member of the 

Council of States. 

(4) A person shall not be eligible for election as 

Vice-President if he holds any office of profit under the 

Government of India or the Government of any State or 

under any local or other authority subject to the control 

of any of the said Governments. 

Explanation.—For the purposes of this article, a person 

shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason 

only that he is the President or Vice-President of the Union 

or the Governor1*** of any State or is a Minister either 

for the Union or for any State. 

Term of office of Vice-President. 

  1. The Vice-President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: 

Provided that— 

(a) a Vice-President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office; 

1The words “or Rajpramukh or Uparajpramukh” omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 33 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 6771.) 

(b) a Vice-President may be removed from his 

office by a resolution of the Council of States passed 

by a majority of all the then members of the Council 

and agreed to by the House of the People; but no 

resolution for the purpose of this clause shall be 

moved unless at least fourteen days’ notice has been 

given of the intention to move the resolution; 

(c) a Vice-President shall, notwithstanding the 

expiration of his term, continue to hold office until 

his successor enters upon his office. 

  1. (1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of Vice-President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. 

(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of Vice-President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after the occurrence of the vacancy, and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 67, be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. 

  1. Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say— 

I, A.B., do swear in the name of God 

solemnly affirmthat I will bear true 

faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter.”. 

  1. Parliament may make such provision as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter. 

1[71. (1) All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final. 

Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. 

Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President. 

Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies. 

Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice President.

1Art. 71 has been successively subs. by the Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 2 (w.e.f. 10-8-1975) and the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 10, to read as above (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

34 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 71-72.) 

(2) If the election of a person as President or 

Vice- President is declared void by the Supreme Court, 

acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the 

powers and duties of the office of President or 

Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date 

of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be 

invalidated by reason of that declaration. 

(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, 

Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or 

connected with the election of a President or 

Vice-President. 

(4) The election of a person as President or 

Vice-President shall not be called in question on the 

ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever 

reason among the members of the electoral college 

electing him.] 

Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases. 

  1. (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence— 

(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial; 

(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends; 

(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death. 

(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial. 

(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor 1*** of a State under any law for the time being in force. 

1The words “or Rajpramukh” omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 35 (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 73-74.) 

  1. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend— 

(a) to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws; and 

(b) to the exercise of such rights, authority and jurisdiction as are exercisable by the Government of India by virtue of any treaty or agreement: 

Provided that the executive power referred to in sub clause (a) shall not, save as expressly provided in this Constitution or in any law made by Parliament, extend in any State 1*** to matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has also power to make laws. 

(2) Until otherwise provided by Parliament, a State and any officer or authority of a State may, notwithstanding anything in this article, continue to exercise in matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws for that State such executive power or functions as the State or officer or authority thereof could exercise immediately before the commencement of this Constitution. 

Council of Ministers 

  1. 2[(1) There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice:] 

3[Provided that the President may require the Council of Ministers to reconsider such advice, either generally or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration.] 

(2) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by Ministers to the President shall not be inquired into in any court. 

Extent of executive power of the Union. 

Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.

1The words and letters “specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule” omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. 

2Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 13, for cl. (1) (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 

3Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 11 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

36 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 75-76.) 

Other provisions as to Ministers. 

Attorney-General for India.

  1. (1) The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. 

1[(1A) The total number of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed fifteen per cent. of the total number of members of the House of the People. 

(1B) A member of either House of Parliament belonging to any political party who is disqualified for being a member of that House under paragraph 2 of the Tenth Schedule shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a Minister under clause (1) for duration of the period commencing from the date of his disqualification till the date on which the term of his office as such member would expire or where he contests any election to either House of Parliament before the expiry of such period, till the date on which he is declared elected, whichever is earlier.] 

(2) The Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. 

(3) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People. 

(4) Before a Minister enters upon his office, the President shall administer to him the oaths of office and of secrecy according to the forms set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule. 

(5) A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of either House of Parliament shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a Minister. 

(6) The salaries and allowances of Ministers shall be such as Parliament may from time to time by law determine and, until Parliament so determines, shall be as specified in the Second Schedule. 

The Attorney-General for India 

  1. (1) The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney-General for India. 

(2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal 

1Ins. by the Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) Act, 2003, s. 2. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 37 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 7678.) 

matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal 

character, as may from time to time be referred or 

assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the 

functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution 

or any other law for the time being in force. 

(3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney 

General shall have right of audience in all courts in the 

territory of India. 

(4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the 

pleasure of the President, and shall receive such 

remuneration as the President may determine. 

Conduct of Government Business 

  1. (1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President. 

(2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules1 to be made by the President, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President. 

(3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business. 

2* * * * 78. It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister— 

(a) to communicate to the President all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation; 

(b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and 

Conduct of business of the Government of India.

Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc. 

1See Notification No. S.O. 2297, dated the 3rd November, 1958, Gazette of India, Extraordinary, 1958, Pt. II, Sec. 3 (ii), p. 1315, as amended from time to time. 

2CI. (4) was ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 14 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977) and omitted by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 12 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

38 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V. —The Union.—Arts. 78—80.) 

(c) if the President so requires, to submit for the 

consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter 

on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but 

which has not been considered by the Council. 

CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT 

General 

Constitution of Parliament. 

Composition of the Council of States. 

  1. There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People. 
  2. (1)1[2*** The Council of States] shall consist of— (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and 

(b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States 3[and of the Union territories]. 

(2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States 3[and of the Union territories] shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule. 

(3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely:— 

Literature, science, art and social service. 

(4) The representatives of each State 4*** in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. 

(5) The representatives of the 5[Union territories] in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974, s. 3, for “The Council of States” (w.e.f. 1-3-1975). 

2The words “Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of the Tenth Schedule,” omitted by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5 (w.e.f. 26-4-1975). 

3Added by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 3. 

4The words and letters “specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule” omitted by s. 3, ibid. 5Subs. by s. 3, ibid., for “States specified in Part C of the First Schedule”.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 39 (Part V.—The Union.—Art. 81.

1[81. (1) 2[Subject to the provisions of article 331 3***], the House of the People shall consist of— (a) not more than 4[five hundred and thirty members] chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and 

(b) not more than 5[twenty members] to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide. 

(2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),— (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and 

(b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State: 

6[Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.] 

(3) In this article, the expression populationmeans the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: 

7[Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 8[2026] have been published, 9[be construed,— 

Composition of the House of the People. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 4, for arts. 81 and 82. 2Subs. by the Constitution (Thirty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1974, s. 4, for “Subject to the provisions of article 331” (w.e.f. 1-3-1975). 

3The words and figure “and paragraph 4 of the Tenth Schedule” omitted by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5 (w.e.f. 26-4-1975). 

4Subs. by the Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987 (18 of 1987), s. 63, for “five hundred and twenty-five members” (w.e.f. 30-5-1987). 

5Subs. by the Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973, s. 2, for “twenty-five members”. 6Ins. by s. 2, ibid. 

7Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 15 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 8Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001, s. 3, for “2000”. 9Subs. by s. 3, ibid., for certain words.

40 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 81—83.) 

(i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) 

and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 

1971 census; and 

(ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause 

(2) as a reference to the 1[2001] census.] ] 

Readjustment after each census. 

Duration of Houses of Parliament.

  1. Upon the completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law determine: 

Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People until the dissolution of the then existing House: 

2[Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment: 

Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 3[2026] have been published, it shall not be necessary to 4[readjust— 

(i) the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and 

(ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 5[2001] census, 

under this article.] ] ] 

  1. (1) The Council of States shall not be subject to dissolution, but as nearly as possible one-third of the members thereof shall retire as soon as may be on the expiration of every second year in accordance with the provisions made in that behalf by Parliament by law. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003, s. 2, for “1991”. 2Ins. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 16 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 3Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001, s. 4, for “2000”. 4Subs. by s. 4, ibid., for certain words. 

5Subs. by the Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003, s. 3, for “1991”. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 41 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 83—86.) 

(2) The House of the People, unless sooner dissolved, 

shall continue for 1[five years] from the date appointed 

for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of 

the said period of 1[five years] shall operate as a 

dissolution of the House: 

Provided that the said period may, while a 

Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, be extended 

by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one 

year at a time and not extending in any case beyond a 

period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased 

to operate. 

  1. A person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in Parliament unless he— 

2[(a) is a citizen of India, and makes and subscribes before some person authorised in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule;] 

(b) is, in the case of a seat in the Council of States, not less than thirty years of age and, in the case of a seat in the House of the People, not less than twenty-five years of age; and 

(c) possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament. 

3[85. (1) The President shall from time to time summon each House of Parliament to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit, but six months shall not intervene between its last sitting in one session and the date appointed for its first sitting in the next session. 

(2) The President may from time to time— (a) prorogue the Houses or either House; 

(b) dissolve the House of the People.] 

  1. (1) The President may address either House of Parliament or both Houses assembled together, and for that purpose require the attendance of members. 

Qualification for membership of Parliament.

Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution. 

Right of President to address and send messages to Houses. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 13, for “six years” (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). The words “six years” were subs. for the original words “five years” by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 17 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977). 

2Subs. by the Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, s. 3, for cl. (a). 

3Subs. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 6, for art. 85. 

42 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 86—90.) 

(2) The President may send messages to either House 

of Parliament, whether with respect to a Bill then pending 

in Parliament or otherwise, and a House to which any 

message is so sent shall with all convenient despatch 

consider any matter required by the message to be taken 

into consideration. 

Special address by the President.

Rights of Ministers and Attorney General as respects Houses. 

The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States. 

Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman. 

  1. (1) At the commencement of 1[the first session after each general election to the House of the People and at the commencement of the first session of each year] the President shall address both Houses of Parliament assembled together and inform Parliament of the causes of its summons. 

(2) Provision shall be made by the rules regulating the procedure of either House for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in such address 2***

  1. Every Minister and the Attorney-General of India shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, either House, any joint sitting of the Houses, and any committee of Parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not by virtue of this article be entitled to vote. 

Officers of Parliament 

  1. (1) The Vice-President of India shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States. 

(2) The Council of States shall, as soon as may be, choose a member of the Council to be Deputy Chairman thereof and, so often as the office of Deputy Chairman becomes vacant, the Council shall choose another member to be Deputy Chairman thereof. 

  1. A member holding office as Deputy Chairman of the Council of States— 

(a) shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the Council; 

(b) may at any time, by writing under his hand addressed to the Chairman, resign his office; and 

(c) may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council: 

1Subs. by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951, s. 7, for “every session”. 2The words “and for the precedence of such discussion over other business of the House” omitted by s. 7, ibid. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 43 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 90—93.) 

Provided that no resolution for the purpose of clause 

(c) shall be moved unless at least fourteen days’ notice 

has been given of the intention to move the resolution. 

  1. (1) While the office of Chairman is vacant, or during any period when the Vice-President is acting as, or discharging the functions of, President, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Chairman, or, if the office of Deputy Chairman is also vacant, by such member of the Council of States as the President may appoint for the purpose. 

(2) During the absence of the Chairman from any sitting of the Council of States the Deputy Chairman, or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Council, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Council, shall act as Chairman. 

  1. (1) At any sitting of the Council of States, while any resolution for the removal of the Vice-President from his office is under consideration, the Chairman, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office is under consideration, the Deputy Chairman, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the provisions of clause (2) of article 91 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman, or, as the case may be, the Deputy Chairman, is absent. 

(2) The Chairman shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, the Council of States while any resolution for the removal of the Vice-President from his office is under consideration in the Council, but, notwithstanding anything in article 100, shall not be entitled to vote at all on such resolution or on any other matter during such proceedings. 

  1. The House of the People shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the House shall choose another member to be Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the case may be. 

Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman. 

The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People. 

44 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 94—96.) 

Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker. 

Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker. 

The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

  1. A member holding office as Speaker or Deputy Speaker of the House of the People— 

(a) shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the House of the People; 

(b) may at any time, by writing under his hand addressed, if such member is the Speaker, to the Deputy Speaker, and if such member is the Deputy Speaker, to the Speaker, resign his office; and 

(c) may be removed from his office by a resolution of the House of the People passed by a majority of all the then members of the House: 

Provided that no resolution for the purpose of clause (c) shall be moved unless at least fourteen days’ notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution: 

Provided further that, whenever the House of the People is dissolved, the Speaker shall not vacate his office until immediately before the first meeting of the House of the People after the dissolution. 

  1. (1) While the office of Speaker is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker or, if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacant, by such member of the House of the People as the President may appoint for the purpose. 

(2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the House of the People the Deputy Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the House, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the House, shall act as Speaker. 

  1. (1) At any sitting of the House of the People, while any resolution for the removal of the Speaker from his office is under consideration, the Speaker, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Speaker from his office is under consideration, the Deputy Speaker, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the provisions of clause (2) of article 95 shall apply in relation to every 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 45 (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 96—98.) 

such sitting as they apply in relation to a sitting from 

which the Speaker, or, as the case may be, the Deputy 

Speaker, is absent. 

(2) The Speaker shall have the right to speak in, and 

otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, the House 

of the People while any resolution for his removal from 

office is under consideration in the House and shall, 

notwithstanding anything in article 100, be entitled to 

vote only in the first instance on such resolution or on 

any other matter during such proceedings but not in the 

case of an equality of votes. 

  1. There shall be paid to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States, and to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People, such salaries and allowances as may be respectively fixed by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries and allowances as are specified in the Second Schedule. 
  2. (1) Each House of Parliament shall have a separate secretarial staff: 

Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of posts common to both Houses of Parliament. 

(2) Parliament may by law regulate the recruitment, and the conditions of service of persons appointed, to the secretarial staff of either House of Parliament. 

(3) Until provision is made by Parliament under clause (2), the President may, after consultation with the Speaker of the House of the People or the Chairman of the Council of States, as the case may be, make rules regulating the recruitment, and the conditions of service of persons appointed, to the secretarial staff of the House of the People or the Council of States, and any rules so made shall have effect subject to the provisions of any law made under the said clause. 

Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker. 

Secretariat of Parliament.

46 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 99—101.) 

Conduct of Business 

Oath or affirmation by members. 

Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.

Vacation of seats. 

  1. Every member of either House of Parliament shall, before taking his seat, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule. 
  2. (1) Save as otherwise provided in this Constitution, all questions at any sitting of either House or joint sitting of the Houses shall be determined by a majority of votes of the members present and voting, other than the Speaker or person acting as Chairman or Speaker. 

The Chairman or Speaker, or person acting as such, shall not vote in the first instance, but shall have and exercise a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes. 

(2) Either House of Parliament shall have power to act notwithstanding any vacancy in the membership thereof, and any proceedings in Parliament shall be valid notwithstanding that it is discovered subsequently that some person who was not entitled so to do sat or voted or otherwise took part in the proceedings. 

(3) Until Parliament by law otherwise provides, the quorum to constitute a meeting of either House of Parliament shall be one-tenth of the total number of members of the House. 

(4) If at any time during a meeting of a House there is no quorum, it shall be the duty of the Chairman or Speaker, or person acting as such, either to adjourn the House or to suspend the meeting until there is a quorum. 

Disqualifications of Members 

  1. (1) No person shall be a member of both Houses of Parliament and provision shall be made by Parliament by law for the vacation by a person who is chosen a member of both Houses of his seat in one House or the other. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 47 

(Part V.—The Union.—Art. 101.) 

(2) No person shall be a member both of Parliament 

and of a House of the Legislature of a State 1***, and if 

a person is chosen a member both of Parliament and of 

a House of the Legislature of 2[a State], then, at the 

expiration of such period as may be specified in rules3 

made by the President, that person’s seat in Parliament 

shall become vacant, unless he has previously resigned 

his seat in the Legislature of the State. 

(3) If a member of either House of Parliament— 

(a) becomes subject to any of the disqualifications 

mentioned in 4[clause (1) or clause (2) of article 102], 

or 

5[(b) resigns his seat by writing under his hand 

addressed to the Chairman or the Speaker, as the 

case may be, and his resignation is accepted by the 

Chairman or the Speaker, as the case may be,] 

his seat shall thereupon become vacant: 

6[Provided that in the case of any resignation referred 

to in sub-clause (b), if from information received or 

otherwise and after making such inquiry as he thinks fit, 

the Chairman or the Speaker, as the case may be, is 

satisfied that such resignation is not voluntary or genuine, 

he shall not accept such resignation.] 

(4) If for a period of sixty days a member of either 

House of Parliament is without permission of the House 

absent from all meetings thereof, the House may declare 

his seat vacant: 

Provided that in computing the said period of sixty 

days no account shall be taken of any period during which 

1The words and letters “specified in Part A or Part B of the First Schedule” omitted by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. 

2Subs. by s. 29 and Sch., ibid., for “such a State”. 

3See the Prohibition of Simultaneous Membership Rules, 1950, published with the Ministry of Law Notification No. F. 46/50-C, dated the 26th January, 1950, Gazette of India, Extraordinary, p. 678. 

4Subs. by the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985, s. 2, for “clause (1) of article 102” (w.e.f. 1-3-1985). 

5Subs. by the Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974, s. 2, for sub-clause (b). 6Ins. by s. 2, ibid.

48 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 101—103.) 

the House is prorogued or is adjourned for more than 

four consecutive days. 

Disqualifications for membership. 

Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.

  1. (1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament— 

(a) if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State, other than an office declared by Parliament by law not to disqualify its holder; 

(b) if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court; 

(c) if he is an undischarged insolvent; 

(d) if he is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgment of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State; 

(e) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament. 

1[Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause] a person shall not be deemed to hold an office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State by reason only that he is a Minister either for the Union or for such State. 

2[(2) A person shall be disqualified for being a member of either House of Parliament if he is so disqualified under the Tenth Schedule.] 

3[103. (1) If any question arises as to whether a member of either House of Parliament has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause (1) of article 102, the question shall be referred for the decision of the President and his decision shall be final. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985, s. 3, for “(2) For the purposes of this article” (w.e.f. 1-3-1985). 

2Ins. by s. 3, ibid. (w.e.f. 1-3-1985). 

3Art. 103 has been successively subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 20 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977) and the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 14, to read as above (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 49 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 103—105.) 

(2) Before giving any decision on any such question, 

the President shall obtain the opinion of the Election 

Commission and shall act according to such opinion.] 

  1. If a person sits or votes as a member of either House of Parliament before he has complied with the requirements of article 99, or when he knows that he is not qualified or that he is disqualified for membership thereof, or that he is prohibited from so doing by the provisions of any law made by Parliament, he shall be liable in respect of each day on which he so sits or votes to a penalty of five hundred rupees to be recovered as a debt due to the Union. 

Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members 

  1. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there shall be freedom of speech in Parliament. 

(2) No member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either House of Parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. 

(3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament, and of the members and the committees of each House, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by Parliament by law, and, until so defined, 1[shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 15 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978]. 

(4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to 

Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified. 

Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof. 

1Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 15, for certain words (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).

50 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 105—108.) 

take part in the proceedings of, a House of Parliament or 

any committee thereof as they apply in relation to 

members of Parliament. 

Salaries and allowa nces of members. 

Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills. 

Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.

  1. Members of either House of Parliament shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that respect is so made, allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Constituent Assembly of the Dominion of India. 

Legislative Procedure 

  1. (1) Subject to the provisions of articles 109 and 117 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of Parliament. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of articles 108 and 109, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of Parliament unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses. 

(3) A Bill pending in Parliament shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the Houses. 

(4) A Bill pending in the Council of States which has not been passed by the House of the People shall not lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People. 

(5) A Bill which is pending in the House of the People, or which having been passed by the House of the People is pending in the Council of States, shall, subject to the provisions of article 108, lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People. 

  1. (1) If after a Bill has been passed by one House and transmitted to the other House— 

(a) the Bill is rejected by the other House; or 

(b) the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill; or 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 51 

(Part V.—The Union.—Art. 108.) 

(c) more than six months elapse from the date of 

the reception of the Bill by the other House without 

the Bill being passed by it, 

the President may, unless the Bill has elapsed by reason 

of a dissolution of the House of the People, notify to the 

Houses by message if they are sitting or by public 

notification if they are not sitting, his intention to 

summon them to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose 

of deliberating and voting on the Bill: 

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to a 

Money Bill. 

(2) In reckoning any such period of six months as is 

referred to in clause (1), no account shall be taken of 

any period during which the House referred to in 

sub-clause (c) of that clause is prorogued or adjourned 

for more than four consecutive days. 

(3) Where the President has under clause (1) notified 

his intention of summoning the Houses to meet in a 

joint sitting, neither House shall proceed further with 

the Bill, but the President may at any time after the date 

of his notification summon the Houses to meet in a joint 

sitting for the purpose specified in the notification and, 

if he does so, the Houses shall meet accordingly. 

(4) If at the joint sitting of the two Houses the Bill, 

with such amendments, if any, as are agreed to in joint 

sitting, is passed by a majority of the total number of 

members of both Houses present and voting, it shall be 

deemed for the purposes of this Constitution to have 

been passed by both Houses: 

Provided that at a joint sitting— 

(a) if the Bill, having been passed by one House, 

has not been passed by the other House with 

amendments and returned to the House in which it 

originated, no amendment shall be proposed to the 

Bill other than such amendments (if any) as are made 

necessary by the delay in the passage of the Bill;

52 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

(Part V.—The Union.—Arts. 108-109.) 

(b) if the Bill has been so passed and returned, 

only such amendments as aforesaid shall be proposed 

to the Bill and such other amendments as are relevant 

to the matters with respect to which the Houses have 

not agreed; 

and the decision of the person presiding as to the 

amendments which are admissible under this clause shall 

be final. 

(5) A joint sitting may be held under this article and 

a Bill passed thereat, notwithstanding that a dissolution 

of the House of the People has intervened since the 

President notified his intention to summon the Houses 

to meet therein. 

Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.

  1. (1) A Money Bill shall not be introduced in the Council of States. 

(2) After a Money Bill has been passed by the House of the People it shall be transmitted to the Council of States for its recommendations and the Council of States shall within a period of fourteen days from the date of its receipt of the Bill return the Bill to the House of the People with its recommendations and the House of the People may thereupon either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of the Council of States. 

(3) If the House of the People accepts any of the recommendations of the Council of States, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses with the amendments recommended by the Council of States and accepted by the House of the People. 

(4) If the House of the People does not accept any of the recommendations of the Council of States, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the House of the People without any of the amendments recommended by the Council of States. 

(5) If a Money Bill passed by the House of the People and transmitted to the Council of States for its recommendations is not returned to the House of the